Nutrition is an important factor in bone mass development/maintenance and in osteoporosis prevention. This disease is characterized by decreased skeletal mass and increased susceptibility to fractures. The greatest determinant of this condition is the peak bone mass (PBM). Hence, alterations over time indicate the importance of maintaining adequate nutrition during the development of this peak. In adult age, individuals who reached a high PBM will have a low risk of developing bone metabolic diseases when aging. Nutrients exert intense and wide-ranging effects on skeletal structures. Some of them have been consistently related with bone health, such as calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D. However, it has been suggested that other nutrients are essential for normal bone metabolism: proteins, lipids, potassium, vitamins K and A, and sodium chloride. The influence of interactions between these nutritional factors, environment, lifestyle, and heredity will help understand the complex development of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures. In addition, energy deficits can lead to reduced bone mass, in view of endocrine-metabolic disorders caused by food deprivation. This review aims at clarifying the impact of nutrients and of calories intake on the bones during different stages in life, describing possible interactions among nutrients and how these could affect bone and mineral homeostasis.
Osteoporosis; Fractures, bone; Nutrients; Nutritional requirements; Micronutrients; Carbonated beverages