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Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery, Volume: 38, Issue: 2, Published: 2023
  • Reflections on Failures and Human Errors Editorial

    Neirotti, Rodolfo A.; Caneo, Luiz F.
  • Severe and Moderate Primary Graft Dysfunction in Adult Heart Recipients Original Article

    Stefen, Samuel Padovani; Tenório, Davi Freitas; Cirillo, Guilherme Carvalhal Gnipper; Gaspar, Shirlyne Fabianni; Oliveira, Karen Amanda Soares de; Gaiotto, Fábio Antonio; Jatene, Fabio B.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of severe and moderate primary graft dysfunction (PGD) in our center, to identify, retrospectively, donors’ and recipients’ risk factors for PGD development, and to evaluate the impact of PGD within 30 days after heart transplantation. Methods: Donors’ and recipients’ medical records of 64 consecutive adult cardiac transplantations performed between January 2016 and June 2017 were reviewed. The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) criteria were used to diagnose moderate and severe PGD. Associations of risk factors for combined moderate/severe PGD were assessed with appropriate statistical analyses. Results: Sixty-four patients underwent heart transplantation in this period. Twelve recipients (18.7%) developed severe or moderate PGD. Development of PGD was associated with previous donor cardiopulmonary resuscitation and a history of prior heart surgery in the recipient (P=0.01 and P=0.02, respectively). The 30-day in hospital mortality was similar in both PGD and non-PGD patients. Conclusion: The use of the ISHLT criteria for PGD is important to identify potential risk factor. The development of PGD did not affect short-term survival in our study. More studies should be done to better understand the pathophysiology of PGD.
  • Proposed Risk Score in Patients with Aortic Stenosis Submitted to Valve Replacement Surgery Original Article

    Gasperi, Ricardo de; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Guaragna, João Carlos Vieira da Costa; Wagner, Mario Bernardes; Albuquerque, Luciano Cabral

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Due to Brazilian population aging, prevalence of aortic stenosis, and limited number of scores in literature, it is essential to develop risk scores adapted to our reality and created in the specific context of this disease. Methods: This is an observational historical cohort study with analysis of 802 aortic stenosis patients who underwent valve replacement at Hospital São Lucas, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, from 1996 to 2018. With the aid of logistic regression, a weighted risk score was constructed based on the magnitude of the coeficients β of the logistic equation. Two performance statistics were obtained: area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and the chi-square (χ2) of Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit with Pearson’s correlation coeficient between the observed events and predicted as a model calibration estimate. Results: The risk predictors that composed the score were valve replacement surgery combined with coronary artery bypass grafting, prior renal failure, New York Heart Association class III/IV heart failure, age > 70 years, and ejection fraction < 50%. The receiver operating characteristic curve area was 0.77 (95% confidence interval: 0.72-0.82); regarding the model calibration estimated between observed/predicted mortality, Hosmer-Lemeshow test χ2 = 3,70 (P=0.594) and Pearson’s coeficient r = 0.98 (P<0.001). Conclusion: We propose the creation of a simple score, adapted to the Brazilian reality, with good performance and which can be validated in other institutions.
  • Validation of Blood Transfusion Risk Scores (TRACK and TRUST) in a Cardiac Surgery Service in Brazil Original Article

    Cunha, Cristiano Berardo Carneiro da; Monteiro, Verônica Soares; Ferraz, Diogo Luiz de Magalhães; Tchaick, Rodrigo Mezzalira; Carvalho Júnior, Jeú Delmondes de; Silva, Igor Tiago Correia; Figueira, Fernando Augusto Marinho dos Santos; Andrade, Lívia Barbosa

