Abstract in English:Abstract This paper uses a wide array of original documents collected from Bulgarian, Czech, German, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian and Serbian diplomatic, party and security services archives, reflecting Havana’s foreign policy during the Cold War. The article’s narrative follows Cuba’s Cold War foreign policy in the 1970s. Through its multipolar archival research methodology, the paper aims to help us acquaint a more nuanced and fuller picture of the complex and evolving character of Cuba’s Cold War internationalism as seen through the eyes of Moscow’s East European allies, marking a clear departure from existing literature mostly engaging Soviet or American sources.
Abstract in English:Abstract The relationship between the United Nations Security Council and Non-Governmental Organizations has scarcely been considered in scholarship on international security. This lack of academic interest contrasts with accounts on the engagement of NGOs in the production and advancement of UNSC discussions on women and children. By drawing on international relations and social movements’ theoretical contributions, the paper traces NGOs’ strategies to participate in UNSC thematic debates. By looking at the actions of the Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict and the NGO Working Group on Women, Peace, and Security, the analysis finds that NGOs have built coalitions among themselves and maintained networks with friendly countries and UN specialized agencies to capitalize on favorable political and institutional opportunities and expand the access to the security sector.
Abstract in English:Abstract This paper aims to: (i) investigate whether Republican legislatures were more inclined than Democratic ones to uphold laws of national sovereignty and whether Democratic legislatures were more likely than Republican ones to prioritise bills linked to the post-national perspective; (ii) assess the US migration laws by considering how state-level legal systems affect migrants’ lives. Using data from the National Conference of State Legislatures and Legiscan and techniques like clustering, statistical, and geospatial analysis, we found that bills sponsored by the Democratic Party are indeed more likely to belong to the post-national category than bills by the Republican Party.
Abstract in English:Abstract This paper analyzes credit rating agencies’ actions in Brazilian presidential transitions in the light of what is understood as financialization. It argues that the agencies, from their position in the international financial system, express and promote the financialization process during presidential transitions. To that end, they resort to forms of political activism in favor of the orthodox agenda defended by financial markets enthusiasts. The methodology draws on the case study of Brazil, with reference to the five presidential transitions that took place there between 2002 and 2018. The analysis is based mainly on the Brazilian sovereign ratings issued by S&P Global, Moody’s and Fitch Ratings, and on the country reports published by these agencies.
Abstract in English:Abstract Regional integration in Latin America and the Caribbean has seen better days. We claim recent retreat trends are related to China and Brazil acting respectively as extra-regional and regional catalysts of institutional fragmentation. Our main hypotheses propose the following conditions are necessary for increasing fragmentation in the region: advances of an extra-regional emerging power, and the absence of a regional paymaster that promotes integration. By comparing regional organizations using longitudinal data, we find that growing ties to China and shrinking ties to Brazil can be associated with evidence of institutional fragmentation in Latin America. We claim that the two factors increase competition between regional organizations through a mechanism of changing set of costs and benefits of engagement and participation promoted by China’s interest and Brazil’s disinterest on each project.
Abstract in English:Abstract The advent of cyber power in inter-state competition is frequently addressed in academic literature skewed towards global powers, commonly overlooking regional powers. The article addresses this gap by investigating how cyber power is conceived and implemented by Brazilian Governmental actors. It draws on the analysis of primary data concerning Brazil’s policy documentation and institutional framework. The article begins with a broader view of cyber power and investigates its relationship with cyber defense and security, illuminating the current Brazilian understanding of cyber power as an operational tool within the military sphere.
