François Delsarte e a Dança Moderna: um encontro na expressividade corporal

François Delsarte and Modern Dance: an encounter in physical expression

François Delsarte et la Danse Moderne: une rencontre dans l'expressivité corporelle

Elisa Teixeira de Souza Sobre o autor

RESUMO

Este estudo aborda o sistema de François Delsarte para a expressividade corporal, chamado Estética Aplicada. Apresenta dados relacionados à trajetória de François Delsarte, como origem, formação e fundamentação teórica. Discute as leis da expressividade gestual formuladas por Delsarte - a Lei da Trindade, a Lei da Correspondência e as Nove Leis do Movimento - bem como sua difusão e utilização na dança moderna, incluindo nessa discussão nomes de precursores da dança moderna como Isadora Duncan, Ruth Saint Denis, Ted Shawn, Vaslav Nijinsky, Rudolf Laban e Mary Wigman.

Palavras-chave:
François Delsarte; Estética Aplicada; Delsartismo; Dança Moderna; História da Dança

ABSTRACT

This study addresses François Delsarte's system of expression, known as Applied Aesthetics. It presents data related to François Delsarte's career, such as personal and professional life and his theoretical background. It discusses the laws of gestural expression formulated by Delsarte - Trinity Law, the Law of Correspondence and the Nine Laws of Motion - as well as their dissemination and utilization in modern dance; this discussion mentions some pioneers of modern dance, such as Isadora Duncan, Ruth Saint Denis, Ted Shawn, Vaslav Nijinsky, Rudolf Laban and Mary Wigman.

Keywords:
François Delsarte; Applied Aesthetics; Delsartism; Modern dance; History of dance

RÉSUMÉ

Cette étude aborde le système de François Delsarte pour l'expressivité corporelle, appelée Esthétique Appliquée. Il présente des données relatives à la trajectoire de François Delsarte, comme ses origines, sa formation et ses références théoriques. Il analyse les lois de l'expression gestuelle formulées par Delsarte - la Loi de la Trinité, la Loi de la Correspondance et les Neuf Lois du Mouvement - et leur diffusion et utilisation dans la danse moderne. Dans cette réflexion sont évoqués les noms des précurseurs de la danse moderne comme Isadora Duncan, Ruth Saint-Denis, Ted Shawn, Vaslav Nijinsky, Rudolf Laban et Mary Wigman.

Mots-clés:
François Delsarte; Esthétique Appliquée; Delsartisme; Danse Moderne; Histoire de la Danse