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Transfusion of red blood cells is recurrent in cardiac surgery despite the well-established deleterious effects. Identifying patients with higher chances of requiring blood transfusion is essential to apply strategic preventive measures to reduce such chances, considering the restricted availability of this product. The most used risk scores to predict blood transfusion are the Transfusion Risk and Clinical Knowledge (TRACK) and Transfusion Risk Understanding Scoring Tool (TRUST). However, these scores were not validated for the Brazilian population. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of TRACK and TRUST scores in estimating the need for postoperative transfusion of red blood cell concentrates (TRBCC) after cardiac surgery. Methods: A clinical retrospective study was conducted using the database of a Brazilian reference service composed of patients operated between November 2019 and September 2021. Scores were compared using Mann-Whitney U test. Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test assessed calibration of the scores. Accuracy was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). All analyses considered a level of significance of 5%. The study was approved by the research ethics committee (CAAE 55577421.4.0000.5201). Results: This study assessed 498 patients. Only the TRACK score presented good calibration (P=0.238; TRUST P=0.034). AUC of TRACK was 0.678 (95% confidence interval 0.63 to 0.73; P<0.001), showing a significant accuracy. Conclusion: Between the scores analyzed, only the TRACK score showed a good calibration, but low accuracy, to predict postoperative TRBCC after cardiac surgery.
  • Analysis of Barriers to Public and Private Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs in Patients with Low and High Adherence Original Article

    Santos, Lorena Altafin; Pinheiro, Dyovana Gomes; Silva, Jéssica Malek da; Borges, Giovanna Lombardi Bonini; Silva, Paula Fernanda da; Ricci-Vitor, Ana Laura; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Participants in cardiac rehabilitation programs have low adherence to their sessions, which makes extremely important to recognize the barriers that cause non-adherence, identifying whether the type of service and level of adherence influence these barriers. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study, in which 220 individuals (66.80±11.59 years) of both genders who are members of public and private exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation programs participated. The volunteers were divided according to the level of adherence, considering patients with low adherence (PLA) those with < 70% of attendance and high adherence (PHA) those with > 70%. Then, initial evaluation, Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale, analysis of socioeconomic level, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Mini-Mental State Examination were applied. Results: Higher total barriers were found in PLA in the public service compared to PHA in the private service (P=0.023). In the subscale “perceived need”, PHA in the public service showed higher values than PLA and PHA in the private service (P≤0.001). The “access” barrier was higher for PHA in the public service when compared to PHA in the private service (P=0.024). PHA in the public service exhibited a higher barrier regarding questions about distance, transportation problems, cost, and time constraints. Conclusion: The public program presents higher barriers in the questions and categories compared to the private program, mainly the PHA. Furthermore, there are differences in the profile of the participants regarding socioeconomic and anxiety levels, treatment time, ethnicity, and city where they live.
  • Long-Term Radial Artery Grafts with Previous Midterm Proven Patency Original Article

    Silva, Roberto Rocha e; Goncharov, Maxim; Freitas, Fabiane Letícia de; Mejia, Omar Asdrúbal Vilca

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Left internal thoracic artery to left anterior descending artery (LITA-LADA) grafting has become a fundamental part of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). This grafting has led to an increased use of other arterial conduits, of which the radial artery (RA) is the most popular. Whether RA can have the same long-term patency as LITA is controversial. The objective of this study is to access the long-term clinical follow-up and, when available, the patency rate of RA grafts. Methods: Twenty-six patients from a previous study with critical stenosis in all target vessels underwent complete arterial CABG with LITA and RA grafts from 1996 to 2003. They all underwent midterm multidetector computed tomography after surgery with the association of at least one patent LITA and one patent RA graft. Results: Twelve patients (46%) are alive with no angina symptoms. Six patients underwent a second image exam 12 to 16 years (average of 14 years) after surgery, with a total of six LITA-LADA and 14 RA grafts with 100% patency rate. Clinical follow-up five to 23 years after surgery (average of 14 years) showed only one death 12 years after surgery related to coronary artery disease (CAD) (3,8%). Another 12 patients died of non-CAD. Conclusion: Patients with midterm associated LITA and RA patent grafts show similar optimal long-term patency rates of both types of grafts with excellent clinical outcome.
  • Non-Conduit Repair of Truncus Arteriosus Original Article

