Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The XIV International Symposium of Neuropterology (ISN) was held online, between May 23rd and 27th of 2022, with the Universidade Federal de Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil as responsible for the event. This event was carried out for and by researchers with interest in any aspects of biology, systematics, taxonomy, natural history, evolution, and applied studies on the insects of the superorder Neuropterida (Neuroptera, Megaloptera and Raphidioptera). This was the first meeting organized by a South American country, and the first one held online. A total of 141 participants from 24 countries attended the meeting, which was considered the largest number of registered participants among all the versions of the ISN and resulted in 10 keynote lectures (including the Opening Lecture), 21 oral presentations, and 17 poster presentations. The papers in this volume are representative of the lectures, oral presentations, and posters presented at the meeting. We dedicate these proceedings to the memory of the Professor and entomologist Dr. César Carvalho, who was directly responsible for bringing this meeting to Brazil, but unfortunately passed away in September 2018.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The Neuropteran fauna on the most meridional part of South America is relatively scarce. Two families, Hemerobiidae and Coniopterigydae, have been recorded so far. Accordingly, only a few species have reached the south of Tierra del Fuego. Currently, the southernmost records of these species, Hemerobius chilensis Nakahara, 1965 and Megalomus flinti (Nakahara, 1965), are from Puerto Williams, Navarino Island (54°56′S 67°37′W), which makes them the southernmost distributed neuropterans in the continent. Here we provide the first records for two Neuroptera species, Hemerobius nekoi Monserrat, 1996 and Megalomus flinti; from Deceit Island, a remote subantarctic island within the Cape Horn archipelago (55°51′41″S 67°08′31″W). The records provided makes these species the southernmost recorded lacewings in the continent; extending the known distribution of neuropterans in South America nearly 110km towards the south.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A new species of Sisyra Burmeister is described from the tropical rainforest of Tambopata National Reserve, Madre de Dios region, Peru. Sisyra tambopatensis sp. nov. is described based on a male specimen, which greatly differs from its congeners in the overall shape of the male gonocoxite 9. In addition, an identification key to the Neotropical species of Sisyra is provided.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Two new entomological surveys were carried out in the República Democrática de São Tomé e Principe in 2019 (earlier surveys were in 1956 and 2001). Of 16 species of Neuroptera identified, only one, a Mantispidae, appears endemic to the archipelago. Chrysopidae and Hemerobiidae account for the majority of species and individuals collected, concentrated here in plantations and anthropized environments, and known to be widely distributed in Africa and even worldwide. Unusually, the family Coniopterygidae is again absent, this time on natural terrains, confirming its earlier absence in 2001 on anthropized and plantation terrains. The findings and ecological distribution support the hypothesis that Hemerobiidae and Chrysopidae were introduced with cash crop cultivation, some of them as late as the 19th century. Their isolation in island environments is probably too recent to have allowed speciation mechanisms to generate endemic species in São Tomé.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Myrmeleon (tribe Myrmeleontini) is the most successful genus within Myrmeleontidae in number of species. This is probably due to its pit-building behavior, a famous adaptation of antlion larvae but present only in a few genera of the family. In the Iberian Peninsula, where only two other genera are able to construct these traps (Euroleon in tribe Myrmeleontini and Myrmecaelurus in tribe Myrmecaelurini), five species of Myrmeleon are present: M. formicarius, M. gerlindae, M. inconspicuus, M. almohadarum and M. hyalinus. There are some useful characters to tell apart the larvae of these species using optical microscope, including the disposition of digging setae or some color spots. In this work, we study the type of setae on these species in their larval stage using SEM. The type of bristles, digging setae, and the rest of sensilla found are not different in shape, surface or structure between species. All of these confer them a great equipment in their psammophilous lifestyle.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Green lacewings (Chrysopidae) are important predators in agroecosystems. Frequently there are studies which treat these beneficial insects at family level as a whole. This approach, despite its practical advantages, may, however, include many species with markedly different life history traits. As green lacewings are also rather diverse in their chemical ecology, treating several different species within one unit may lead to confusion and confounding effects of natural phenomena in research. Besides interspecific differences, sex-specificity is another important factor to consider in respect of insect chemical ecology. This is especially important for green lacewings, in particular the attraction of females, since oviposition is crucial in their application as biological control agents. The aim of our paper is to provide a brief insight into the diversity of the chemical ecology of green lacewings with a special emphasis on the species- and sex-specific differences in their responses to semiochemicals.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Italy was likely the first country in the world to have a complete list of all the species of animals known for its territory, thanks to the project ‘Checklist delle Specie della Fauna d'Italia’. The project on the ‘Updated Checklist of the Italian Fauna’ started in 2020 and the process is now complete for the data on the superorder Neuropterida. In the period between the first and the most recent version of the checklist, the evolution of knowledge relating to the Italian territory was constantly updated every semester into the online repertoire edited by the author. Moreover an online English version within the “World Neuropterida Faunas” project was created and subsequently updated. This report discusses the thirty-year development of the overall and local knowledge of this group of insects in Italy, analyzing the strengths and shortcomings, together with the repercussions of the studies finalized for the protection and conservation of a territory within the Mediterranean area, a hotspot of world organic biodiversity.