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Referências

  • ARNAUD, Angélique. The Delsarte System. Delsarte System of Oratory. New York: Edgar, S. Werner, 1893. p. 171-379. Disponível em: <Disponível em: http://archive.org/details/delsartesystemof00delauoft >. Acesso em: 21 jul. 2012.
    » http://archive.org/details/delsartesystemof00delauoft
  • BOURCIER, Paul. História da Dança no Ocidente. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 2001.
  • CARDIM, Leandro Neves. Corpo. São Paulo: Globo, 2009.
  • DASGUPTA, Gautam. Commedia Delsarte. Performing Arts Journal, Cambridge, v. 15, n. 3, p. 95-102, set. 1993.
  • DELAUMOSNE. Delsarte System of Oratory. New York: Edgar, S. Werner, 1893. p. XVII-XXIX; 3-165. Disponível em: <http://archive.org/details/delsartesystemof00delauoft>. Acesso em: 21 jul. 2012.
    » http://archive.org/details/delsartesystemof00delauoft
  • DELSARTE, François. Address of François Delsarte before the Philotechnic Society of Paris. In: STEBBINS, Genevieve. Delsarte System of Expression. New York: Edgar S. Werner, 1894. P. XI-LVIII.
  • FAHEY, Joseph. Quiet Victory: the professional identity American women forged through Delsartism. Mime Journal, Claremont, 2004/2005, p. 42-83, 2005. Essays on François Delsarte.
  • GARAUDY, Roger. Dançar a Vida. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Nova Fronteira, 1980.
  • HECHT, Patsy Ann Clark. Kinetic Techniques for the Actor: an analysis and comparison of the movement training systems of François Delsarte, Emile Jaques-Dalcroze and Rudolf Laban. 1971. Tese (Doutorado em Filosofia) - Divisão de Pós-Graduação, Wayne State University, Detroit, 1971.
  • HODGSON, John; PRESTON-DUNLOP, Valerie. Rudolf Laban: an introduction to his work & influence. Plymouth: Northcote House, 1990.
  • MADUREIRA, José Rafael. François Delsarte: personagem de uma dança (re)descoberta. 2002. Dissertação (Mestrado em Educação) - Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 2002.
  • MENERTH Jr., Edward F. Two Mirrors of Movement. Art Journal, New York, v. 28, n. 1, p. 50-53, outono 1968.
  • NEWLOVE, Jean; DALBY, John. Laban for All. London: Nick Hern Books; New York: Routledge, 2004.
  • PORTE, Alain. François Delsarte: une anthologie. Paris: Edition IPMC, 1992.
  • RUYTER, Nancy Lee Chalfa. The Cultivation of Body and Mind in Nineteenth-century American Delsartism. London: Greenwood Press, 1999.
  • RUYTER, Nancy Lee Chalfa. The Delsarte Heritage. Dance Research: The Journal of the Society for Dance Research, Edimburgo, v. 14, n. 1, p. 62-74, verão 1996.
  • RUYTER, Nancy Lee Chalfa. The Intellectual World of Genevieve Stebbins. Dance Chronicle, New York, v. 11, n. 3, p. 381-397, 1988.
  • RUYTER, Nancy Lee Chalfa. Prefácio. In: SHAWN, Ted. Chaque Petit Mouvement: à propos de François Delsarte. Paris: Éditions Complexe; Centre National de la Danse, 2005. P. 7-20.
  • SHAWN, Ted. Every Little Movement: a book about Delsarte. New York: Dance Horizons, 1963.
  • STEBBINS, Genevieve. Delsarte System of Expression. New York: Edgar S. Werner, 1894.
  • TAYLOR, George; WHYMAN, Rose. François Delsarte, Prince Sergei Volkonsky and Mikhail Chekhov. Mime Journal, Claremont, 2004/2005, p. 96-111, 2005. Essays on François Delsarte.
  • THOMAS, Helen. Dance, Modernity & Culture: explorations in the sociology of dance. New York: Routledge, 1995.