    Kılıç, Yiğit; Doyurgan, Onur; İrdem, Ahmet Kuddusi; Gül, Özlem; Borakay, Dilek; Aldudak, Bedri

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The procedure of choice for treatment of truncus arteriosus is one-stage repair within the first few months of life. Establishing right ventricle-pulmonary artery direct continuity without conduit can be a good alternative in the absence of valved conduits in developing centers. Methods: Between January 2021 and June 2021, a total of five patients (three males, two females) underwent definitive repair of truncus arteriosus without an extracardiac conduit. We used the Barbero-Marcial technique to allow age-related growth, eliminate the risk of conduit-related complications, and to avoid forcing a conduit to place in a very small mediastinal space. Results: The patients’ mean age was 31.2 days (11-54 days). Their mean bodyweight was 3.2 kg (2.7-3.8kg). Mean postoperative intensive care unit stay was 39.6 days (7-99 days). There were two mortalities in the intensive care unit on postoperative days 12 and 61 due to lung-related problems. The remaining three cases’ mean ventilation time was 15.6 days (8-22 days). Conclusion: Having access to a valved conduit is still challenging for some centers, and the non-conduit repair technique defined by Barbero-Marcial can be a successful, life-saving alternative easy for young surgeons to perform in newly based centers.
  • Innominate Artery Cannulation for Proximal Aortic Surgery Original Article

    Mert, Bülent; Boyacioglu, Kamil; Sacli, Hakan; Özkaynak, Berk; Kara, Ibrahim; Polat, Adil

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of innominate artery cannulation strategy with side-graft technique in proximal aortic pathologies. Methods: A total of 70 patients underwent innominate artery cannulation with a side graft for surgery on the proximal aorta from 2012 to 2020. There were 46 men and 24 women with an average age of 56±13 years. The indications for surgery were type A aortic dissection in 17 patients (24.3%), aortic aneurysm in 52 patients (74.3%), and ascending aorta pseudoaneurysm in one patient (1.4%). The innominate artery was free of disease in all patients. Hypothermic circulatory arrest with antegrade cerebral perfusion was utilized in 60 patients (85.7%). Three patients had previous sternotomy (4.2%). The most common surgical procedure was ascending aorta with hemiarch replacement in 34 patients (48.5%). Results: The mean cardiac ischemia and cardiopulmonary bypass times were 116+46 minutes and 164+56 minutes, respectively. Mean antegrade cerebral perfusion time was 27+14 minutes. The patients were cooled between 22°C and 30°C during surgery. Thirty-day mortality rate was 7.1% (five patients). One patient (1.4%) had stroke, one patient (1.4%) had temporary neurologic deficit, and eight patients (11.4%) had confusion and agitation that resolved completely in all cases. There was no local complication or arterial injury. Conclusion: Cannulation of the innominate artery with side graft is safe and effective for both cardiopulmonary bypass and antegrade cerebral perfusion. This technique provides satisfactory neurologic outcomes for proximal aortic surgery.
  • Myocardial Protection in Isolated Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: Del Nido versus Blood Cardioplegia Original Article

    Özkara, Taha; Kayğın, Mehmet Ali; Ergün, Servet; Limandal, Hüsnü Kamil; Diler, Mevriye Serpil; Dayı, Hatice Işıl Çüçen; Yıldız, Ziya; Dağ, Özgür

