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Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, Volume: 54, Published: 2021
  • Functional capacity and rehabilitation strategies in Covid-19 patients: current knowledge and challenges Review Article

    Frota, Aline Xavier; Vieira, Marcelo Carvalho; Soares, Carla Cristiane Santos; Silva, Paula Simplício da; Silva, Gilberto Marcelo Sperandio da; Mendes, Fernanda de Souza Nogueira Sardinha; Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Veloso, Henrique Horta; Costa, Ananda Dutra da; Lamas, Cristiane da Cruz; Valete-Rosalino, Claudia Maria; Gonçalves, Tatiana Rehder; Costa, Henrique Silveira; Rodrigues Junior, Luiz Fernando; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Covid-19 is a novel infectious disease whose spectrum of presentation ranges from absence of symptoms to widespread interstitial pneumonia associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), leading to significant mortality. Given the systemic pattern of Covid-19, there are many factors that can influence patient's functional capacity after acute infection and the identification of such factors can contribute to the development of specific rehabilitation strategies. Pulmonary impairment is the primary cause of hospitalization due to Covid-19, and can progress to SARS as well as increase length of hospitalization. Moreover, cardiac involvement is observed in approximately 30% of hospitalized patients, with an increased risk of acute myocarditis, myocardial injury, and heart failure, which may compromise functional capacity in the long-term. Thromboembolic complications have also been reported in some patients with Covid-19 and are associated with a poor prognosis. Musculoskeletal complications may result from long periods of hospitalization and immobility, and can include fatigue, muscle weakness and polyneuropathy. Studies that address the functional capacity of patients after Covid-19 infection are still scarce. However, based on knowledge from the multiple systemic complications associated with Covid-19, it is reasonable to suggest that most patients, especially those who underwent prolonged hospitalization, will need a multiprofessional rehabilitation program. Further studies are needed to evaluate the functional impact and the rehabilitation strategies for patients affected by Covid-19.
  • Detection of SARS-CoV-2 through pool testing for COVID-19: an integrative review Review Article

    Costa, Murilo Soares; Guimarães, Nathalia Sernizon; Andrade, André Barbosa de; Vaz-Tostes, Luiza Passini; Oliveira, Rhuan Braga; Simões, Madara da Silva; Gelape, Gabriel de Oliveira; Alves, Claudia Regina Lindgren; Machado, Elaine Leandro; Fonseca, Flávio Guimarães da; Teixeira, Santuza Maria Ribeiro; Sato, Hugo Itaru; Takahashi, Ricardo Hiroshi Caldeira; Tupinambás, Unaí

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: The pool testing technique optimizes the number of tests performed and reduces the delivery time of results, which is an interesting strategy for the health crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. This integrative review investigated studies in which pool testing was carried out for epidemiological or screening purposes to analyze its clinical or cost effectiveness and assessed the applicability of this method in high-, middle-, and low-income countries. METHODS: This integrative review used primary studies published in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), and Cochrane Library databases. RESULTS: A total of 435 studies were identified: 35.3% were carried out in Asia, 29.4% in Europe, 29.4% in North America, and 5.9% in Oceania. CONCLUSIONS: This review suggests that pool testing in the general population may be a useful surveillance strategy to detect new variants of SARS-CoV-2 and to evaluate the period of immunogenicity and global immunity from vaccines.
  • The seven constitutive respiratory defense barriers against SARS-CoV-2 infection Review Article

    Tosta, Eduardo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Before eliciting an adaptive immune response, SARS-CoV-2 must overcome seven constitutive respiratory defense barriers. The first is the mucus covering the respiratory tract’s luminal surface, which entraps inhaled particles, including infectious agents, and eliminates them by mucociliary clearance. The second barrier comprises various components present in the airway lining fluid, the surfactants. Besides providing low surface tension that allows efficient gas exchange at the alveoli, surfactants inhibit the invasion of epithelial cells by respiratory viruses, enhance pathogen uptake by phagocytes, and regulate immune cells’ functions. The respiratory tract microbiota constitutes the third defense barrier against SARS-CoV-2. It activates the innate and adaptive immune cells and elicits anti-infectious molecules such as secretory IgA antibodies, defensins, and interferons. The fourth defense barrier comprises the antimicrobial peptides defensins, and lactoferrin. They show direct antiviral activity, inhibit viral fusion, and modulate the innate and adaptive immune responses. Secretory IgA antibodies, the fifth defense barrier, besides protecting the local microbiota against noxious agents, also inhibit SARS-CoV-2 cell invasion. If the virus overcomes this barrier, it reaches its target, the respiratory epithelial cells. However, these cells also act as a defense barrier, the sixth one, since they hinder the virus’ access to receptors and produce antiviral and immunomodulatory molecules such as interferons, lactoferrin, and defensins. Finally, the sensing of the virus by the cells of innate immunity, the last constitutive defense barrier, elicits a cascade of signals that activate adaptive immune cells and may inhibit the development of productive infection. The subject of the present essay is discussing these mechanisms.
  • Indeterminate form of Chagas disease: historical, conceptual, clinical, and prognostic aspects Mini Review

    Hasslocher-Moreno, Alejandro Marcel; Xavier, Sergio Salles; Saraiva, Roberto Magalhães; Sousa, Andréa Silvestre de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Chagas disease (CD) remains a serious endemic disease in Latin America and a major public health problem. Because of globalization, the disease has spread to non-endemic areas in the northern hemisphere. In the chronic phase of the disease, most patients present with the indeterminate form (IF), characterized by positive serology for Trypanosoma cruzi, absence of clinical findings, and normal findings in electrocardiogram (ECG). IF was not recognized as a clinical entity until decades after the discovery of the disease, and only in the 1940-50s, it was categorized as a form of CD, and its conceptual definition was ratified in the 1980s. Children, adolescents, and young adults with the IF benefit from etiological treatment and tend to have less progression to heart disease in the long term than the untreated ones. IF patients have an essentially benign clinical condition, and their prognosis can be compared to that of healthy individuals with normal ECG findings. Currently, because of aging, patients with the IF have comorbidities that require attention in health services.
  • Larvicidal activity of plants from Myrtaceae against Aedes aegypti L. and Simulium pertinax Kollar (Diptera) Major Article

    Carneiro, Vanessa Cristine de Souza; Lucena, Luana Braz de; Figueiró, Ronaldo; Victório, Cristiane Pimentel

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite their widespread usage, synthetic insecticides and larvicides are harmful for controlling disease-causing mosquitoes owing to the development of resistance. The leaves of Eugenia astringens, Myrrhinium atropurpureum, and Neomitranthes obscura were collected from Marambaia and Grumari restingas. The safety and larvicidal efficacy of their extracts were tested against Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti L. and Simulium (Chirostilbia) pertinax Kollar. METHODS: The dry leaves were subjected to static maceration extraction using 90% methanol. A. aegypti and S. pertinax larvae were exposed to 7.5, 12.5, and 25.0 µL/mL of the extracts (n= 30). The larvicidal activity after 24 h and 48 h, and the mortality, were determined. The median lethal concentration (CL50) was estimated by a Finney's probit model. RESULTS: M. atropurpureum and E. astringens extracts exhibited the strongest larvicidal effects against A. aegypti. M. atropurpureum extracts (25 µL/mL) caused mortalities of over 50% and 100% after 24 h and 48 h, respectively (CL50 = 11.10 and 9.68 ppm, respectively). E. astringens extracts (25 µL/mL) caused mortalities of 50% and 63.33% after 24 h and 48 h, respectively. High concentrations of N. obscura extracts induced a maximum mortality of 46.66% in A. aegypti larvae after 48 h (CL50= 25 ppm). The larvae of S. pertinax showed 100% mortality following exposure to all the plant extracts at all the tested concentrations after 24 h. CONCLUSIONS: The extracts of M. atropurpuerum exhibited the strongest larvicidal activity against A. aegypti. The larvae of S. pertinax were sensitive to all the extracts at all the tested concentrations.
  • Estimating direct costs of the treatment for mucosal leishmaniasis in Brazil Major Article

    Carvalho, Janaína de Pina; Assis, Tália Machado de; Simões, Taynãna César; Cota, Gláucia

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to estimate the direct medical costs of the treatment for mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) using three therapeutic approaches in the Brazilian context. METHODS: We performed this economic assessment from the perspective of the Brazilian public healthcare system. The following therapeutic approaches were evaluated: meglumine antimoniate, liposomal amphotericin B, and miltefosine. Direct medical costs were estimated considering four treatment components: a) drug, b) combined medical products, c) procedures, and d) complementary tests. RESULTS: Treatment with meglumine antimoniate had the lowest average cost per patient (US$ 167.66), followed by miltefosine (US$ 259.92) in the outpatient treatment regimen. The average cost of treatment with liposomal amphotericin B was US$ 715.35 both in inpatient regimen. In all estimates, the drugs accounted for more than 60% of the total cost for each treatment approach. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the marked differences in costs between the therapeutic alternatives for ML. In addition to efficacy rates and costs related to adverse events, our data have the potential to support a complete cost-effectiveness study in the future. Complete analyses comparing costs and benefits for interventions will assist health managers in choosing drugs for ML treatment in Brazil as well as in establishing effective public health policies.
  • Epidemiology of accidents involving venomous animals in the State of Ceará, Brazil (2007-2019) Major Article

    Braga, Jacqueline Ramos Machado; Souza, Marta Maria Caetano de; Melo, Iva Maria Lima de Araújo; Faria, Luis Eduardo Meira; Jorge, Roberta Jeane Bezerra

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Envenomation remains a neglected public health problem in most tropical countries. Epidemiological studies on accidents caused by venomous animals are scarce in the Northeast region of Brazil, mainly in the state of Ceará. The present study aimed to describe the epidemiological features of envenomation cases involving venomous animals in the State of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, from 2007 to 2019. METHODS: The online Notifiable Diseases Information System was consulted for data on all envenomation cases involving venomous terrestrial animals. Data collected were evaluated for the number of accidents/year, number of accidents/zoological group, antivenom therapy, zone of occurrence, sex, age-group distribution, and deaths. RESULTS: A total of 54,980 cases were recorded, with the highest incidence being that of scorpion stings (67.2%), predominantly in women (52.4%; odds ratio=3.6; 95% confidence interval=3.5-3.8), equally affecting people aged 10-19 years and 40-59 years (21.4%), in the urban areas (odds ratio=10.3; 95% confidence interval=9.9-10.8), especially in the rainy months. Snakebites (16.7%) had an incidence of 8.1/100,000 inhabitants, but the highest case-fatality rates were observed in bee stings (1.3%) and spider bites (0.5%). Regarding therapeutic variables, a small percentage of people had access to serotherapy (5.3%). CONCLUSIONS This study highlights the accidents caused by terrestrial venomous animals as a public health problem that must be monitored in Ceará. Thus, our findings suggest that preventive actions against scorpion and bee stings should be intensified during the months of higher incidence to improve public policies for patient care.
  • Early hematological parameters as predictors for outcomes in children with dengue in northern India: A retrospective analysis Major Article

    Nandwani, Sumi; Bhakhri, Bhanu Kiran; Singh, Nupur; Rai, Ruchi; Singh, Dharmender Kumar

