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Paulo Cesar Waltrick Marco Aurélio de Mello Machado Jeferson Dieckow Dalziza de Oliveira About the authors

Three estimates of rainfall erosivity in the State of Parana, Brazil, were carried out in the 1980s and 1990s, but none afterwards. The objectives of this study were to update information, as a fourth estimate, on rainfall annual erosivity for Parana, with rainfall data from 1986-2008; and to generate information on monthly erosivity in order to identify its seasonal distribution. We used the pluviographic and pluviometric methods of erosivity determination. The first served to revalidate previous correlation equations between erosivity by pluviography and by pluviometry, which was performed at three sites. The second served to calculate the rainfall coefficient in 114 sites, using monthly and annual mean pluvial precipitation data, and, after that, erosivity, with revalidated correlation equations. Annual and monthly erosivity maps were generated by geostatistical interpolations. Erosivity ranged from 5,449 to 12,581 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1 and increased in a westerly direction from the Curitiba metropolitan region; and in a southerly direction as of the northwestern region of Parana. That resulted in greater erosivity in the south-central (Guarapuava), west-central (Campo Mourão), west (Cascavel) and, mainly, southwest (Pato Branco) regions. There was also an increase in erosivity from the Curitiba metropolitan region to the east, which indicated the Atlantic Coast as another critical region in terms of erosivity. The highest monthly erosivity occurred in January (average of 1,394 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 month-1 statewide), followed by a trend to decrease until August (331 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 month-1), at which time it increased once more. However, there are two important intermediate peaks in erosivity: one in May and another in October (843 and 1,173 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 month-1, respectively), mainly in the southwest and west regions. Those two intermediate peaks coincide with periods of winter or summer crop establishment in those regions. Compared to the last annual erosivity estimate, carried out in 1993, the area delimited by the isoerodent line of 11,000 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1 in the southeast and west regions increased, and the isoerodent lines of 7,000 and 8,000 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1 advanced towards the east in the “pioneering” north, east-central, and southeast regions, suggesting an increase in erosivity in those regions. Such changes in erosivity may be associated with climate changes in the region, but also with the simple fact that the current study is considering a larger amount of data compared to previous studies. We conclude that correlation equations determined between the pluviographic and pluviometric methods of erosivity obtained for Parana in previous studies are still valid. The critical months with respect to erosivity are January, May, and October; and the lowest erosivities occur in the northwest and metropolitan regions of the State.

isoerodents; geostatistics; EI30

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