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Our study aimed to examine the impacts of blood cardioplegia (BC) and del Nido cardioplegia (DNC) solutions - which we used in isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) - on early mortality and major adverse events (MAE). Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 329 consecutive patients who underwent CABG in our clinic between January 2016 and January 2020. Myocardial infarction, reoperation, cardiac tamponade, stroke, renal failure, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation requirement, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation were defined as MAE. The group in which DNC was used was Group D (181 [55%] patients), and the group in which BC was used was Group B (141 [45%] patients). Results: No statistically significant difference was determined between the groups regarding age, weight, body surface area, gender, or European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation score (P=0.615, P=0.560, P=0.934, P=0.365, P=0.955, respectively). Although there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of aortic cross-clamping time (P=0.712), cardiopulmonary bypass duration was longer in Group B (P=0.001). Even though the incidence of stroke was higher in Group B (P=0.030), no statistically significant difference was observed between the groups regarding total incidence of MAE, mortality, mechanical ventilation time, length of stay in the intensive care unit, or length of hospital stay (P=0.153, P=0.130, P=0.689, P=0.710, P=0.613, respectively). Conclusion: We found no significant difference in MAE, mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit stay, or hospital stay between the DNC and BC groups. We believe that both solutions can be used safely for cardiac protection in the adult patient population.
  • Redo Total Aortic Arch Replacement in Patients with Aortic Dissection After Open-Heart Surgery and Long-Term Follow-Up Results Original Article

    Gao, Feng; Ge, Yipeng; Zhong, Yongliang; Zhuang, Xijing; Zhu, Junming

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The objectives of this study were to investigate the main treatment strategies and long-term follow-up results of aortic dissection surgery after open-heart surgery (ADSOHS) and to analyze the risk factors that cause ADSOHS. Methods: One hundred thirty-seven patients with ADSOHS hospitalized in our hospital from January 2009 to December 2018 were selected as the research object. Long-term follow-up results, complications, mortality, and changes of cardiac function before and after operation were used to explore the value of Sun’s operation. Results: The length of stay in intensive care unit of these 137 patients ranged from 9.5 to 623.75 hours (average of 76.41±97.29 hours), auxiliary ventilation time ranged from 6.0 to 259.83 hours (average of 46.16±55.59 hours), and hospital stay ranged from six to 85 days (average of 25.06±13.04 days). There were seven cases of postoperative low cardiac output, 18 cases of coma and stroke, and six cases of transient neurological dysfunction. A total of 33 patients died; 19 patients died during the perioperative period, 18 died during Sun’s operation and one died during other operation; and 14 patients died during follow-up (January 2021), 12 cases of Sun’s operation and two cases of other operations. Conclusion: ADSOHS treatment strategy is of high application value, and the risk of neurological complications and mortality is low. The main risk factors are postoperative low cardiac output, coma, stroke, and transient neurological dysfunction. The extracorporeal circulation time is relatively long. Short- and long-term follow-up effects are good, and it is worthy of clinical promotion.
  • Albumin-Bilirubin Score: A Novel Mortality Predictor in Valvular Surgery Original Article

    Duman, Zihni Mert; Timur, Barış

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The heart and liver are two organs that are closely related. The Albumin-Bilirubin (ALBI) score is a developed scoring system for assessing liver function. The aims of this study were to examine the correlation between preoperative ALBI score and pulmonary artery pressure and to investigate its ability to predict heart valve surgery mortality outcomes. Methods: The data of 872 patients who underwent isolated and combined heart valve surgery from 2014 to 2021 were retrospectively screened. In the preoperative period, 152 patients with laboratory tests including albumin and total bilirubin were found and analyzed retrospectively. Thirteen of these patients were excluded from the study. The remaining 139 patients were included in the analysis. Baseline demographic data, echocardiography data, performance status, laboratory data, operative data, and postoperative status were collected. The optimal cutoff value of preoperative ALBI score was calculated. Results: The cutoff for ALBI scores was calculated as -2.44 to predict in-hospital mortality (sensitivity = 75.0%, specificity = 70%). Based on the cutoff value, 90 patients had a low ALBI score (≤ -2.44, 64.7%) and 49 patients had a high ALBI score (> -2.44, 35.3%). High ALBI score was associated with an increased incidence of acute kidney injury and in-hospital mortality, and a positive correlation was found between ALBI score and pulmonary artery pressure. Conclusion: In patients with valvular surgery, high ALBI score was an independent prognostic factor of in-hospital mortality and acute kidney injury. It is easily measurable and a cost-effective way to predict mortality.
  • Cardiomyopathy Induced by Artificial Cardiac Pacing: To Whom, When, Why, and How? Insights on Heart Failure Development Review Article