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Dengue presents with a variable clinical course, ranging from mild illness to potentially fatal hemorrhage and shock. We aimed to evaluate the capabilities of various hematological parameters observed early in the course of illness for predicting the clinical outcomes of illness. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the records of children admitted in the pediatric inpatient services of the institute with dengue between 2017 and 2019. We determined the relationships between the hematological parameters observed during the first evaluation and the various clinical outcomes. RESULTS: We evaluated data from 613 patients (age range, 26 days to 17 years). Of these, 29.85% exhibited fever with warning signs, and 8.97% had severe dengue. Lower values of hemoglobin, platelet count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and mean platelet volume, and higher values of total leukocyte count (TLC), hematocrit, and red cell distribution width variably correlated with numerous clinical outcomes-duration of hospital stay, development of complications, requirement of blood component transfusion, inotropic support, and mortality. Among the parameters, TLC ≥20,000/mL and initial platelet count ≤20,000/mL significantly associated with mortality, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 11.81 (4.21-33.80) and 5.53 (1.90-16.09), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Hematological parameters observed early during dengue infection may predict its clinical outcomes in infected children. Initial high TLC and low platelet count are potential predictors of fatal outcomes in the course of disease.
  • Modeling transmission dynamics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in São Paulo, Brazil Major Article

    Cruz, Pedro Alexandre da; Crema-Cruz, Leandra Cristina; Campos, Fabrício Souza

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has been transmitted to more than 200 countries, with 92.5 million cases and 1,981,678 deaths. METHODS This study applied a mathematical model to estimate the increase in the number of cases in São Paulo state, Brazil during four epidemic periods and the subsequent 300 days. We used different types of dynamic transmission models to measure the effects of social distancing interventions, based on local contact patterns. Specifically, we used a model that incorporated multiple transmission pathways and an environmental class that represented the pathogen concentration in the environmental reservoir and also considered the time that an individual may sustain a latent infection before becoming actively infectious. Thus, this model allowed us to show how the individual quarantine and active monitoring of contacts can influence the model parameters and change the rate of exposure of susceptible individuals to those who are infected. RESULTS The estimated basic reproductive number, R o , was 3.59 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.48 - 3.72). The mathematical model data prediction coincided with the real data mainly when the social distancing measures were respected. However, a lack of social distancing measures caused a significant increase in the number of infected individuals. Thus, if social distancing measures are not respected, we estimated a difference of at least 100,000 cases over the next 300 days. CONCLUSIONS: Although the predictive capacity of this model was limited by the accuracy of the available data, our results showed that social distancing is currently the best non-pharmacological measure.
  • Role of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes and 16S rRNA methylase (ArmA) in resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates against aminoglycosides Major Article

    Jouybari, Maryam Asadi; Ahanjan, Mohammad; Mirzaei, Bahman; Goli, Hamid Reza

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the role of genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) and 16S rRNA methylase (ArmA) in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates. METHODS: We collected 100 clinical isolates of A. baumannii and identified and confirmed them using microbiological tests and assessment of the OXA-51 gene. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out using disk agar diffusion and micro-broth dilution methods. The presence of AME genes and ArmA was detected by PCR and multiplex PCR. RESULTS: The most and least effective antibiotics in this study were netilmicin and ciprofloxacin with 68% and 100% resistance rates, respectively. According to the minimum inhibitory concentration test, 94% of the isolates were resistant to gentamicin, tobramycin, and streptomycin, while the highest susceptibility (20%) was observed against netilmicin. The proportion of strains harboring the aminoglycoside resistance genes was as follows: APH(3′)-VIa (aphA6) (77%), ANT(2”)-Ia (aadB) (73%), ANT(3”)-Ia (aadA1) (33%), AAC(6′)-Ib (aacA4) (33%), ArmA (22%), and AAC(3)-IIa (aacC2) (19%). Among the 22 gene profiles detected in this study, the most prevalent profiles included APH(3′)-VIa + ANT(2”)-Ia (39 isolates, 100% of which were kanamycin-resistant), and AAC(3)-IIa + AAC(6′)-Ib + ANT(3”)-Ia + APH(3′)-VIa + ANT(2”)-Ia (14 isolates, all of which were resistant to gentamicin, kanamycin, and streptomycin). CONCLUSIONS: High minimum inhibitory concentration of aminoglycosides in isolates with the simultaneous presence of AME- and ArmA-encoding genes indicated the importance of these genes in resistance to aminoglycosides. However, control of their spread could be effective in the treatment of infections caused by A. baumannii.
  • Therapeutic effects of virtual reality video gaming on functional mobility, balance, and gait speed in individuals with tropical spastic paraparesis: A randomized crossover clinical trial Major Article

    Fonseca, Erika Pedreira da; Sá, Katia Nunes; Nunes, Rebeca Freitas Reis; Souza, Camille Rosa de Jesus; Sousa, Mayra Castro de Matos; Pinto, Elen Beatriz

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Individuals with human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) experience sensorimotor alterations, which can affect functional performance. Virtual reality (VR) videogaming is a therapeutic option, though there is scarce evidence for its use in this population. We aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of a VR video game on functional mobility, balance, and gait speed in individuals with HAM/TSP. METHODS: We conducted a blinded, crossover clinical trial comprising 29 individuals with HAM/TSP and randomized them into two groups: (1) early therapy: rehabilitative protocol started immediately after the initial evaluation and (2) late therapy: rehabilitative protocol started 10 weeks later. We assessed all participants for balance using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) scores, functional mobility using the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and gait speed using video camera and CvMob software. Differences were considered significant if p<0.05. RESULTS: The early therapy group individuals presented with higher BBS scores (p=0.415), less TUG times (p=0.290), and greater gait speed (p=0.296) than the late therapy group individuals. CONCLUSIONS: VR videogaming is a useful option for rehabilitative therapy in individuals with HAM/TSP; it positively affects balance, functional mobility, and gait speed.
  • Neurological growth and development of children asymptomatic at birth whose mothers had Zika during pregnancy Major Article

    Maia, Ana Maria Peixoto Cabral; Azevedo, Camila de Sousa Lins; Oliveira, Rhaquel de Moraes Alves Barbosa de; Barreto, Francisca Kalline Almeida; Rodrigues, Adilina Soares Romeiro; Simião, Adriana Rocha; Gomes, Ileana Pitombeira; Ribeiro, Erlane Marques; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Newborn who had Zika vírus but did not show microcephaly at birth may have neuropsychomotor development problems. We aimed to evaluate the developmental and anthropometric milestones of asymptomatic children whose mothers had Zika during pregnancy in Northeastern Brazil in 2015 and 2016. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional case series study of children in Fortaleza born without microcephaly whose mothers had Zika during pregnancy. Home visits were undertaken to evaluate the developmental milestones and gather anthropometric data of the children and to conduct semi-structured interviews with the mothers to identify their socioeconomic and gestational profiles and assess the newborns after birth. RESULTS: In total, 30 cases were identified. Of these, 17 children and their mothers participated in the study. The median age of the mothers at the time of delivery was 26 years. All were symptomatic, and TORCH was negative. At the time of the home visit, all had growth profiles suitable for their age. However, nearly all children (15/17, 88.2%) presented at least one developmental delay, considering their age group. CONCLUSIONS: There were late changes in the neuropsychomotor development of children born to mothers who had Zika during pregnancy, suggesting the need for specialized medical follow-ups.
  • Improving Diagnosis of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Using Hepatitis C Core Antigen Testing in a Resource-Poor Setting Major Article

    Kannan, Ayswarya; Biswas, Lalitha; Kumar, Anil; Kurian, Jessy; S.Nair, Anjaly; Suresh, Parasmal; Sadasivan, Shine; Biswas, Raja

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: We compared the hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen test with the HCV RNA assay to confirm anti-HCV results to determine whether the HCV core antigen test could be used as an alternative confirmatory test to the HCV RNA test. METHODS: Sera from 156 patients were analyzed for anti-HCV and HCV core antigen using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (Architect i2000SR) and for HCV RNA using the artus HCV RG RT-PCR Kit (QIAGEN) in a Rotor-Gene Q instrument. RESULTS: The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the HCV core antigen assay compared to the HCV RNA test were 77.35%, 100%, 100%, and 89.38%, respectively. HCV core antigen levels showed a good correlation with those from HCV RNA quantification (r =0.872). However, 13 samples with a viral load of less than 4000 IU/mL were negative in the HCV core antigen assay. All gray-zone reactive samples were also RNA positive and were positive on repeat testing. CONCLUSIONS: The Architect HCV core antigen assay is highly specific and has an excellent positive predictive value. At the present level of sensitivity (77%), the study is still relevant in a low-income setting in which most of the HCV-positive patients would go undiagnosed, since HCV RNA testing is not available and/or not affordable. HCV core antigen testing can also help determine the true burden of infection in a population, considering the fact that almost 50% of the anti-HCV positive cases are negative for HCV RNA.
  • Electrocardiographic effect of artemisinin-piperaquine, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, and artemether-lumefantrine treatment in falciparum malaria patients Major Article

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), such as artemisinin-piperaquine (AP), dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), and artemether-lumefantrine (AL), is the first-line treatment for malaria in many malaria-endemic areas. However, we lack a detailed evaluation of the cardiotoxicity of these ACTs. This study aimed to analyze the electrocardiographic effects of these three ACTs in malaria patients. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical data of 89 hospitalized patients with falciparum malaria who had received oral doses of three different ACTs. According to the ACTs administered, these patients were divided into three treatment groups: 27 treated with AP (Artequick), 31 with DP (Artekin), and 31 with AL (Coartem). Electrocardiograms and other indicators were recorded before and after the treatment. The QT interval was calculated using Fridericia’s formula (QTcF) and Bazett’s formula (QTcB). RESULTS: Both QTcF and QTcB interval prolongation occurred in all three groups. The incidence of such prolongation between the three groups was not significantly different. The incidence of both moderate and severe prolongation was not significantly different between the three groups. The ΔQTcF and ΔQTcB of the three groups were not significantly different. The intra-group comparison showed significant prolongation of QTcF after AL treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically recommended doses of DP, AL, and AP may cause QT prolongation in some malaria patients but do not cause torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia or other arrhythmias.
  • Demographic and spatial study of visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Alagoas, Brazil, during 2007-2018 Major Article

    Braz, Beatriz Maria de Almeida; Silva, Raizza Barros Sousa; Lins, Suzanna Cavalcante; Silva, Diego Ricardo Xavier; Ramalho, Walter Massa; Melo, Marcia Almeida de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis has a broad worldwide distribution and constitutes a public health problem in the Northeast of Brazil. Located in this region is the state of Alagoas, where the disease is endemic in humans and where there has been a significant increase in the number of positive dogs. The objective of this study was to describe the temporal and spatial distribution of the cases of human VL in the state of Alagoas with the aim of identifying transmission risk areas in the period from 2007 to 2018. METHODS: The data available in the National Disease Notification System (SINAN-NET) were used. The Bayesian incidence rate and the Moran’s global index were calculated using the Terra View 4.2.2 program, and the maps were created using QGIS2.18.0. RESULTS: From the 102 municipalities, 68.6% (n= 70) had at least one notified case of VL in the years of study. A total of 489 cases were registered, with an average of 40.7 cases per year and an incidence rate of 1.25/100,000 inhabitants. The highest number of confirmed cases (105) occurred in 2018. Male individuals and children between 1-4 years old were the most affected, and 64% of the cases were in rural areas. Spatial dependence was detected in all the intervals except for the first triennium, and clusters were formed in the west of the state. CONCLUSIONS: Alagoas presented an accentuated geographical expansion of VL, and it is necessary to prioritize areas and increase surveillance actions and epidemiological control.
  • Cost-effectiveness of Xpert®MTB/RIF in the diagnosis of tuberculosis: pragmatic study Major Article

