Efectos del parasitismo sobre el tejido branquial en peces cultivados: estudio parasitologico e histopatologico

Effect of the parasitism on the gill tissue of cultivated fishes: parasitological and histopathological studies

Maurício Laterça Martins Nicolás Garcia Romero Acerca de los autores

Resumen

One hundred four out of 225 diagnosticated cases were myxosporidian, monogenean, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 and bacterial diseases in Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (pacu), Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 (tambaqui) and tambacu, at Aquaculture Center, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil, between 1992 and 1995. The gills were fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution to posterior histologic routine. It was observed Henneguya sp. cysts into the capillaries of the secondary lamellae, encapsulated by the respiratory epithelium cells. It provoked adherence of the adjacent lamellae, hyperplasia, congestion, oedema and epithelium displacement. Monogeneans infestations by Anacanthorus penilabiatus Boeger, Husak & Martins, 1995 and Ancyrocephalinae sub-family caused light inflammatory reaction and hyperplasia. In severe infestations was observed hyperplasia of primary lamellae, necrosis, oedema, respiratory epithelium displacement, ruptured pillar cells and telangiectasis. Response to I. multifiliis was limited to surrounding epithelial cells in young fishes and hyperplasia, necrosis, inflammatory infiltrate and oedema in old fishes. Such lesions iniciate hyperplasic and oedematous process that with inflammation of the parasitic sites, provoked alterations over gases and ions interchange surface and consequently fish metabolism.

Protozoa; Monogenea; histopathology; Brazilian fish


Protozoa; Monogenea; histopathology; Brazilian fish

Efectos del parasitismo sobre el tejido branquial en peces cultivados: estudio parasitologico e histopatologico

Effect of the parasitism on the gill tissue of cultivated fishes: parasitological and histopathological studies

Maurício Laterça MartinsI; Nicolás Garcia RomeroII

ICentro de Aqüicultura, Universidade Estadual Paulista. Rodovia Carlos Tonanni Km 05, 14870-000 Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brasil

IISección de Ictiología, Universidad Nacional de La Plata. 1900 La Plata, Argentina

ABSTRACT

One hundred four out of 225 diagnosticated cases were myxosporidian, monogenean, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 and bacterial diseases in Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (pacu), Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 (tambaqui) and tambacu, at Aquaculture Center, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil, between 1992 and 1995. The gills were fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution to posterior histologic routine. It was observed Henneguya sp. cysts into the capillaries of the secondary lamellae, encapsulated by the respiratory epithelium cells. It provoked adherence of the adjacent lamellae, hyperplasia, congestion, oedema and epithelium displacement. Monogeneans infestations by Anacanthorus penilabiatus Boeger, Husak & Martins, 1995 and Ancyrocephalinae sub-family caused light inflammatory reaction and hyperplasia. In severe infestations was observed hyperplasia of primary lamellae, necrosis, oedema, respiratory epithelium displacement, ruptured pillar cells and telangiectasis. Response to I. multifiliis was limited to surrounding epithelial cells in young fishes and hyperplasia, necrosis, inflammatory infiltrate and oedema in old fishes. Such lesions iniciate hyperplasic and oedematous process that with inflammation of the parasitic sites, provoked alterations over gases and ions interchange surface and consequently fish metabolism.

Key words: Protozoa, Monogenea, histopathology, Brazilian fish

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REFERENCIAS BIBLIOGRAFICAS

Aguirre, M.; D.A. Conroy; G. Conroy & J.M. Torrealba. 1983. Black spot disease, a myxosporidiosis affecting silver mullet (Mugil curema Val.) in Venezuela. Riv. It. Piscic. Ittiop. 2:61-64.

Amato, J.F.R.; W.A. Boeger & S.B. Amato. 1991. Protocolos para laboratorio. Coleta e processamento de parasitos do pescado. Rio de Janeiro, 56p.

Anderson, D.P. 1990. "Inmunological Indicators: Effects of environmental stress on inmune protection and disease outbreaks". Am. Fish. Society Symposium 8:38-50.

Boeger, W.A.; W.S. Husak & M.L. Martins. 1995. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 25. Anacanthorus penilabiatus n.sp. (Dactylogyridae: Anacanthorinae) from Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887, cultivated in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 90 (6):699-701.

Buchmann, K.; M. Koie & P. Prento. 1987. The nutrition of the gill parasitic monogenean Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae. Parasitol. Res. 73:532-537.

Ceccarelli, P.S.; L.B. Figueira; C.L.B. Ferraz de Lima & C.A. Oliveira. 1990. Observações sobre a ocorrência de parasitos no CEPTA entre 1983 e 1990. Bol. Téc. CEPTA 3:43-54.

Cheng, T.H.C. 1973. General Parasitology. New York, Academic Press, 965p.

Conroy, G.A. 1987. Curso de ampliación de conocimientos sobre ictiopatologia. Tecnicas de fijacion y coloración para el estudio de parasitos de peces. Maracay, FAO/FCV/UCV, 123p.