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A survey of the brown lacewings (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae) was carried out with five Malaise traps/area in five areas in Atlantic rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil, between October 2009 and December 2011. 237 specimens of Hemerobiidae were obtained belonging to 14 species and five genera: Nusalala tessellata (Gerstaecker, 1888) (31.6% of the total collected), Hemerobius hernandezi Monserrat, 1996 (26.0%), Nusalala dispar (Banks, 1910) (17.7%), H. cubanus Banks, 1930, H. edui Monserrat, 1991, H. nigridorsus Monserrat, 1996 and H. withycombei (Kimmins, 1928) (1.7% each), H gaitoi Monserrat, 1996, Megalomus ricoi Monserrat, 1997 and Notiobiella cixiiformis (Gerstaecker, 1888) (1.3% each), Sympherobius ariasi Penny & Monserrat, 1985 (0.9%) and, M. impudicus (Gerstaecker, 1888), M. rafaeli Penny & Monserrat, 1985 and S. mirandus (Navás, 1920) (0.4% each). Eighteen specimens of Hemerobius Linnaeus, 1758 and nine of Megalomus Rambur, 1842, totaling 11.4% of the collected Hemerobiidae, could not be identified at the species level. The hemerobiids were more frequent in the Parque Estadual Intervales (55.3% of the total collected) and in the Parque Estadual Morro do Diabo (23.2%), inland collection sites in the state of São Paulo, with higher abundances recorded in spring (43.9% of the total collected) and in winter (37.1%). This study extends the geographic distribution range of five species of Hemerobiidae to Brazil and three to the state of São Paulo.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the consumption of Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) nymphs and the predator:prey ratio required for high predatory efficacy and survival of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) larvae under different densities of prey, reared in rose bushes. Consumption by first-, second-, and third-instar larvae of C. externa was assessed. The predatory efficiency and survival of the predator were calculated for larvae in the second instar under densities of 20, 40, 80, 120, and 160 nymphs of P. citri and predator:prey ratios of 1:5, 1:10, and 1:20. The assessments were performed after 24 and 48 hours of exposure between species. There was increasing consumption throughout the larval development of C. externa. The predator:prey ratios 1:5 and 1:10 were the most efficient for P. citri population reduction, but the 1:5 ratio led to lower survival of larvae than the 1:10 and 1:20 ratios. There was a positive correlation between C. externa larval density and cannibalism (ρ = 0.45) and a negative correlation between predator density and P. citri population density (ρ = -0.81). Third-instar larvae consume more P. citri nymphs than second-instar larvae. Second-instar larvae of this lacewing released at a 1:20 ratio caused total mortality of mealybug nymphs within 48 hours, regardless the density of P. citri, with high larvae survival of C. externa.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Rose crops are attacked by many pests, including mealybugs. Although Planoccocus citri is not registered as a main pest of roses in Brazil, it is an increasing problem on roses inside greenhouses. Chrysoperla externa and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri are options against P. citri and other pests on roses, however using two predators in biological control programs may face problems like intraguild predation. This work aimed to assess the consumption of 1st instar nymphs and adult females of P. citri by adults of C. montrouzieri and 3rd instar larvae of C. externa, as well as the interaction between these predators when confined together. The following treatments were performed with ten replications in a completely randomized design: 1 - C. externa + 200 nymphs of P. citri; 2 - C. externa + 10 adults of P. citri; 3 - C. montrouzieri + 500 nymphs of P. citri; 4 - C. montrouzieri + 15 adults of P. citri. Each replication was set on rose leaflets inside a Petri dish (9cm Ø). Intraguild interaction was assessed by releasing both predators inside dishes containing 700 nymphs of P. citri. Before the releases, predators stayed 24 hours without food. We evaluated the prey consumption and intraguild predation for three hours. C. externa consumed significantly less (85,4±2,99) nymphs than did C. montrouzieri (387,0±3,02). There was no difference in adult mealybugs consumed, with an average of 1,85±0,19. No intraguild predation was observed, and an increase of 11,8% in consumption was observed when predators were released together compared to the scenario of no competition.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This survey presents an overall view of the order Neuroptera from Brazil. A total of 432 valid extant species of Neuroptera divided into ten families, are recorded from the country. Among the Brazilian fauna, 211 species are endemic (48.8%), with the majority belonging to two families: Chrysopidae with 182 species in 19 genera, and Myrmeleontidae with 88 species in 25 genera. The first species discovered from Brazil was Climaciella semihyalina (Le Peletier & Audinet-Serville), in 1825, by European authors. In fact, European authors entirely dominated the description of Brazilian Neuroptera during the 19th century. Father Longinos Navás from Spain authored the highest number of species described from Brazil, 98, followed by US-American Norman Penny, with 83 species. Sérgio de Freitas, a Brazilian researcher, ranks third, with a total of 50 species described. It was not until the 21st century that the study of neuropterans from Brazil was primarily led by Brazilian-born authors. Primary type specimens of species described from Brazil are predominantly deposited in non-Brazilian institutions (65.7%). The order Neuroptera is distributed across all Brazilian states, except for Alagoas. The two states with the highest neuropteran biodiversity are Amazonas and São Paulo, with 132 and 124 species, respectively. Among the Brazilian biomes, the Mata Atlântica is the most diverse region with 227 known species, followed by the Amazônia with 192 species. Data on immature stages of Neuroptera are scarce and known for only 47 species recorded from Brazil (10.9%).