    Silva, Suely Conceição Alves da; Vater, Maria Claudia; Ramalho, Daniela Maria de Paula; Almeida, Isabela Neves de; Miranda, Silvana Spíndola de; Kritski, Afrânio

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: The intensification of research and innovation with the creation of networks of rapid and effective molecular tests as strategies for the end of tuberculosis are essential to avoid late diagnosis and for the eradication of the disease. We aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Xpert®MTB/RIF (Xpert) in the diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis in reference units, in scenarios with and without subsidies, and the respective cost adjustment for today. METHODS: The analyses were performed considering as criterion of effectiveness, negative culture or clinical improvement in the sixth month of follow-up. The comparison was performed using two diagnostic strategies for the drug susceptibility test (DST), BactecTMMGITTM960 System, versus Xpert. The cost effectiveness and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were calculated and dollar-corrected for American inflation (US$ 1.00 = R$ 5,29). RESULTS: Subsidized Xpert had the lowest cost of US$ 33.48 (R$67,52) and the highest incremental average efficiency (13.57), thus being a dominated analysis. After the inflation was calculated, the mean cost was DST-MGIT=US$ 74.85 (R$ 396,73) and Xpert = US$ 37.33 (R$197,86) with subsidies. CONCLUSIONS: The Xpert in the diagnosis of TB-DR in these reference units was cost-effective with subsidies. In the absence of a subsidy, Xpert in TB-DR is not characterized as cost effective. This factor reveals the vulnerability of countries dependent on international organizations’ subsidy policies.
  • Chagas disease-related mortality in Colombia from 1979 to 2018: temporal and spatial trends. Major Article

    Olivera, Mario Javier; Porras-Villamil, Julián Felipe; Villar, Juan Carlos; Herrera, Eliana Váquiro; Buitrago, Giancarlo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTIOn: Studies on Chagas disease-related mortality assist in decision-making in health policies. We analyzed the epidemiological characteristics, temporal trends, and regional differences in Chagas disease-related mortality in Colombia from 1979 to 2018. METHODS: A time-series study was conducted using death records and population data from the National Administrative Department of Statistics, using categorizations from the International Classification of Disease (ICD)-9 and ICD-10 systems. All deaths with Chagas disease as an underlying or associated cause of death were included. Crude and age-sex standardized mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants and the annual percent change (APC) were calculated. RESULTS: Of the 7,287,461 deaths recorded in Colombia during 1979-2018, 3,276 (0.04%) deaths were related to Chagas disease-2,827 (86.3%) as an underlying cause and 449 (13.7%) as an associated cause. The average annual age-sex standardized mortality rate was 0.211 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.170-0.252) deaths/100,000 inhabitants, with a significant upward trend (APC = 6.60%; 95% CI: 5.9-7.3). The highest Chagas disease-related death rates were in males (0.284 deaths/100,000 inhabitants), those ≥65 years old (1.296 deaths/100,000 inhabitants), and residents of the Orinoco region (1.809 deaths/100,000 inhabitants). There was a significant increase in mortality in the Orinoco (APC = 8.28%; 95% CI: 6.4-10.2), Caribbean (APC = 5.06%; 95% CI: 3.6-6.5), and Andean (APC = 4.63%; 95% CI: 3.9-5.3) regions. CONCLUSIONS: Chagas disease remains a major public health issue in Colombia with high mortality rates in older age groups, a wide geographic distribution, regional differences, and the potential to increase.
  • Comparison of functioning and health-related quality of life among patients with HTLV-1, HIV, and HIV-HTLV-1-coinfection Major Article

    Marconi, Cleyde Sheyla Chachaqui; Lins-Kusterer, Liliane; Brites, Carlos; Gomes-Neto, Mansueto

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) viruses are associated with a high global burden of disease, and coinfection is a frequently reported event. We aimed to compare the functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients infected with HTLV-1, HIV, and HIV-HTLV-1. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients older than 18 years who had an HTLV-1 infection (Group A), HIV infection (Group B), or HIV-HTLV-1 coinfection (Group C). The functioning profiles were evaluated using handgrip strength, Berg balance scale (BBS), timed “up and go” (TUG) test, and 5-m walk test (m/s). We used the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) questionnaire to measure disability. The HRQoL was evaluated using a 36-item short-form health survey. For data with parametric and non-parametric distribution, we used analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction and the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Dunn’s pairwise tests with Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: We enrolled 68 patients in Group A, 39 in Group B, and 29 in Group C. The scores for handgrip strength, BBS, TUG test, all the WHODAS domains, and HRQoL were poorer for Groups A and C than for Group B. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to patients with HIV infection, those with HIV-HTLV-1 coinfection and HTLV-1 infection had poor functioning and HRQoL scores. HTLV-1 infection was associated with reduced functioning and HRQoL in patients with a single HTLV-1 infection and HIV-HTLV-1 coinfection.
  • Trypanosoma cruzi vectors and reservoirs in Southern Sergipe Major Article

    Euzébio, Diana Matos; Santos, Fábia Regina dos; Cruz, Daniel Matos Euzébio de Queiroz da; Varjão, Ana Elisabeth Leal; Costa, Isabela Soares; Manhães, Guilherme Lopes Vasconcelos; Nascimento, Eduardo Melo; Correia, Dalmo; Silva, Angela Maria da

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease is a health problem that affects approximately 7 million people worldwide, according to the World Health Organization. Vector transmission is one of the most important routes in South and Central American countries. Between 2013 and 2019, municipalities of Sergipe sent 507 triatomines for analysis, unveiling the largest records found in the south in the villages of Poço da Clara, Alagoinhas and Pilões, and the municipality of Tobias Barreto. The high prevalence of infected vectors in these localities motivated this epidemiological study. METHODS: After educational lectures on the vectors and risks of the disease, a structured questionnaire was administered to identify areas and risk factors for transmission of the parasite. The data guided the collection of vectors and blood samples from domestic reservoirs. RESULTS: The studied region is considered endemic for triatomines infected by Trypanosoma cruzi with three species of vectors; the highest prevalence was Panstrongylus lutzi (54.83%), followed by Triatoma pseudomaculata (43.54%), and Triatoma tibiamaculata (1.61%). In the villages in this study, 100% of the vectors were found intradomically. The coexistence of residents with domestic animals was reported by 62.04% (255) of those surveyed. Forty-one small animals that were actively living with humans at home in the localities were evaluated serologically. No infection was observed in the domestic animals. CONCLUSIONS: There are favorable conditions for the domiciliation of triatomines in the evaluated locations, contributing to the risk of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease.
  • Epidemiological profile and lethality of visceral leishmaniasis/human immunodeficiency virus co-infection in an endemic area in Northeast Brazil Major Article

    Machado, Carolina Angélica Libório; Sevá, Anaiá da Paixão; Silva, Arianna Araujo Falcão Andrade e; Horta, Mauricio Claudio

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: The association of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a concern worldwide, and this co-infection is linked to increased lethality. The Northeast is the region that mostly reports cases of VL in Brazil. The knowledge of risk factors associated with VL/HIV co-infection and its impact on lethality is extremely important. METHODS: The present study analyzed the epidemiologic features of cases with VL/HIV co-infection in the state of Pernambuco, Northeast of Brazil, from 2014 to 2018. RESULTS: There were 858 and 11,514 reported cases of VL and HIV infection, respectively. The average incidences of VL and HIV infection were 1.82 and 24.4/100,000 inhabitants, respectively. Of all reported cases of VL, 4.9% (42/858) also had HIV infection. There was an inverse spatial association between VL and HIV infection incidences. The lethality rates of VL, HIV infection, and co-infection were 9.9%, 26.1%, and 16.6%, respectively. Most of the patients were males and lived in urban areas. The cases of VL mostly occurred in children aged below 10 years, whereas the cases of HIV infection and VL/HIV co-infection were primarily observed in adults between 20 years and 39 years old. CONCLUSIONS: We defined the profile and areas with most cases of co-infection and found that the lethality of VL with co-infection increased in the current period. These findings contribute to applying efforts with a greater focus in these identified populations to prevent future deaths.
  • Pathological findings and morphologic correlation of the lungs of autopsied patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Brazilian Amazon using transmission electron microscopy Major Article

    Santana, Monique Freire; Pinto, Rebecca Augusta de Araújo; Marcon, Bruna Hilzendeger; Medeiros, Lia Carolina Almeida Soares de; Morais, Thiago Barros do Nascimento de; Dias, Lucas Castanhola; Souza, Lorenna Pereira de; Melo, Gisely Cardoso de; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Lacerda, Marcus Vinicius Guimarães; Val, Fernando Almeida; Lalwani, Pritesh Jaychand; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Electron microscopy (EM) is a rapid and effective tool that can be used to create images of a whole spectrum of virus-host interactions and, as such, has long been used in the discovery and description of viral mechanisms. METHODS: Electron microscopy was used to evaluate the pulmonary pathologies of postmortem lung sections from three patients who died from infection with SARS-associated coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a new member of the Coronaviridae family. RESULTS: Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) was predominant in all three patients. The early exudative stage was characterized principally by edema and extravasation of red blood cells into the alveolar space with injury to the alveolar epithelial cells; this was followed by detachment, apoptosis, and necrosis of type I and II pneumocytes. The capillaries exhibited congestion, exposure of the basement membrane from denuded endothelial cells, platelet adhesion, fibrin thrombi, and rupture of the capillary walls. The proliferative stage was characterized by pronounced proliferation of type II alveolar pneumocytes and multinucleated giant cells. The cytopathic effect of SARS-CoV-2 was observed both in degenerated type II pneumocytes and freely circulating in the alveoli, with components from virions, macrophages, lymphocytes, and cellular debris. CONCLUSIONS: Viral particles consistent with the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 were observed mainly in degenerated pneumocytes, in the endothelium, or freely circulating in the alveoli. In the final stage of illness, the alveolar spaces were replaced by fibrosis.
  • Geographic Information System-based association between the sewage network, geographical location of intermediate hosts, and autochthonous cases for the estimation of risk areas of schistosomiasis infection in Ourinhos, São Paulo, Brazil Major Article