Cusack, R. 1986. Development of infections of Gyrodactylus colemanensis Mizelle and Kritsky, 1967 (Monogenea) and the effect on fry of Salmo gairdneri Richardson. J. Parasitol. 75:663-668.

Duhamel, G.E.; M.L. Kent; N.O. Dybdal & R.P. Hedrick. 1986. Henneguya exilis Kudo associated with granulomatous branchitis of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque). Vet. Pathol. 23:354-361.

Dykova, I. & J. Lom. 1978. Histopathological changes in fish gills infected with myxosporidian parasites of the genus Henneguya. J. Fish Biol. 12:197-202.

Ellis, A.E. 1981. Non-specific defense mechanisms in fish and their role in disease processes, p.337-353. In: W. Hennessen (Ed.). Developments in Biological Standardization. S. Korger, Basel, vol. 49.

Ellis, A. E.; L.S. Munroe & R.J. Roberts. 1976. "Defence mechanisms in fish". J. Fish Biol. 8:67-78.

Ewing, M.S.; K.M. Kocan & S.A. Ewing. 1985. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora) invasion of gill epithelium. J. Protozool. 32 (2):305-310.

Figueira, L.B. & P.S. Ceccarelli. 1991. Observações sobre a presença de ectoparasitos em pisicculturas tropicais de interior (CEPTA e Região). Bol. Téc. CEPTA 4 (1):57-65.

Herraez, M.P. & A.G. Zapata. 1986. "Structure and funtion of Melano-Macrophage Centres of the Goldfish Carassius auratus". Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 12:117-126.

Hines, R.S. & D.T. Spira. 1974. Ichthyophthiriasis in the mirror carp Cyprinus carpio (L). III. Pathology. J. Fish. Biol. 6: 189-196.

Kalavati, C. & C.C. Narasimha-Murti. 1985. Histopathological changes in the gills of Channa punctatus Bl. Infected with Henneguya waltairensis. Arch. Protistenk. 129:199-202.

Kinkelin, P.; C. Michel & P. Ghittino. 1991. Tratado de las Enfermedades de los Peces. Zaragoza, España, Ed. Acribia, 353p.

Kurovskaya, L.N. & S.A. Osadchaya. 1993. The influence of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis on underyearling carp, Cyprinus carpio. J. Ichthyol. 33 (4):81-92.

Leibovitz, L. 1980a. Ichthyophthiriasis. J.A.V.M.A. 176:30-31.

______. 1980b. Monogenetic trematode infections. J.A.V.M.A. 7:608-609.

Martins, M.L.; V.N. Souza; F.R. Moraes; J.R.E. Moraes; A.J. Costa & U.F. Rocha, (no prelo). Infections of Henneguya sp. Thélohan, 1892 (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) on captive Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887, in Brazil, with associated pathology and possible behavioral effeets. J. World Aquac. Soc. .

McCraren, J.P.; M.L. Landolt & G.L. Hoffman. 1975. Variation in response of channel catfish to Henneguya sp. infections (Protozoa: Myxosporidea). J. Wildl. Dis. 11:2-7

Prieto, A.; E. Fajer; M. Vinjoy & M. Martinez. 1994. Parasites of freshwater cultured fish. Differential diagnostic keys. June, Mexico, FAO, 60p.

Roberts, R.J. 1981. Patologia de los Peces. Mundi Prensa, Madrid, 366p.

Roberts, R.J. & A.M. Bullock. 1980. The skin surface ecosystem of teleost fishes. Proc. R. Soc. Edynburg 79 B:87-91.

Stoskopf, M.K. 1993. Fish medicine. Pensylvania, W.B. Saunders Co., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Inc., 882p.

Torroela, J.J. 1988. Aspectos generales de patología infecciosa, p. 1-36. In: J.S. de los Monteros & U. Labarta (Eds). Patología en Acuicultura. Madrid, Mundi Prensa, 550p.

Ventura, M.T. & I. Paperna. 1985. Histopathology of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infections in fishes. J. Fish. Biol. 27:185-203.

Recebido em 30.XI.1995; aceito em 17.X.1996.

