Cervical cancer is nowadays a disease amenable to secondary prevention. Methods for the detection of its precursor lesions and human papillomavirus infection, such as cervical cytology and molecular biology, achieved widespread use worldwide. However, there is still too much controversy regarding the use of these methods in gynecological practice. Which is the best examination or the best association of examinations, and the most adequate time intervals to proceed with screening, are still pending questions, generating anxiety in patients and doctors. On the other hand, the management of women who have been diagnosed with viral infection and/or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is not yet consensual, and several factors may affect the clinical decision on how to treat them. Therapeutic options are dependent upon the type of viral infection, severity of the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and its histological type. The aim of the present article was to review the several aspects of cervical cancer screening and its viable treatment.
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia/diagnosis; Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia/therapy; Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia/prevention & control; Human papillomavirus