    Palasio, Raquel Gardini Sanches; Bortoleto, Aline Nazaré; Tuan, Roseli; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Ourinhos is a municipality located between the Pardo and Paranapanema rivers, and it has been characterized by the endemic transmission of schistosomiasis since 1952. We used geospatial analysis to identify areas prone to human schistosomiasis infections in Ourinhos. We studied the association between the sewage network, co-occurrence of Biomphalaria snails (identified as intermediate hosts [IHs] of Schistosoma mansoni), and autochthonous cases. METHODS: Gi spatial statistics, Ripley’s K12-function, and kernel density estimation were used to evaluate the association between schistosomiasis data reported during 2007-2016 and the occurrence of IHs during 2015-2017. These data were superimposed on the municipality sewage network data. RESULTS: We used 20 points with reported IH; they were colonized predominantly by Biomphalaria glabrata, followed by B. tenagophila and B. straminea. Based on Gi statistics, a significant cluster of autochthonous cases was superimposed on the Christoni and Água da Veada water bodies, with distances of approximately 300 m and 2200 m from the points where B. glabrata and B. straminea were present, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The residence geographical location of autochthonous cases allied with the spatial analysis of IHs and the coverage of the sewage network provide important information for the detection of human-infection areas. Our results demonstrated that the tools used for direct surveillance, control, and elimination of schistosomiasis are appropriate.
  • Risk factors for critical illness and death among adult Brazilians with COVID-19 Major Article

    Silva, Isabela; Faria, Natália Cristina de; Ferreira, Álida Rosária Silva; Anastácio, Lucilene Rezende; Ferreira, Lívia Garcia

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has infected more than 9,834,513 Brazilians up to February 2021. Knowledge of risk factors of coronavirus disease among Brazilians remains scarce, especially in the adult population. This study verified the risk factors for intensive care unit admission and mortality for coronavirus disease among 20-59-year-old Brazilians. METHODS: A Brazilian database on respiratory illness was analyzed on October 9, 2020, to gather data on age, sex, ethnicity, education, housing area, and comorbidities (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors for coronavirus disease. RESULTS: Overall, 1,048,575 persons were tested for coronavirus disease; among them, 43,662 were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 34,704 patients died. Male sex (odds ratio=1.235 and 1.193), obesity (odds ratio=1.941 and 1.889), living in rural areas (odds ratio=0.855 and 1.337), and peri-urban areas (odds ratio=1.253 and 1.577) were predictors of intensive care unit admission and mortality, respectively. Cardiovascular disease (odds ratio=1.552) was a risk factor for intensive care unit admission. Indigenous people had reduced chances (odds ratio=0.724) for intensive care unit admission, and black, mixed, East Asian, and indigenous ethnicity (odds ratio=1.756, 1.564, 1.679, and 1.613, respectively) were risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for intensive care unit admission and mortality among adult Brazilians were higher in men, obese individuals, and non-urban areas. Obesity was the strongest risk factor for intensive care unit admission and mortality.
  • Injuries in humans caused by mantis shrimp or siriboia (Crustacea: Stomatopoda) Major Article

    Amaral, Antonio Lucas Sforcin; Castilho, Antonio Leão; Haddad Junior, Vidal

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Mantis shrimps or siriboias are crustaceans belonging to the order Stomatopoda. They are known for their strong claws, which they use for defense and capturing their prey. They are classified into two groups: the spearers, which pierce the prey with sharp projections, and the smashers, which strike their prey with high-powered punches. These animals are highly feared by fishermen, and there are frequent anecdotal reports of human injuries caused by these crustaceans. METHODS: A questionnaire about injuries in humans caused by these stomatopods was administered to 23 fishermen of Colony Z10 in Ubatuba, São Paulo state, Brazil, and a survey of the literature on injuries in humans caused by these animals was carried out. RESULTS: The fishermen consider the mantis shrimp dangerous and avoid direct contact with them on account of the associated risk. We describe five reports of human injuries caused by these animals: four by the claws and one by the tail spikes. CONCLUSIONS: We describe the first aid treatment, prevention, and recommendations for such cases and propose the distribution of educational leaflets among the fishermen colonies.
  • Use of Cerebrospinal Fluid for the Diagnosis of Neuroinvasive Dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya: A 19-year systematic review Major Article

    Mello, Cíntia da Silva; Cabral-Castro, Mauro Jorge; Faria, Luiz Claudio Silva de; Peralta, José Mauro; Puccioni-Sohler, Marzia

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cerebrospinal fluid analysis contributes to the diagnosis and neuropathogenesis of neuroinvasive arboviruses. Neurological complications caused by dengue, Zika, and chikungunya infections have high clinical relevance because of their high potential to cause death or neurological deficits. We aimed to evaluate the use of cerebrospinal fluid assays for diagnostic support in neurological disorders associated with dengue, chikungunya, and Zika infections. METHODS: A systematic review was carried out by searching the electronic databases LILACS, PubMed, Scopus, and Embase for articles written in English, Portuguese, or Spanish in the last 19 years. Published studies were reviewed using the terms “dengue,” “Zika”, “chikungunya”, alone or in combination with “cerebrospinal fluid” in the period from 2000 to 2019. RESULTS: A total of 98,060 studies were identified; of these, 1.1% (1,041 studies, 58,478 cases) used cerebrospinal fluid assays for neurological investigations. The most frequent neurological disorders included encephalitis (41.4%), congenital syndromes (17%), and microcephaly associated with Zika virus infections (8.9%). Neuroinvasive disorders were confirmed in 8.03% of 58,478 cases by specific cerebrospinal fluid analyses. The main methods used were IgM-specific antibodies (66%) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (10%). The largest number of scientific papers (29%) originated from Brazil, followed by India (18.4%) and the United States (14.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Although cerebrospinal fluid analysis is of great importance for increasing neurological diagnostic accuracy and contributes to the early diagnosis of neuroinvasive dengue, chikungunya, and Zika infections, it is underused in routine laboratory investigations worldwide.
  • Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Brazil: a systematic review Major Article

    Celestino, Ariel Oliveira; Vieira, Sarah Cristina Fontes; Lima, Pablo Amercio Silva; Rodrigues, Larissa Maria Cardoso Lima; Lopes, Isabel Ribeiro Santana; França, Camila Mendonça; Barreto, Ikaro Daniel de Carvalho; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Parasitic infections are considered a major public health problem due to their associated morbimortality and negative impact on physical and intellectual development, especially in the at-risk pediatric group. Periodic prophylactic administration of antiparasitic agents against soil-transmitted helminths is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to control parasitic infections and disease burden. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Brazil. METHODS: We performed a systematic review by searching the literature found in the PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases, followed by a meta-analysis of the proportions from studies published in English, Portuguese, and/or Spanish from January 2000 to May 2018. This systematic review was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42018096214). RESULTS: The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections (protozoa and/or helminths) in Brazil was 46% (confidence interval: 39-54%), with 99% heterogeneity. Prevalence varied by region: 37%, 51%, 50%, 58%, and 41% in the Southeast, South, Northeast, North, and Central-West regions, respectively. Most studies (32/40) evaluated children (<18 years) and found an average prevalence of 51%. Children also had the highest prevalence in all four regions: Central-West (65%), South (65%), North (58%), Northeast (53%), and Southeast (37%). However, most studies evaluated specific populations, which may have created selection bias. Presumably, this review of intestinal parasitic diseases in Brazil includes the most studies and the largest population ever considered. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections is high in Brazil, and anthelmintic drugs should be administered periodically as a prophylactic measure, as recommended by the WHO.
  • Temporal changes in the clinical-epidemiological profile of patients with Chagas disease at a referral center in Brazil Major Article

    Hasslocher-Moreno, Alejandro Marcel; Saraiva, Roberto Magalhaes; Brasil, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano do; Sangenis, Luiz Henrique Conde; Xavier, Sergio Salles; Sousa, Andréa Silvestre de; Sperandio-da-Silva, Gilberto Marcelo; Mendes, Fernanda de Souza Nogueira Sardinha; Costa, Andréa Rodrigues da; Holanda, Marcelo Teixeira de; Veloso, Henrique Horta; Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Carneiro, Fernanda Martins; Portela, Luciana Fernandes; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION We aimed to describe the sociodemographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of patients with chronic Chagas disease (CD) at an infectious disease referral center. Changes in patient profiles over time were also evaluated. METHODS This retrospective study included patients with CD from November 1986-December 2019. All patients underwent an evaluation protocol that included sociodemographic profile; epidemiological history; anamnesis; and physical, cardiologic, and digestive examinations. Trend differences for each 5-year period from 1986 to 2019 were tested using a nonparametric trend test for continuous and generalized linear models with binomial distribution for categorical variables. RESULTS A total of 2,168 patients (52.2% women) were included, with a mean age of 47.8 years old. White patients with low levels of education predominated. The reported transmission mode was vectorial in 90.2% of cases. The majority came from areas with a high prevalence (52.2%) and morbidity (67.8%) of CD. The most common clinical presentation was the indeterminate form (44.9%). The number of patients referred gradually decreased and the age at admission increased during the study period, as did the patients’ levels of education. CONCLUSIONS The clinical profile of CD is characterized by a predominance of the indeterminate form of the disease. Regarding the patients who were followed up at the referral center, there was a progressive increase in the mean age and a concomitant decrease in the number of new patients. This reflects the successful control of vector and transfusion transmission in Brazil as well as the aging population of patients with CD.
  • Antibiotic use in Brazilian hospitals in the 21st century: a systematic review Major Article

    Pereira, Lucas Borges; Zanetti, Maria Olívia Barboza; Sponchiado, Larissa Pombeiro; Rodrigues, João Paulo Vilela; Campos, Marília Silveira de Almeida; Varallo, Fabiana Rossi; Pereira, Leonardo Régis Leira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION This systematic review aimed to assess antibiotic use in Brazilian hospitals in the 21st century, as well as to understand the different drug utilization metrics adopted to assess the consumption of these drugs. METHODS We systematically reviewed five databases (MEDLINE [Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online], CENTRAL [The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials], EMBASE® [Excerpta Medica Database], Scopus [Elsevier’s abstract and citation database], and LILACS [Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde]) for observational or experimental studies that assessed antibiotic utilization in Brazilian hospitals. The main outcomes were the drug utilization metrics and the consumption of antibiotics. RESULTS We included 23 studies, of which 43.5% were carried out in adult and pediatric care units, 39.1% in adult units, and 17.4% in pediatric units. Regarding the complexity of healthcare, 26.1% of the studies were performed in intensive care units. Two drug utilization metrics were used in these studies: the defined daily dose (DDD) and the percentage of antibiotic prescriptions. The most commonly used antibiotic classes were third-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, and combinations of penicillins when the DDD was the adopted drug utilization metric. CONCLUSIONS Although few studies have been conducted, existing data indicate a high use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. We found that the lack of standardized antibiotic utilization metrics impaired the mapping of drug consumption at the national level.
  • Factors associated with social isolation and loneliness in community-dwelling older adults during pandemic times: a cross-sectional study Major Article

    Pegorari, Maycon Sousa; Silva, Caroline de Fátima Ribeiro; Araújo, Fabrícia Coelho de; Silva, Juliana de Souza da; Ohara, Daniela Gonçalves; Matos, Alessandro Pena; Matos, Areolino Pena; Pinto, Ana Carolina Pereira Nunes