  • Aguirre, M.; D.A. Conroy; G. Conroy & J.M. Torrealba. 1983. Black spot disease, a myxosporidiosis affecting silver mullet (Mugil curema Val.) in Venezuela. Riv. It. Piscic. Ittiop. 2:61-64.
  • Amato, J.F.R.; W.A. Boeger & S.B. Amato. 1991. Protocolos para laboratorio. Coleta e processamento de parasitos do pescado. Rio de Janeiro, 56p.
  • Anderson, D.P. 1990. "Inmunological Indicators: Effects of environmental stress on inmune protection and disease outbreaks". Am. Fish. Society Symposium 8:38-50.
  • Boeger, W.A.; W.S. Husak & M.L. Martins. 1995. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 25. Anacanthorus penilabiatus n.sp. (Dactylogyridae: Anacanthorinae) from Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887, cultivated in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 90 (6):699-701.
  • Buchmann, K.; M. Koie & P. Prento. 1987. The nutrition of the gill parasitic monogenean Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae. Parasitol. Res. 73:532-537.
  • Ceccarelli, P.S.; L.B. Figueira; C.L.B. Ferraz de Lima & C.A. Oliveira. 1990. Observações sobre a ocorrência de parasitos no CEPTA entre 1983 e 1990. Bol. Téc. CEPTA 3:43-54.
  • Cheng, T.H.C. 1973. General Parasitology. New York, Academic Press, 965p.
  • Conroy, G.A. 1987. Curso de ampliación de conocimientos sobre ictiopatologia. Tecnicas de fijacion y coloración para el estudio de parasitos de peces. Maracay, FAO/FCV/UCV, 123p.
  • Cusack, R. 1986. Development of infections of Gyrodactylus colemanensis Mizelle and Kritsky, 1967 (Monogenea) and the effect on fry of Salmo gairdneri Richardson. J. Parasitol. 75:663-668.
  • Duhamel, G.E.; M.L. Kent; N.O. Dybdal & R.P. Hedrick. 1986. Henneguya exilis Kudo associated with granulomatous branchitis of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque). Vet. Pathol. 23:354-361.
  • Dykova, I. & J. Lom. 1978. Histopathological changes in fish gills infected with myxosporidian parasites of the genus Henneguya. J. Fish Biol. 12:197-202.
  • Ellis, A.E. 1981. Non-specific defense mechanisms in fish and their role in disease processes, p.337-353. In: W. Hennessen (Ed.). Developments in Biological Standardization. S. Korger, Basel, vol. 49.
  • Ellis, A. E.; L.S. Munroe & R.J. Roberts. 1976. "Defence mechanisms in fish". J. Fish Biol. 8:67-78.
  • Ewing, M.S.; K.M. Kocan & S.A. Ewing. 1985. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora) invasion of gill epithelium. J. Protozool. 32 (2):305-310.
  • Figueira, L.B. & P.S. Ceccarelli. 1991. Observações sobre a presença de ectoparasitos em pisicculturas tropicais de interior (CEPTA e Região). Bol. Téc. CEPTA 4 (1):57-65.
  • Herraez, M.P. & A.G. Zapata. 1986. "Structure and funtion of Melano-Macrophage Centres of the Goldfish Carassius auratus". Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 12:117-126.
  • Hines, R.S. & D.T. Spira. 1974. Ichthyophthiriasis in the mirror carp Cyprinus carpio (L). III. Pathology. J. Fish. Biol. 6: 189-196.
  • Kalavati, C. & C.C. Narasimha-Murti. 1985. Histopathological changes in the gills of Channa punctatus Bl. Infected with Henneguya waltairensis. Arch. Protistenk. 129:199-202.
  • Kinkelin, P.; C. Michel & P. Ghittino. 1991. Tratado de las Enfermedades de los Peces. Zaragoza, España, Ed. Acribia, 353p.
  • Kurovskaya, L.N. & S.A. Osadchaya. 1993. The influence of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis on underyearling carp, Cyprinus carpio. J. Ichthyol. 33 (4):81-92.
  • Leibovitz, L. 1980a. Ichthyophthiriasis. J.A.V.M.A. 176:30-31.
  • ______. 1980b. Monogenetic trematode infections. J.A.V.M.A. 7:608-609.
  • Martins, M.L.; V.N. Souza; F.R. Moraes; J.R.E. Moraes; A.J. Costa & U.F. Rocha, (no prelo). Infections of Henneguya sp. Thélohan, 1892 (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) on captive Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887, in Brazil, with associated pathology and possible behavioral effeets. J. World Aquac. Soc.
  • McCraren, J.P.; M.L. Landolt & G.L. Hoffman. 1975. Variation in response of channel catfish to Henneguya sp. infections (Protozoa: Myxosporidea). J. Wildl. Dis. 11:2-7
  • Prieto, A.; E. Fajer; M. Vinjoy & M. Martinez. 1994. Parasites of freshwater cultured fish. Differential diagnostic keys. June, Mexico, FAO, 60p.
  • Roberts, R.J. 1981. Patologia de los Peces. Mundi Prensa, Madrid, 366p.
  • Roberts, R.J. & A.M. Bullock. 1980. The skin surface ecosystem of teleost fishes. Proc. R. Soc. Edynburg 79 B:87-91.
  • Stoskopf, M.K. 1993. Fish medicine. Pensylvania, W.B. Saunders Co., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Inc., 882p.
  • Torroela, J.J. 1988. Aspectos generales de patología infecciosa, p. 1-36. In: J.S. de los Monteros & U. Labarta (Eds). Patología en Acuicultura. Madrid, Mundi Prensa, 550p.
  • Ventura, M.T. & I. Paperna. 1985. Histopathology of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infections in fishes. J. Fish. Biol. 27:185-203.

Fechas de Publicación

  • Publicación en esta colección
    14 Jul 2009
  • Fecha del número
    1996

Histórico

  • Acepto
    17 Oct 1996
  • Recibido
    30 Nov 1995
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