    Ferrari, Andres Di Leoni; Oliveira, Eduardo Bartholomay; Tagliari, Ana Paula; Kochi, Adriano Nunes; Beuren, Thaís Mariel Andara; Cabral, Gustavo Chiari; Ferreira, Flávio Vinicius Costa; Danzmann, Luiz Cláudio

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Coordinated and harmonic (synchronous) ventricular electrical activation is essential for better left ventricular systolic function. Intraventricular conduction abnormalities, such as left bundle branch block due to artificial cardiac pacing, lead to electromechanical “dyssynchronopathy” with deleterious structural and clinical consequences. The aim of this review was to describe and improve the understanding of all the processes connecting the several mechanisms involved in the development of artificially induced ventricular dyssynchrony by cardiac pacing, most known as pacing-induced cardiomyopathy (PiCM). The chronic effect of abnormal impulse conduction and nonphysiological ectopic activation by artificial cardiac pacing is suspected to affect metabolism and myocardial perfusion, triggering regional differences in the activation/contraction processes that cause electrical and structural remodeling due to damage, inflammation, and fibrosis of the cardiac tissue. The effect of artificial cardiac pacing on ventricular function and structure can be multifactorial, and biological factors underlying PiCM could affect the time and probability of developing the condition. PiCM has not been included in the traditional classification of cardiomyopathies, which can hinder detection. This article reviews the available evidence for pacing-induced cardiovascular disease, the current understanding of its pathophysiology, and reinforces the adverse effects of right ventricular pacing, especially right ventricular pacing burden (commonly measured in percentage) and its repercussion on ventricular contraction (reflected by the impact on left ventricular systolic function). These effects might be the main defining criteria and determining mechanisms of the pathophysiology and the clinical repercussion seen on patients.
  • Effects of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on Decreasing Troponin Release in Patients Not Taking Sulfonylureas After Cardiac Surgery – A Meta-Analysis Review Article

    Wang, Xiaotong; Xiao, Shengjue; Hu, Yue; Guo, Minjia; Liu, Ailin; Huan, Chunyan; Xu, Tao; Yin, Jie; Pan, Defeng; Zhu, Hong

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a new noninvasive myocardial protection strategy that uses blood pressure cuf inflation to simulate transient non-fatal ischemia to protect the myocardium and reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury. Sulfonylureas may mask the effects of RIPC due to their cardioprotec-tive effect. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate whether RIPC, in the absence of sulfonylureas, reduces troponin release in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials to determine whether RIPC can reduce postoperative troponin release in cardiac surgery patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass without treatment with sulfonylureas. The data were normalized to equivalent units prior to the analysis. A random-effects model was used to provide more conservative estimate of the effects in the presence of known or unknown heterogeneity. Results: Six studies with a total of 570 participants were included. The analysis showed that troponin release was lower in the RIPC group than in the control group at six hours (test of standardized mean differences = 0, Z=3.64, P<0.001) and 48 hours (Z=2.72, P=0.007) postoperatively. When the mean of cross-clamping time was > 60 minutes, RIPC reduced troponin release at six hours (Z=2.84, P=0.005), 24 hours (Z=2.64, P=0.008), and 48 hours (Z=2.87, P=0.004) postoperatively. Conclusion: In cardiac surgery patients who are not taking sulfonylureas, RIPC can reduce troponin release at six and 48 hours postoperatively; hence, RIPC may serve significant benefits in certain cardiac surgery patients.
  • Abernethy Malformation: Possible Diagnosis for Patients with Congenital Heart Disease and Persistent Cyanosis Clinical-Surgical Correlation

