Associated factors for perinatal mortality in gastroschisis

PURPOSE: To analyze the perinatal mortality rate in cases of gastroschisis and possible associated factors. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted between 1992 and 2012. All cases of gastroschisis born in Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA) during that period were included. The diagnosis of gastroschisis was obtained by morphological ultrasound examination or clinical examination at birth in prenatally unknown cases. The variables of birth (birthweight, gestational age and Apgar score, mode of delivery, type of gastroschisis and associated anomalies) and the surgical ones (type of surgical closure, reintervention and sepsis) were compared between surviving cases and deaths. The results of this comparison were analyzed according to the type of variable using parametric and non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney or Student's t-test, χ² or Fisher's exact test), with the level of significance set at 5% (p=0.05). RESULTS: Sixty-four newborns with gastroschisis were included, 59 of them (92.2%) diagnosed during the prenatal period. Twenty-six patients (40.6%) had only exposed intestines, classified as simple gastroschisis, 22 had exposure of the intestines and stomach (34.4%) and 16 had exposure of the intestine and other organs (25%), for a total of 38 cases of complex gastroschisis. Primary surgical repair was performed in 44 cases (68.8%). The mortality rate was 23.4% (15 deaths). Babies who died had significantly lower birth weight (p=0.001), gestational age (p=0.03) and Apgar score (p=0.03) than survivors. There was no difference in mode of delivery (p=0.8) and, with respect to gut contents, there was no difference between the cases of simple and complex gastroschisis (p=0.06). Mortality was significantly higher in patients with sepsis (p=0.008) and reintervention (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: in the present study, perinatal mortality due to gastroschisis seemed to depend mainly on prematurity, low birth weight, and surgical complications.

Gastroschisis; Perinatal mortality; Infant, low birth weight; Infant, premature; Sepsis

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