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Psychosocial aspects need to be discussed in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. Currently, no studies have investigated the factors associated with social isolation and loneliness among community-dwelling older adults. Therefore, this study analyzed the association of social isolation and loneliness with socioeconomic, clinical, and health characteristics, and Covid-19-related variables, among community-dwelling older adults during the pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted via a telephone survey of community-dwelling older adults aged ≥60 years in Macapa, Amapa, Brazil. A structured form was used to collect data. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed using Pearson's correlation test and a linear regression model. RESULTS: Participants comprised 86 community-dwelling older adults with a mean age of 71.78+6.98 years. Among them, 9.3% were diagnosed with Covid-19, of whom 3.5% were hospitalized. Most participants reported no difficulty obtaining food, medicines, or attending routine medical appointments during the pandemic. Furthermore, 23.3% (n=20) were socially isolated, and 20.9% (n=18) reported feelings of loneliness. The mean values for fear, anxiety, and obsession were 19.01±7.25, 1.01±1.90, and 2.84±3.28, respectively. A moderate positive correlation was identified between loneliness and the number of diseases, and a weak positive correlation between loneliness and the number of medications and depressive symptoms and risk for sarcopenia. The linear regression model indicated that higher loneliness scores were associated with a greater number of diseases (β=0.288; p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest a probable resilience of the older population to Covid-19, despite the association of loneliness with many diseases in times of a pandemic.
  • Prevalence of virological and serological markers of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the population of Ribeirão Preto, Southeast Brazil: an epidemiological survey Major Article

    Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Passos, Afonso Dinis Costa; Fabbro, Amaury Lelis Dal; Silva, Anderson Soares da; Escarso, Andreia Cássia; Pazin-Filho, Antônio; Fonseca, Benedito Antônio Lopes da; Maciel, Benedito Carlos; Araújo, Daniel Cardoso de Almeida e; Clé, Diego Villa; Gaspar, Gilberto Gambero; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira dos; Ferreira, Janise Braga Barros; Souza, João Paulo; Mello, Luane Marques de; Santos, Luciane Loures dos; Passos, Luzia Márcia Romanholi; Siconelli, Márcio Junio Lima; Cavalli, Ricardo de Carvalho; Santana, Rodrigo de Carvalho; Calado, Rodrigo do Tocantins; Scarpelini, Sandro; Bollela, Valdes Roberto; Floriano, Vitor Gonçalves; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Fernando

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: This epidemiological household survey aimed to estimate the prevalence of the current and past SARS-CoV-2 infections in Ribeirão Preto, a municipality of southeast Brazil. METHODS: The survey was conducted in two phases using a clustered sampling scheme. The first phase spanned May 1-3 and involved 709 participants. The second phase spanned June 11-14, 2020, and involved 646 participants. RESULTS: During the first phase, RT-PCR performed on nasopharyngeal swabs was positive at 0.14%. The serological tests were positive in 1.27% of the patients during the first phase and 2.79% during the second phase. People living in households with more than five members had a prevalence of 10.83% (95%CI: 1.58-74.27) higher than those living alone or with someone other. Considering the proportion of the positive serological test results with sex and age adjustments, approximately 2.37% (95%CI: 1.32-3.42) of the population had been cumulatively infected by mid-June 2020, which is equivalent to 16,670 people (95%CI: 9,267-24,074). Considering that 68 deaths from the disease in the residents of the city had been confirmed as at the date of the second phase of the survey, the infection fatality rate was estimated to be 0.41% (95%CI: 0.28-0.73). Our results suggest that approximately 88% of the cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection at the time of the survey were not reported to the local epidemiological surveillance service. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study provide in-depth knowledge of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil and are helpful for the preventive and decision-making policies of public managers.
  • Distribution of HLA-DRB1 alleles in BRICS countries with a high tuberculosis burden: a systematic review and meta-analysis Major Article

    Sarno, Alice; Daltro, Cleidiane Borges; Mendes, Carlos Mauricio Cardeal; Barbosa, Theolis

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death worldwide caused by a single infectious disease agent. Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) account for more than half of the world’s TB cases. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) remains the only vaccine available despite its variable efficacy. Promising antigen-based vaccines have been proposed as prophylactic and/or immunotherapeutic approaches to boost BCG vaccination. Relevant antigens must interact with the range of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules present in target populations; yet this information is currently not available. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were systematically searched for articles published during 2013-2020 to measure the allelic frequencies of HLA-DRB1 in the BRICS. RESULTS: In total, 67 articles involving 3,207,861 healthy individuals were included in the meta-analysis. HLA-DRB1 alleles *03, *04, *07, *11, *13, and *15 were consistently identified at high frequencies across the BRICS, with a combined estimated frequency varying from 52% to 80%. HLA-DRB1 alleles *01, *08, *09, *10, *12, and *14 were found to be relevant in only one or two BRICS populations. CONCLUSIONS: By combining these alleles, it is possible to ensure at least 80% coverage throughout the BRICS populations.
  • Assessment of factors associated with potential drug-drug interactions in patients with tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS Major Article

    Resende, Natália Helena de; Miranda, Silvana Spíndola de; Ceccato, Maria das Graças Braga; Reis, Adriano Max Moreira; Haddad, João Paulo Amaral; Silva, Dirce Inês da; Carvalho, Wânia da Silva

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: The concomitant use of antituberculosis and antiretroviral drugs, as well as drugs to treat other diseases, can cause drug-drug interactions. This study aimed to describe potential drug-drug interactions (pDDI) in patients with TB and HIV/AIDS co-infection, as well as to analyze possible associated factors. METHODS: This study was performed in a reference hospital for infectious and contagious diseases in the southeastern region of Brazil and evaluated adult patients co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which sociodemographic, clinical, and pharmacotherapeutic characteristics were assessed. The pDDI were identified using the Drug-Reax software. Association analysis was performed using either a chi-squared test or a Fisher’s exact test. Correlation analysis was performed using the Spearman’s coefficient. RESULTS: The study included 81 patients, of whom 77 (95.1%) were exposed to pDDI. The most frequent interactions were between antituberculosis and antiretroviral drugs, which can cause therapeutic ineffectiveness and major adverse reactions. A positive correlation was established between the number of associated diseases, the number of drugs used, and the number of pDDI. An association was identified between contraindicated and moderate pDDI with excessive polypharmacy and hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high frequency of pDDI, especially among those hospitalized and those with excessive polypharmacy. These findings highlight the importance of pharmacists in the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring in these patients.
  • Clinical aspects of human rabies in the state of Ceará, Brazil: an overview of 63 cases Major Article

    Duarte, Naylê Francelino Holanda; Pires Neto, Roberto da Justa; Viana, Victoria Forte; Feijão, Levi Ximenes; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION Rabies is considered one of the most relevant public health problems owing to its high fatality rate and the high number of deaths worldwide. METHODS We included patients with human rabies who attended a reference hospital in the state of Ceará during 1976-2019. RESULTS Data were available for 63 out of 171 (36.8%) patients. Of these patients, 48 (76.2%) were attacked by dogs. In recent years, wild animals have been the most common aggressor species (marmosets and bats). Only 39 (70%) patients were initially correctly suspected with rabies. Bites were the most frequent exposure (56; 96%), most commonly on the hands (21; 42%) and the head (9; 18.4%). Only 14 (22%) patients had sought medical assistance before the onset of symptoms, and only one completed post-exposure prophylaxis. The most prevalent signs and symptoms included aggressiveness/irritability (50; 79.4%), fever (42; 66.7%), sore throat/dysphagia (40; 63.5%), and myalgia (28; 44.4%). Hydrophobia was present in 17 patients (22.0%). CONCLUSIONS Most cases of human rabies in Ceará occurred due to the failure to seek medical assistance and/or the failure of the health system in initiating early post-exposure prophylaxis. There is a need for specific information and education campaigns focusing on the cycle of sylvatic rabies as well as prevention measures. Health professionals should undergo refresher training courses on the signs and symptoms of rabies and on the specific epidemiological features of the disease in Brazil.
  • Molecular characterization of Blastocystis subtypes isolated in the city of Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil Major Article

    Cabrine-Santos, Marlene; Moura, Renata Gregório Franco; Pedrosa, André Luiz; Correia, Dalmo; Oliveira-Silva, Márcia Benedita de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION Blastocystis is an intestinal protozoan that may play a role in the pathogenicity of humans. This study aimed to (i) genetically characterize Blastocystis isolates obtained from human fecal samples and the water supply of the city of Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and (ii) to verify the phylogenetic relationship between these isolates. METHODS Blastocystis species present in 26 fecal samples obtained from humans and animals from Uberaba were genetically characterized by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and polymerase chain reaction-sequence-tagged sites. All amplicons were partially sequenced and/or defined according to the GenBank classification. RESULTS Polymerase chain reaction amplicons were generated from 21 human isolates and 18 water samples. The subtypes defined were ST1 (53.3%), ST3 (40.0%), and ST2 (6.7%) for human isolates; ST10 (100%) for bovine isolates; and ST5 (50.0%), ST1 (25%), and ST3 (25%) for pigs. Sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products showed a 98%-99% identity for the Blastocystis sequences deposited in GenBank, except for sequences from water samples that showed the identity of algae sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of Blastocystis sequences showed two distinct groups, one of which was principally formed by ST1, ST5, and ST10, and the other by isolates characterized as ST3 and ST7. Both clades showed human and animal sequences, reinforcing the notion that Blastocystis subtypes are not host-specific. CONCLUSIONS The data showed that Blastocystis subtypes circulating in Uberaba are ST1-ST3, ST5, and ST10, present in both humans and animals, demonstrating that the Blastocystis subtypes are not host-specific; that is, zoonotic transmission is possible.
  • Cryptococcosis by Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii Species Complexes in non-HIV-Infected Patients in Southeastern Brazil Major Article

    Nascimento, Erika; Barião, Patrícia Helena Grizante; Kress, Marcia Regina von Zeska; Vilar, Fernando Crivelenti; Santana, Rodrigo de Carvalho; Gaspar, Gilberto Gambero; Martinez, Roberto

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: The clinical manifestations of cryptococcosis are usually associated with the infecting agents Cryptococcus neoformans (CN) and C. gattii (CG) species complexes and the host. In this study, non-HIV-infected patients, at a university hospital in southeastern Brazil, had epidemiological and clinical data associated with cryptococcal disease and isolated Cryptococcus species: CN - 24 patients and CG - 12 patients. METHODS: The comparison was comprised of demographic data, predisposing factors, clinical and laboratory manifestations, and outcomes of cryptococcosis patients treated between 2000 and 2016. Immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients were also compared, irrespective of the infecting species. Cryptococcus spp. were genotyped by PCR-RFLP analysis of the URA5 gene. RESULTS: Infections by the CN species complex (100% VNI genotype) were associated with drug immunosuppression and fungemia, and patients infected with the CG species complex (83% VG II and 17% VGI genotypes) had more evident environmental exposure and higher humoral response. CN and CG affected patients with or without comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes mellitus, other chronic non-infectious diseases, and alcoholism were likely predisposing factors for infection by both CN and CG species. Immunocompetent patients, independent of the infecting Cryptococcus species complexes, showed a higher occurrence of meningitis and a trend toward less fungal dissemination and longer survival than immunosuppressed hosts.
  • Investigation of canine visceral leishmaniasis in a non-endemic area in Brazil and the comparison of serological and molecular diagnostic tests Major Article

