Phosphorus acquisition and yield of common bean: influence of forage grasses and phosphorus sources

In no-tillage or in crop-livestock integration systems, it is common the cultivation of common bean in succession to grasses. Due to the root systems morphology, differential secretion of various organic compounds by the roots, and crop residue decomposition, grasses may affect the soil P availability and the acquisition and utilization of P sources, apparently with low agronomic efficiency, for crops in succession. This study was carried out to evaluate the use of P in common bean yield in succession to forage grasses and fertilized with different P sources. Two experiments were carried out using an Inceptsol (Cambisol) and an Oxisol (Latosol), using pots (4 dm³) filled with soil. The experiments were arranged in a completely randomized design in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme. The five treatments were represented by four forage types of the previous cultivation (Brachiaria decumbens, Sorghum bicolor, Brachiaria brizantha and Pennisetum glaucum ), plus soil without previous cultivation and two P sources (Triple Superphosphate -TSP and Arad Reactive Phosphate - ARP), with four replications. The cover forage plants were harvested just before flowering, and common bean was planted on the remaining straw and roots. Overall, it was observed in both soils fertilized with the lower solubility P source (ARP) that succession crops increased growth, yield and use of the residual effect of P applied to the bean plants. The same was not observed for the soluble source (TSP). In both soils without previous cultivation of forage grasses, the TSP performed better than FRA for all variables. Of these forage grasses, no clear effect of their previous cultivation on the studied variables in common bean cultivated in succession was observed.

cover crop; crop sucession; phosphated fertilization; tropical soils

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