    Brun, Marilia Maroneze; Cardoso, Mariana Rodero; Borim, Bruna Cury; Marchi, Carlos Henrique De; Croti, Ulisses Alexandre

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Clinical data: Infant, nine months of age, female, diagnosed with congenital heart disease, with signs of heart failure associated with cyanosis and difficulty in gaining weight. Chest radiography: Cardiomegaly with prevalence of pulmonary vascular network. Electrocardiogram: Ectopic atrial rhythm with right ventricular overload and left anterosuperior divisional block. Echocardiogram: Single atrium with absent interatrial septum, atrioventricular connection with a single valve and two orifices, with increased pulmonary pressure and high Qp/Qs. Computed tomography: Absence of portal vein and intrahepatic segment of the inferior vena cava. Infrahepatic portion continuing with the azygos system at the level of the thoracic cavity, presence of mesenteric-caval communication associated with signs suggestive of hepatic peribiliary fibrosis. Diagnosis: Abernethy malformation is a rare condition and represents an extrahepatic portosystemic shunt that develops between the mesenteric-portal vasculature and the systemic veins. It may be associated with cardiac malformations and advance with pulmonary hypertension and even the need for liver transplantation. Persistent cyanosis after corrective surgery led to a deeper investigation and correct diagnosis of this malformation. Operation: Sternotomy with 68 minutes of cardiopulmonary bypass and nine minutes of total circulatory arrest. In the postoperative period, persistence of cyanosis was evident, even though there were no immediate complications. Patient was discharged on the 10th postoperative day. An abdominal computed tomography angiography confirmed the diagnosis of Abernethy type I malformation, and the patient was transferred for liver transplantation after congenital heart disease treatment.
  • DEX, Delirium and Dilemma Brief Communication

    Magoon, Rohan; Mahajan, Shalvi; Jose, Jes

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Dexmedetomidine has been subjected to an extensive evaluation for its’ role in the prevention of postoperative delirium following cardiac surgery. In striking contrast to the preexisting meta-analysis supporting postoperative delirium-reduction with dexmedetomidine, few recently concluded multicentric large scale randomized controlled trials suggest otherwise. This article aims to present a nuanced perspective of the evolving controversy by attempting to decode the apparent incongruences in the literature accumulating off-late, which is particularly pertinent amidst an ever-escalating heterogeneity in the current research ecosystem.
  • Tricuspid Aortic Valve Reconstruction with Autologous Pericardium (Ozaki Technique) in Bicuspid Aortic Valve Infective Endocarditis Multimedia

    Ramirez, Antonio D’Errico; Losito, Concetta; Bari, Nicola Di; Giovannico, Lorenzo; Acquaviva, Tommaso; Romito, Roberta; Milano, Aldo Domenico
  • Totally Percutaneous Repair of an Aortic Arch Dissection: A Case Report Case Report

    Saadi, Eduardo Keller; Tagliari, Ana Paula; Saadi, Rodrigo Petersen

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Although the endovascular repair of descending thoracic aorta diseases is an already consolidated procedure, this approach is not well-established for ascending aorta and arch pathologies. A 71-year-old male patient who had undergone an open ascending aorta replacement ten years ago presented with a huge dissected aortic arch aneurysm. Vascular accesses were obtained with ultrasound-guided punctures, followed by aortic arch exclusion using aortic endoprostheses and the chimney-graft technique for preserving supra-aortic branches flow. This case demonstrates the feasibility of a totally percutaneous aortic arch repair provided that careful preprocedural planning and a dedicated team are available for such a challenging intervention.
  • Multimodal Analgesia in Paving the Way for Enhanced Recovery After Cardiac Surgery Letter To The Editor

    Magoon, Rohan; Jose, Jes
  • Outcomes Following On-Pump Versus Of-Pump CABG: Apprising the “Bypassed” Letter To The Editor

    Magoon, Rohan; Shri, Iti; Das, Devishree
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