    Sevá, Anaiá da Paixão; Brandão, Ana Pérola Drulla; Godoy, Silvia Neri; Soares, Rodrigo Martins; Langoni, Helio; Rodrigues, Bruna Cristine; Gava, Mariana Zanchetta e; Zanotto, Paula Ferraz de Camargo; Jimenez-Villegas, Tatiana; Hiramoto, Roberto; Ferreira, Fernando

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important zoonosis in Brazil. Previous identification of parasitized dogs can also help prevent the disease in humans, even in non-endemic areas of the country. The Brazilian Ministry of Health recommends diagnosis in dogs using a DPP® (rapid test) as a screening test and an immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA) as a confirmatory test (DPP®+ELISA), and culling infected dogs as a legal control measure. However, the accuracy of these serological tests has been questioned. METHODS: VL in dogs was investigated in a non-endemic area of the São Paulo state for three consecutive years, and the performances of different diagnostic tests were compared. RESULTS: A total of 331 dog samples were collected in 2015, 373 in 2016, and 347 in 2017. The seroprevalence by DPP®+ELISA was 3.3, 3.2, and 0.3%, respectively, and by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), it was 3.0, 5.6, and 5.5%, respectively. ELISA confirmed 18.4% of DPP® positive samples. The concordance between the IFA and DPP® was 83.9%. The concordance between IFA and DPP®+ELISA was 92.9%. A molecular diagnostic test (PCR) was performed in 63.2% of the seropositive samples, all of which were negative. CONCLUSIONS: In non-endemic areas, diagnostic tests in dogs should be carefully evaluated to avoid false results.
  • Bedside echocardiography to predict mortality of COVID-19 patients beyond clinical data: Data from the PROVAR-COVID study Major Article

    Pimentel, Sander Luis Gomes; Nascimento, Bruno Ramos; Franco, Juliane; Oliveira, Kaciane Krauss Bruno; Fraga, Clara Leal; Macedo, Frederico Vargas Botinha de; Raso, Leonardo Arruda de Moraes; Ávila, Renata Eliane de; Santos, Luiza Pereira Afonso dos; Rocha, Rodrigo Tavares Lanna; Oliveira, Renan Mello; Barbosa, Márcia de Melo; Sable, Craig; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho; Beaton, Andrea Zawacki; Nunes, Maria Carmo Pereira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cardiac involvement seems to impact prognosis of COVID-19, being more frequent in critically ill patients. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, evaluated by bedside echocardiography (echo), in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: Patients admitted in 2 reference hospitals in Brazil from Jul to Sept/2020 with confirmed COVID-19 and moderate/severe presentations underwent clinical and laboratory evaluation, and focused bedside echo (GE Vivid-IQ), at the earliest convenience, with remote interpretation. The association between demographics, clinical comorbidities and echo variables with all-cause hospital mortality was assessed, and factors significant at p<0.10 were put into multivariable models. RESULTS: Total 163 patients were enrolled, 59% were men, mean age 64±16 years, and 107 (66%) were admitted to intensive care. Comorbidities were present in 144 (88%) patients: hypertension 115 (71%), diabetes 61 (37%) and heart failure 22 (14%). In-hospital mortality was 34% (N=56). In univariate analysis, echo variables significantly associated with death were: LV ejection fraction (LVEF, OR=0.94), RV fractional area change (OR=0.96), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE, OR=0.83) and RV dysfunction (OR=5.3). In multivariate analysis, after adjustment for clinical and demographic variables, independent predictors of mortality were age≥63 years (OR=5.53, 95%CI 1.52-20.17), LVEF<64% (OR=7.37, 95%CI 2.10-25.94) and TAPSE<18.5 mm (OR=9.43, 95% CI 2.57-35.03), and the final model had good discrimination, with C-statistic=0.83 (95%CI 0.75-0.91). CONCLUSION: Markers of RV and LV dysfunction assessed by bedside echo are independent predictors of mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, after adjustment for clinical variables.
  • Nutritional status and vitamin A and zinc levels in patients with kala-azar in Piauí, Brazil Major Article

    Monteiro, Mísia Joyner de Sousa Dias; Silva, Maria Nauside Pessoa da; Paiva, Adriana de Azevedo; Marreiro, Dilina do Nascimento; Luzia, Liania Alves; Henriques, Gilberto Simeone; Rondó, Patrícia Helen de Carvalho; Sene, Ingridi de Souza; Almeida, Ana Tárcila Alves de; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Malnutrition and kala-azar (or visceral leishmaniasis) are significant public health problems in different parts of the world. Immunity and susceptibility to infectious and parasitic diseases are directly linked to the host’s nutritional state, but little is known about the interaction between nutrition and kala-azar. This study aimed to evaluate nutritional status with kala-azar and correlate these findings with the clinical and laboratory manifestations of the disease, and zinc and retinol levels. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 139 patients with kala-azar. Nutritional status classification was performed according to international recommendations. Parametric or nonparametric tests were applied whenever indicated in a two-sided test with a 5% significance level. RESULTS: Weight loss and malnutrition were more frequent in adults. Body mass index-for-age, fat area of the arm, and upper arm muscle area were significantly associated with probability of death. The presence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly was correlated with nutritional assessment. Blood leukocyte and lymphocyte, serum creatine, and vitamin A levels were significantly higher in adult men. Vitamin A levels were highly associated with the level of hemoglobin and C-reactive protein (CRP) in multivariate analysis. All patients had reduced plasma zinc levels, but this finding had no association with the outcome variables. CONCLUSIONS: Malnutrition was correlated with severe disease and was more prevalent in older people with kala-azar. Vitamin A deficiency was associated with hemoglobin and CRP. Zinc levels were reduced in patients with kala-azar.
  • Autoregressive spatial modeling of possible cases of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika in the capital of Northeastern Brazil Major Article

    Costa, Silmery da Silva Brito; Branco, Maria dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho; Vasconcelos, Vitor Vieira; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa; Araujo, Adriana Soraya; Câmara, Ana Patrícia Barros; Fushita, Angela Terumi; Silva, Maria do Socorro da; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Santos, Alcione Miranda dos

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Dengue, chikungunya, and Zika are a growing global health problem. This study analyzed the spatial distribution of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika cases in São Luís, Maranhão, from 2015 to 2016 and investigated the association between socio-environmental and economic factors and hotspots for mosquito proliferation. METHODS: This was a socio-ecological study using data from the National Information System of Notifiable Diseases. The spatial units of analysis were census tracts. The incidence rates of the combined cases of the three diseases were calculated and smoothed using empirical local Bayes estimates. The spatial autocorrelation of the smoothed incidence rate was measured using Local Moran's I and Global Moran's I. Multiple linear regression and spatial autoregressive models were fitted using the log of the smoothed disease incidence rate as the dependent variable and socio-environmental factors, demographics, and mosquito hotspots as independent variables. RESULTS: The findings showed a significant spatial autocorrelation of the smoothed incidence rate. The model that best fit the data was the spatial lag model, revealing a positive association between disease incidence and the proportion of households with surrounding garbage accumulation. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika cases showed a significant spatial pattern, in which the high-risk areas for the three diseases were explained by the variable "garbage accumulated in the surrounding environment,” demonstrating the need for an intersectoral approach for vector control and prevention that goes beyond health actions.
  • Arbovirus, herpesvirus, and enterovirus associated with neurological syndromes in adult patients of a university hospital, 2017-2018 Major Article

    Leon, Lucas Lopes; Lima, Rodrigo Gonçalves de; Boffi, Lídia Cristian; Bindilatti, Raissa Nery; Garlipp, Célia Regina; Costa, Sandra Cecília Botelho; Bonon, Sandra Helena Alves

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Herpesviruses, enteroviruses, and arboviruses are important because of their clinical relevance and ability to cause meningitis, encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, and other diseases. The clinical virology associated with diagnostic technologies can reduce the morbidity and mortality of such neurological manifestations. Here we aimed to identify the genomes of agents that cause neurological syndromes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with suspected nervous system infections admitted to the University Hospital of the University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, in 2017-2018. METHODS: CSF samples collected from adult patients with neurological syndrome symptoms and negative CSF culture results were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcriptase-PCR, and real-time PCR, and their results were compared with their clinical symptoms. One CSF sample was obtained from each patient. RESULTS: Viral genomes were detected in 148/420 (35.2%) CSF samples: one of 148 (0.2%) was positive for herpes simplex virus-1; two (0.5%) for herpes simplex virus-2; eight (1.9%) for varicella-zoster virus; four (1%) for Epstein-Barr virus; one (0.2%) for cytomegalovirus; 32 (7.6%) for human herpesvirus-6; 30 (7.1%) for non-polio enterovirus; 67 (16.0%) for dengue virus, three (0.7%) for yellow fever virus, and 21 (5%) for Zika virus. CONCLUSIONS: The viral genomes were found in 35.2% of all analyzed samples, showing the high prevalence of viruses in the nervous system and the importance of using a nucleic acid amplification test to detect viral agents in CSF samples.
  • Aspirin plus verapamil relieves angina and perfusion abnormalities in patients with coronary microvascular dysfunction and Chagas disease: a pilot non-randomized study Major Article

    Pavão, Rafael Brolio; Moreira, Henrique Turin; Pintya, Antonio Oswaldo; Haddad, Jorge Luis; Badran, André Vannuchi; Lima-Filho, Moysés de Oliveira; Lago, Igor Matos; Chierice, João Reynaldo Abbud; Schmidt, André; Marin-Neto, J. Antonio

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Most patients with chronic cardiomyopathy of Chagas disease (CCCD) harbor a secondary cause of coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD), for which there is no evidence-based therapy. We evaluated the impact of verapamil plus aspirin on symptoms and perfusion abnormalities in patients with CCCD and CMD. METHODS: Consecutive patients with angina pectoris, who had neither coronary artery obstructions nor moderate-severe left ventricular dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction > 40%) despite showing wall motion abnormalities on ventriculography, were referred for invasive angiography and tested for Chagas disease. Thirty-two patients with confirmed CCCD and ischemia on stress-rest SPECT myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) were included. Clinical evaluation, quality of life (EQ-5D/ Seattle Angina Questionnaire), and MPS were assessed before and after 3 months of treatment with oral verapamil plus aspirin (n=26) or placebo (n=6). RESULTS: The mean patient age was 64 years, and 18 (56%) were female. The ischemic index summed difference score (SDS) in MPS was significantly reduced by 55.6% after aspirin+verapamil treatment. A decrease in SDS was observed in 20 (77%) participants, and in 10 participants, no more ischemia could be detected. Enhancements in quality of life were also detected. No change in symptoms or MPS was observed in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: This low-cost 3-month treatment for patients diagnosed with CCCD and CMD was safe and resulted in a 55.6% reduction in ischemic burden, symptomatic improvement, and better quality of life.
  • Influence of galantamine in the inflammatory process and tissular lesions caused by Trypanosoma cruzi QM2 strain Major Article