  • 1
    Delsarte abordava o conceito de gesto como expressão inconsciente ou consciente de sensações, sentimentos e pensamentos, podendo o gesto ser vocal ou corporal.
  • 2
    {...} how far particular gestures are really expressive of certain states of the mind {...}
  • 3
    {...} how the human body moves under the stimuli of emotions {...}
  • 4
    Delsarte não chegou a lapidar sua teoria para um formato de publicação, de modo que as fontes nas quais se pode buscar um entendimento a respeito da Estética Aplicada são os livros dos discípulos de Delsarte, além dos manuscritos elaborados por ele próprio. No livro François Delsarte: une anthologie, referenciado neste artigo, Allan Porte juntou e comentou os manuscritos de Delsarte, os quais correspondem a conferências preparadas para palestras, rascunhos, anotações, cartas, quadros esquemáticos e desenhos.
  • 5
    Shawn explica na página 22 que os trechos escritos por Delsarte citados nas páginas seguintes foram retirados do livro de Stebbins (1894), especificamente do suplemento que consiste na palestra que Delsarte fez na Sociedade Filotécnica de Paris, publicada na obra.
  • 6
    The most powerful of all gestures is that which affects the spectator without his knowing it.
  • 7
    A partir desse ponto do texto, o termo 'gesto' se referirá à 'gesto corporal'.
  • 8
    {...} the science of the sensitive and passional manifestations which are the object of art, and whose psychic form it constitutes.
  • 9
    {...} the science of the organic signs by which aesthetics must study inherent fitness.
  • 10
    {...} the form assumed by the human being at birth, or constitutional form; the form which under the influence of environment and customs and growing experience undergoes modifications, which is habitual form; and the form taken under the sway of temporary emotion, which is fugitive form.
  • 11
    Passional types explain habitual types, and habitual types explain congenital types.
  • 12
    Do original em francês: Accord de Neuvième.
  • 13
    Equivalente à nota 5 (acima).
  • 14
    Nothing is more deplorable than a gesture without a motive, without meaning.
  • 15
    Lembrando que Delsarte trabalha suas leis na perspectiva estreita do termo, ou seja, enquanto determinações naturais do funcionamento das coisas no mundo. Ocorrendo que em sua perspectiva religiosa, esse sentido rígido do termo lei se flexibiliza, pois estas equivalem a determinações de Deus.
  • 16
    Angelique Arnaud, discípula de Delsarte, informa que Delsarte elaborou seis leis para o movimento. Porém, seus discípulos Delaumosne e Genevieve Stebbins afirmam que foram nove.
  • 17
    {...} in general, the constructive, positive, good, true, beautiful, moves upward, forward and outward - the destructive, negative, ugly, false, moves downward, inward and backward.
  • 18
    Excitement or passion tends to expand gesture; Thought or reflection tends to contract gestures; Love or affection tends to moderate gestures.
  • 19
    Gesture is the lightning, speech the thunder; thus gesture should precede speech. The gesture shows the emotional condition from which the words flow, and justifies them.
  • 20
    Encontra-se na literatura da área diferenças nessas divisões.
  • 21
    In emotion, if the hand seeks the chin, vital instincts predominate: namely, apetites, passions; While if the hand seeks the forehead, the mental instincts predominate; If the hand touches the cheeks, the moral instincts; that is, the affections predominate.
  • 22
    Straight form is vital; Circular form is mental; Spiral form is moral, mystic. Circular form is, generally speaking, more pleasing, due to its associations with the pleasant feel of round things as against angular objects; and thus by implication, angular forms are more unpleasant.
  • 23
    In proportion to the depth and majesty of the emotion, is the deliberation and slowness of the motion; and, vice versa, in proportion to the superficiality and explosiveness of the emotion, will be the velocity of its expression in motion.
  • 24
    Every extreme of emotion tends to react to its opposite. Concentrated passion tends to explosion; explosion to prostration. Thus the only emotion which does not tend to its own destruction, is that which is perfectly poised.
  • 25
    The extension of the gesture is in proportion to the surrender of the will in emotion.
  • 26
    Effects should be the echoes of a situation clearly comprehended and completely felt.
  • 27
    O sobrenome de nascença de Henrietta Hovey era Knapp. Devido a seus três casamentos, teve outros dois sobrenomes além de Hovey: Crane e Russel (Ruyter, 2005, p. 15).
  • 28
    Delaumosne escreveu Pratique de l'art oratoire de Delsarte (1874), a primeira publicação dedicada à estética aplicada.
  • 29
    Segundo Shawn (1963, p.79), a mais antiga publicação periódica de dança publicada nos EUA.
  • 30
    Delsarte, the master of all principles of flexibility, and lightness of body, should receive universal thanks for the bonds he has removed from our constrained members. His teachings, faithfully given, combined with the usual instruction necessary to learning to dance, will give a result exceptionally graceful and charming.
  • 31
    At the opening of the scene, she was lying on the floor asleep, and then, awakened by the morning sun, she rose with a lovely childlike movement to her knee and bathed herself in its rays. A light rhythmic step signified the morning and the noontide; and then began the slower movements of the afternoon, presently mingled with sadness as the late rays brought her slowly to her knees and again into her reclining posture of sleep.
  • 32
    {...} in the human body there is a three-fold unity: body, mind and spirit.
  • 33
    Each of these is movement-related and interdependente and throughout there is a two-way process in operation: we feel, we think and that affects and effects body movement; we move in a certain way and that affects and effects outlook and thought. It is well-nigh impossible to walk tall and open and feel 'down', or to move in a slovenly, round-shouldered fashion and have a healthy, positive outlook.
  • 34
    Essa coreografia pode ser conferida no endereço: <www.europafilmtreasures.eu>.

Datas de Publicação

  • Publicação nesta coleção
    Dez 2012

Histórico

  • Recebido
    30 Jun 2012
  • Aceito
    06 Set 2012
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