Abstract in English:Abstract This article aims to present the Marxist theoretical framework based on Nicos Poulantzas’s thought to analyse regionalism in Latin America. We propose that regionalism is determined by the interests of the bourgeois hegemonic fraction in the power bloc. The originality of the theoretical proposal presented lies in the thesis that regionalisms are the fruit of relations between power blocs of the member states. The article illustrates the recent processes of regionalism in Latin America that, from this theoretical proposal’s point of view, can vary among the following models: open regionalism (related to the interests of comprador bourgeoisie); multidimensional regionalism (linked to internal bourgeoisie interests); and anti-imperialism (related to a national bourgeoisie project). We conclude that the dependency of these social formations, the presence of foreign capital, and the role of US imperialism should be considered in the analysis of regionalism in Latin America.
Abstract in English:Abstract This paper argues that there is an increasing dispute between China and United States on international technical standards, with national security as a central element and involving emerging and critical technologies. Based on Krasner’s structural perspective on international regimes, it shows that historically, states’ powers and interests have influenced the construction of the standards principles and rules in international institutions. The current USA-China dispute is revealed by their growing international participation and influence combined with national strategies to internationalize national standards. The paper is widely supported by specialized bibliography and documents from governments and institutions that are relevant on the issue.
Abstract in English:Abstract Health diplomacy has played a vital role worldwide during the coronavirus outbreak. One crucial mechanism in this regard has been “vaccine diplomacy,” which describes country efforts to share COVID-19 vaccines. China and India are ahead of other countries in bilateral vaccine donations due to their South-South Cooperation policies. Looking forward, how and why are these two countries employing their vaccine diplomacy strategies? We compare the engagement of both in this field using a Comparative Foreign Policy Analysis framework. Our results suggest that neither is acting only for altruistic reasons, because economic and political interests are the main drivers behind their strategies.
Abstract in English:Abstract Power asymmetries offer a lens for understanding the reshaping of corporate strategies in the mining sector during the pandemic. Using a heterodox international political economy perspective, the first section of the article argues that regulatory frameworks are both the expression of structural power relations and a key instrument contributing to their reproduction. The second illustrates this by focusing on companies’ attempts to renegotiate fiscal concessions and keep mines open during the pandemic. The third examines how corporate actors have become directly involved in the delivery of health services and longer-term implications of such involvement. The conclusion identifies further research areas.
Abstract in English:Abstract The global but uneven course of the Covid-19 pandemic highlights the importance of international cooperation and negotiation on such matters as financial assistance, medical equipment provision, vaccine development and distribution, and other pandemic response measures. This article will present a theoretical overview of “health diplomacy” and analyze the case of Vietnam within this framework, showing how the country’s political response to the pandemic demonstrates an increasingly proactive engagement in health diplomacy. The article argues that health diplomacy will become more relevant for international relations in the time to come and that the case of Vietnam might yield valuable lessons.
Abstract in English:Abstract This article analyzes how the Covid-19 pandemic has been addressed in Latin America and the Caribbean, and how regional integration projects could have contributed to deal more effectively with this situation; it also intends to identify current limitations to advance cooperation efforts within regional integration mechanisms in the health sector. A qualitative methodology was conducted based on research and analysis of secondary data. The existing regional integration mechanisms in LAC have quickly sought to promote initiatives to face the pandemic. However, the results – being fragmented – have not been enough to prepare, through regional integration, more effective responses to Covid-19.
Abstract in English:Abstract This article argues the need for complementarity between emergency and structuring international cooperation in scenarios of health crises in developing countries. Through a review of contemporary literature and document analysis, it analyzes some aspects of the performance of global and Latin American institutions in the Covid-19 pandemic in light of this argument. It also makes a brief survey of forms of international cooperation that emerge from Brazil, with BRICS and Latin American partners, to fight the pandemic, which have a local and sectoral character: paradiplomacy, structuring networks and the role of local agents and health experts.
Abstract in English:Abstract Covid-19 and discussions in Brazil about the distribution of ICU beds stressed the enormous difficulty of guaranteeing health as a right in a public-private system, something that was already known. Enforcing health as a right depends, more than ever, on prioritizing both universality and equity. This article argues that this requires a new framework in both the legal field and the global health field, that of Global Health and Economic Law, which in this article is examined with a focus on the health care industry.