    Camargo, Lucas Fadel; Pinheiro, Guilherme Donzalisky; Oliveira, Priscilla Bianca de; Losada, Daniele Moraes; Chagas, Eduardo Federighi Baisi; Sperança, Márcia Aparecida; Chies, Agnaldo Bruno; Spadella, Maria Angélica; Martins, Luciamáre Perinetti Alves

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Trypanosoma cruzi infection triggers an inflammatory process with exacerbated production of cytokines that stimulate inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signals, including the efferent anti-inflammatory signal known as the anti-inflammatory cholinergic pathway. Thus, the use of anticholinesterase drugs, such as galantamine, could minimize the inflammatory process caused by this disease. METHODS For the study at 30, 60, and 90 days, 120 Swiss mice were divided into three groups. Each group was subdivided into four subgroups: uninfected/untreated (CTRL), uninfected/treated (GAL), infected/untreated (INF), and infected/treated (GAL/INF). The infected groups were inoculated intraperitoneally with 0.1 ml of mouse blood containing 5 × 104 trypomastigote forms of the T. cruzi QM2 strain. The galantamine-treated groups received 5 mg/kg of galantamine orally, through pipetting. From each subgroup, the parameters of parasitemia, histopathological analysis, butyrylcholinesterase activity (BuChE), and functional study of the colon were evaluated. RESULTS: BuChE performance was observed when AChE was suppressed, with increased activity in the GAL/INF group similar to the INF group on the 30th day post infection, thus corroborating the absence of a significant difference in parasitic curves and histopathological analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of an inflammatory process and nests of amastigotes, as well as evidence of reactivity to ACh and NOR, suggest that galantamine did not interfere with the colonic inflammatory response or even in colonic tissue parasitism at this stage of Chagas disease.
  • RT-qPCR half-reaction optimization for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 Major Article

    Wink, Priscila Lamb; Volpato, Fabiana; Lima-Morales, Daiana de; Paiva, Rodrigo Minuto; Willig, Julia Biz; Bock, Hugo; Paris, Fernanda de; Barth, Afonso Luís

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: The main laboratory test for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). However, RT-qPCR is expensive because of the number of tests required. This study aimed to evaluate an alternative to the RT-qPCR approach for the detection of sudden acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is half of the total volume currently recommended by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. METHODS: The analytical limit of detection (LoD) and the reaction efficiency using half volumes of the RT-qPCR assay were evaluated for the N1 and N2 regions using a synthetic control RNA. A panel of 76 SARS-CoV-2-positive and 26 SARS-CoV-2-negative clinical samples was evaluated to establish clinical sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: The RT-qPCR assay efficiency was 105% for the half and standard reactions considering the N2 target and 84% (standard) and 101% (half) for N1. The RT-qPCR half-reaction LoD for N1 and N2 were 20 and 80 copies/µL, respectively. The clinical sensitivity and specificity were 100%. The half reaction presented a decrease of up to 5.5 cycle thresholds compared with standard RT-qPCR. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the RT-qPCR half-reaction proved feasible and economic for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA.
  • Checklist and phenetics studies of nymphs of two species of triatomines: Triatoma lenti Sherlock & Serafim, 1967 and Triatoma sherlocki Papa, Jurberg, Carcavallo, Cerqueira, Barata, 2002 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) Major Article

    Rosseto, Leandro Augusto; Paiva, Vinícius Fernandes De; Belintani, Tiago; Oliveira, Jader de; Mendonça, Vagner José; Rosa, João Aristeu Da

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Triatoma lenti and Triatoma sherlocki are endemic species of the State of Bahia, located in northeastern Brazil, where they have records of domiciliation in the human environment. In view of the epidemiological aspect and taxonomic importance of these species for the systematics of the Triatoma genus, a study was carried out with nymphs of all five instars. METHODS An extensive review of studies on nymphs from the subfamily Triatominae is presented. Morphology was studied using a scanning electron microscope and morphometric analyses. RESULTS: The morphological study allowed us to characterize and discriminate species by means of scanning electron microscope of the last abdominal segment. In addition, the results show morphometric variability, with the total size of the head that best discriminates the species. CONCLUSIONS: Studies on nymphs are fundamental to the ecosystem; however, the literature on the immature forms of certain groups is scarce, difficult to use, or nonexistent. Therefore, this study includes morphological and morphometric data of the nymphal instars of T. lenti and T. sherlocki, corroborating the specific taxonomy of these species.
  • First report of the aac(6’)-Ib-cr gene in Providencia stuartii isolates in Brazil Short Communication

    Silva, Sivoneide Maria da; Ramos, Bárbara de Azevedo; Lima, Ana Vitória Araújo; Sá, Rafael Artur Cavalcanti Queiroz de; Lima, Jailton Lobo da Costa; Maciel, Maria Amélia Vieira; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Silva, Márcia Vanusa da; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos; Oliveira, Maria Betânia Melo de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: The aac(6’)-Ib-cr and bla KPC genes are spreading among Enterobacteriaceae species, including Providencia stuartii, in some countries of world. METHODS: These genes were investigated in 28 P. stuartii isolates from a public hospital in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, by PCR and sequencing. RESULTS: The aac(6’)-Ib-cr gene was detected in 16 resistant isolates, and the bla KPC gene was seen in 14. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of these genes in P. stuartii multi- and extensively drug-resistant isolates indicates that the resistance arsenal of this species is increasing, thus limiting the therapeutic options.
  • HTLV-2 infection in Manaus, Brazil: first description of HTLV-2c subtype in an urban area of the Western Amazon region Short Communication

    Pontes, Gemilson Soares; Ribeiro, Hygor Halyson Figueiredo; Toro, Diana Mota; Moura Neto, José Pereira de; Souza, Victor; Almeida, Maria Edilene Martins de; Nascimento, Valdinete Alves do; Costa, Cristovão Alves da; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; Santos, Mike; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: We investigated the prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) infection in patients with hematological diseases from the western Amazon region of Brazil. METHODS: Samples from 306 patients were submitted for the molecular diagnosis of HTLV-1/2 infection by real time PCR (qPCR), with amplification, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of the long terminal repeat (LTR) region. RESULTS: A 29-year-old male carrier of sickle cell anemia with a history of multiple blood transfusions was diagnosed with the HTLV-2c subtype. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the first known occurrence of HTLV-2c in the urban area of Brazil’s western Amazon region.
  • Molecular epidemiology and drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from a regional hospital in the Brazilian Amazon region Short Communication

    Ribeiro, Edlainny Araujo; Gales, Ana Cristina; Oliveira, Ana Paula Streling de; Coelho, Danilo Dias; Oliveira, Rodrigo Alves de; Pfrimer, Irmtraut Araci Hoffmann; Carmo Filho, José Rodrigues do

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: In this study, we report a clonal dissemination of carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates due to the acquisition of blaOXA-23 in a regional hospital located in Brazilian Amazon Region. METHODS: The isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF and the carbapenemase-encoding genes were detected by multiplex-PCR. The genetic similarity was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). RESULTS: Only 10 (55.6%) isolates harbored the gene bla OXA-23. PFGE analysis revealed that these isolates belong to a single clone. CONCLUSIONS: This dissemination strategy indicates the need for surveillance, adoption of control procedures defined in guidelines, and the careful administration of antimicrobials should be reinforced.
  • Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) in homes: Report of their occurrence in the municipality of Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, South Western Amazon Short Communication

    Moraes, Madson Huilber da Silva; Jesus, Adila Costa de; Madeira, Fernanda Portela; Moresco, Gilberto Gilmar; Oliveira, Jader de; Rosa, João Aristeu da; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha; Bernarde, Paulo Sérgio; Meneguetti, Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Triatomines are hematophagous insects that are important to public health since they are the vectors of American Trypanosomiasis. The objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of triatomines in homes in Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, Brazil. METHODS The specimens were collected by an active search inside homes and also by a passive search by the residents. RESULTS: A total of 55 triatomines were captured comprising of 5 species each of the genera Rhodnius, Eratyrus, and Panstrongylus. No colonies were detected, ruling out the possibility of domiciliation. CONCLUSIONS: Information on regional epidemiological dynamics contributes to the prevention and control of disease.
  • Phenotypic and genetic variation of Triatoma costalimai (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Short Communication

    Vendrami, Daniel Pagotto; Ceretti-Junior, Walter; Obara, Marcos Takashi; Mendonça, Vagner José; Fonseca, Eduardo Oyama Lins; Medeiros-Sousa, Antonio Ralph; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: We aimed to study intraspecific variation in Triatoma costalimai, a potential vector of Chagas disease present in Brazil and Bolivia. METHODS: We analyzed phenotypic (connexivum color patterns, wing morphometrics) and genetic variation (16S mtDNA) of three Brazilian T. costalimai populations. We compared 16S sequences with those of putative Bolivian T. costalimai and its sister species, T. jatai. RESULTS: Brazilian populations had different connexivum color patterns and forewing shapes. A 16S mtDNA haplotype network showed a clear separation of Brazilian T. costalimai from both T. jatai and Bolivian T. costalimai. CONCLUSIONS: We report considerable variability in T. costalimai populations.
  • Filter paper performance in PCR for cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosis Short Communication

    Mota, Camila Alves; Venazzi, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini; Zanzarini, Paulo Donizeti; Aristides, Sandra Mara Alessi; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of filter paper (FP) for lesion scraping collection in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) diagnosis. METHODS: Lesion scrapings from 48 patients were collected and analyzed for PCR. RESULTS: PCR with FP detected up to three Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes. Considering the direct search by microscopy or PCR of samples collected in STE buffer as standards, the sensitivity of PCR with FP was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: FP can be useful for CL diagnosis in remote regions, allowing high sensitivity in the detection of the parasite by PCR.
  • Occurrence of Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister, 1835) in an area under entomological surveillance in the Southeast Region of Brazil Short Communication

    Dias, João Victor Leite; Souza, Rita de Cássia Moreira de; Souza, Janice Maria Borba; Diotaiuti, Liléia Gonçalves; Ferreira, Raquel Aparecida

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Panstrongylus megistus is the main triatomine involved in the human transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Minas Gerais, Brazil. We analyzed the occurrence of triatomines in the Itaúna micro-regions for healthcare. METHODS: Data were collected as part of routine entomological surveillance activities, including the species identity, capture site, developmental stage, and trypanosome infection. RESULTS: In total, 503 specimens from five species were captured (495 P. megistus). Adults were mainly captured by residents inside their homes, whereas nymphs were mostly captured by public health professionals outside. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiologically important triatomine, P. megistus, continues to persist in our study region.
  • Incidence of viral hepatitis in Brazil from 2009 to 2018: an epidemiological study of confirmed cases of viral hepatitis Short Communication

    Silva, Alessandra Pereira da; Silva, Andresa Pereira; Souza, Lohana Marques Leal de; Peixoto, Natália de Oliveira; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa; Vianez Júnior, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem. It is necessary to understand the epidemic, verifying the combination of biological and demographic characteristics. METHODS: This is an analytical ecological and epidemiological study. Confirmed case data from the Notification Disease Information System (SINAN) were used. RESULTS: From 2009-2018, SINAN confirmed 404,003 viral hepatitis cases in Brazil, with 12.49%, 37.06%, and 48.28% cases of hepatitis A, B, and C, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In Brazil, 4,296 deaths were associated with viral hepatitis, of which 36.66% were associated with acute hepatitis B. The proportional distribution of cases varied among the five Brazilian regions.
  • Association of the polymorphism Exon 1 (A/O) region of the mannose-binding lectin gene and periportal fibrosis regression in schistosomiasis after specific treatment Short Communication

