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Bedside echocardiography to predict mortality of COVID-19 patients beyond clinical data: Data from the PROVAR-COVID study

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Cardiac involvement seems to impact prognosis of COVID-19, being more frequent in critically ill patients. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, evaluated by bedside echocardiography (echo), in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

METHODS:

Patients admitted in 2 reference hospitals in Brazil from Jul to Sept/2020 with confirmed COVID-19 and moderate/severe presentations underwent clinical and laboratory evaluation, and focused bedside echo (GE Vivid-IQ), at the earliest convenience, with remote interpretation. The association between demographics, clinical comorbidities and echo variables with all-cause hospital mortality was assessed, and factors significant at p<0.10 were put into multivariable models.

RESULTS:

Total 163 patients were enrolled, 59% were men, mean age 64±16 years, and 107 (66%) were admitted to intensive care. Comorbidities were present in 144 (88%) patients: hypertension 115 (71%), diabetes 61 (37%) and heart failure 22 (14%). In-hospital mortality was 34% (N=56). In univariate analysis, echo variables significantly associated with death were: LV ejection fraction (LVEF, OR=0.94), RV fractional area change (OR=0.96), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE, OR=0.83) and RV dysfunction (OR=5.3). In multivariate analysis, after adjustment for clinical and demographic variables, independent predictors of mortality were age≥63 years (OR=5.53, 95%CI 1.52-20.17), LVEF<64% (OR=7.37, 95%CI 2.10-25.94) and TAPSE<18.5 mm (OR=9.43, 95% CI 2.57-35.03), and the final model had good discrimination, with C-statistic=0.83 (95%CI 0.75-0.91).

CONCLUSION:

Markers of RV and LV dysfunction assessed by bedside echo are independent predictors of mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, after adjustment for clinical variables.

Keywords:
COVID-19; Echocardiography; Prognosis; SARS-Cov-2; Mortality

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