    Oliveira, Saulo Gomes de; Souza, Ilana Brito Ferraz de; Constantino, Taynan da Silva; Silva, Paula Carolina Valença; Lima, Elker Lene Santos de; Muniz, Maria Tereza Cartaxo; Domingues, Ana Lúcia Coutinho

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the association between genetic polymorphisms in exon 1 (A/O alleles) and promoter regions at positions -550 (H/L variant, rs11003125) and -221 (X/Y variant, rs7096206) MBL2 and periportal fibrosis regression. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study involving 114 Brazilians infected with Schistosoma mansoni, who were subjected to follow-up for three years after specific treatment for schistosomiasis to estimate the probability of periportal fibrosis regression. RESULTS: A risk association was observed between polymorphism at the exon 1 MBL2 and periportal fibrosis regression. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the polymorphism of exon 1 MBL2 may potentially be used to predict periportal fibrosis regression in this population.
  • AIDS-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy Short Communication

    Abrão, Carolina de Oliveira; Silva, Lissa Rodrigues Machado da; Souza, Luiz Carlos Silva; Bisso, Nathalia de Mello; Turchi, Marília Dalva; Guilarde, Adriana Oliveira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by reactivation of JC virus (JCV). METHODS: We described the profile of laboratory-confirmed PML cases among AIDS patients. RESULTS: A total of 43 HIV patients with clinical conditions compatible with PML were obtained; 5 cases were confirmed by JCV testing. The main clinical finding was mental confusion. Median CD4 count was 54 cells/mm³. CONCLUSIONS: Three of the five confirmed PML cases died; the time between diagnosis and death was 2, 5, and 6 months. It is important to consider JCV infection as a differential diagnosis.
  • First report of a blaNDM-resistant gene in a Klebsiella aerogenes clinical isolate from Brazil Short Communication

    Soares, Cynthia Regina Pedrosa; Oliveira-Júnior, Jorge Belém; Firmo, Elza Ferreira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Carbapenemase-resistant enterobacteria that produce the bla NDM gene are found worldwide. However, this is the first report of blaNDM in Klebsiella aerogenes in Brazil. METHODS: The identification of bacterial species was performed using anautomated system and confirmed by biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and detection of resistance genes. RESULTS: The clinical isolate showed minimum inhibitory concentration resistance to meropenem and polymyxin B at 8mg/L and 4mg/L, respectively. Only the blaNDM gene was detected. CONCLUSIONS: The current report of the blaNDM gene in isolated MDR enterobacteria indicates that this gene can spread silently in a hospital setting.
  • The rediscovery of Rhodnius domesticus Neiva & Pinto, 1923 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil Short Communication

    Corrêa-do-Nascimento, Guilherme Sanches; Moreira, Danielle de Oliveira; Galvão, Cleber; Santos, Claudiney Biral dos; Falqueto, Aloísio; Leite, Gustavo Rocha

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Rhodnius domesticus Neiva & Pinto, 1923 is a rare sylvatic triatomine endemic to the Atlantic Forest, with one known record for Espírito Santo (ES), Brazil from 1969. We present here its rediscovery in ES, 42 years after its first record. METHODS: In January 2011, a triatomine specimen was collected from a rural area of the municipality of Santa Teresa, ES. RESULTS: We confirmed this as a new record of R. domesticus in the Baixo Caldeirão locality. CONCLUSIONS: This finding supports the possibility of a wild population of R. domesticus in the mountainous region of the Atlantic forest of ES.
  • Colonization by Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in an urban park in the city of São Paulo Short Communication

    Silva, Rubens Antonio da; Estevão, Vera Aparecida Oliveira; Duarte, Agnaldo Nepomuceno; Maria, Priscilla Cipolini

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: This communication reports on the occurrence of colonization by Panstrongylus megistus in an urban park in the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Entomological research includes active search for vectors based on notifications by the population and identification and examination of insects. RESULTS: A colony of triatomines was found to be associated with enclosed birds. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of P. megistus has already been reported in the city of São Paulo; however, reports of colonization by this species provide evidence of its potential for the occupation of artificial ecotopes, which may pose a risk to the human population.
  • Selective activity of diselenides against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae Short Communication

    Targanski, Sabrina Ketrin; Sousa, Janaina Rosa; Stein, André Luiz Agnes; Soares, Marcos Antônio

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti (L.) is the major vector of arboviruses that causes serious public health concerns in tropical and subtropical countries. METHODS: We examined the larvicidal activity of 1,2-diphenyldiselenide [(PhSe)2] and 1,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) diselenide [(p-ClPhSe)2] and determine its toxicity to different non-target organisms. RESULTS: (PhSe)2 and (p-ClPhSe)2 killed Ae. aegypti L3 larvae with LC50/24h values of 65.63 µM (20.48 mg/L) and 355.19 µM (135.33 mg/L), respectively. (PhSe)2 was not toxic to the four model organisms. CONCLUSIONS: (PhSe)2 is a larvicidal compound with selective action against Ae. aegypti larvae. The mechanisms of action of (PhSe)2 under field conditions remain to be investigated.
  • The incidence and geographical spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil based on RT-PCR test results Short Communication

    Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Porto, Luís Cristóvão; Sena, Alexandre; Ferreira Junior, Orlando da Costa; Cavalcanti, Andrea Cony; Santos, Ângela Maria Guimarães; Secco, Danielle Angst; Silva, Marcio; Mariani, Diana; Chieppe, Alexandre; Tanuri, Amilcar; ,

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION Rio de Janeiro has hardly experienced coronavirus disease. METHODS Here, 87,442 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were reported among Rio de Janeiro residents (March to September 2020). RESULTS Overall, RT-PCR positivity of 44.6% decreased over time towards 20%. Positivity was greater among males (OR=1.22; 95%CI:1.19-1.26); Black (OR=1.10; 95%CI:1.02-1.19), Brown (OR=1.16; 95%CI:1.10-1.22), and indigenous people (OR=2.11; 95%CI:0.88-5.03) compared to Whites and increased with age; with epidemic spread from the capital to inland regions. CONCLUSIONS SARS-CoV-2 keeps spreading in Rio de Janeiro, and reopening of activities may fuel the epidemic.
  • Household crowding hampers mitigating the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 Short Communication

    Villela, Daniel Antunes Maciel

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Household crowding deserves attention when evaluating the transmission intensity of SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil. We aimed to evaluate the association between household crowding and COVID-19 incidence. METHODS: Linear and Poisson regression analyses were used to assess the associations between indices of household crowding (high, average, low) and COVID-19 incidence estimates. RESULTS: Cities with a high index of household crowding were linked with a significantly higher COVID-19 incidence estimate (excess of 461 per 100,000; 95% confidence interval: 371-558 per 100,000). CONCLUSIONS: Crowding typically promotes virus transmission. Considering urban and housing structures is essential in designing mitigation strategies during a pandemic.
  • Feasibility of very short-term forecast models for COVID-19 hospital-based surveillance Short Communication

    Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Passos, Afonso Dinis Costa; Cinto, Antônio Fernando; Escarso, Andreia Cássia; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Silva, Jorgete Maria e; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Fernando; Aragon, Davi Casale

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the performance of Bayesian vector autoregressive (BVAR) and Holt’s models to forecast the weekly COVID-19 reported cases in six units of a large hospital. METHODS: Cases reported from epidemiologic weeks (EW) 12-37 were selected as the training period, and from EW 38-41 as the test period. RESULTS: The models performed well in forecasting cases within one or two weeks following the end of the time-series, but forecasts for a more distant period were inaccurate. CONCLUSIONS: Both models offered reasonable performance in very short-term forecasts for confirmed cases of COVID-19.
  • Severe tissue complications in patients of Bothrops snakebite at a tertiary health unit in the Brazilian Amazon: clinical characteristics and associated factors Short Communication

    Silva, Flavio Souza; Ibiapina, Hiochelson Najibe Santos; Neves, Juliana Costa Ferreira; Coelho, Kerolaine Fonseca; Barbosa, Fabiane Bianca Albuquerque; Lacerda, Marcus Vinicius Guimarães; Sachett, Jacqueline Almeida Gonçalves; Malheiro, Adriana; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Costa, Allyson Guimarães

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon are caused mostly by snakes from the Bothrops genus and envenomated patients may suffer from tissue complications. METHODS: This study aimed to identify risk factors for severe tissue complications (STC) in patients with Bothrops snakebite in the Amazonas state, Brazil. RESULTS: Snakebites that were classified as severe and affected female patients with comorbidities presented greater risks of developing STCs. In addition, hospitalizations of patients with STC exceeded 5 days. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and epidemiological characteristics can prove essential for assessing the evolution of STC and clinical prognosis of patients with Bothrops snakebites.
  • Magnitude and temporal trends of leprosy relapse in the state of Ceará, Brazil in the period 2001-2018 Short Communication

    Boigny, Reagan Nzundu; Florêncio, Caroline Mary Gurgel Dias; Cavalcante, Kellyn Kessiene de Sousa; Moreno, Jarier de Oliveira; Almeida, Pedro José de; Almondes, Jardel Gonçalves de Sousa; Nogueira, Paula Sacha Frota; Alencar, Carlos Henrique

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study analyzed the magnitude and temporal trends of leprosy relapse in Ceará in 2001-2018. METHODS: Descriptive cross-sectional and ecological-time trend studies were performed. RESULTS: We diagnosed 1,777 leprosy relapse cases. Higher prevalence of relapse was observed in men, illiterates, mixed race, multibacillary leprosy, lepromatous leprosy, and persons with visible disabilities. The proportion of relapse increased throughout the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Leprosy relapse is prevalent in certain groups.
  • Malaria mortality in Colombia from 2009 to 2018: a descriptive study Short Communication

    Rodríguez, Shirley Natali Iza; Rodríguez, José Alejandro Iza; Rodríguez, Julio Cesar Padilla; Olivera, Mario Javier

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Colombia has an endemo-epidemic for malaria, with a downward trend in mortality over the last few decades. This study describes the malaria mortality rates from 2009-2018. METHODS We obtained data from the Colombian Mortality Information System and calculated the case fatality and crude and age-adjusted mortality rates. RESULTS: During the study, 148 malaria-related deaths were registered. The average annual mortality rate was 0.032 deaths/100,000. Two peaks were observed in 2010 and 2016. Choco contributed to the highest number of deaths (27.7%). CONCLUSIONS: The unstable downward trend of malaria mortality rates calls for greater emphasis on surveillance and interventions.
  • Colonization of Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera:Reduvidae:Triatominae) in an urban area and its association with Didelphis marsupialis in the metropolitan region of São Paulo Short Communication

    Silva, Rubens Antonio da; Zaicaner, Raquel; Rosa, Mariangela Palma; Aun, Graciela Cristina Granizo; Muniz, Júlio César; Magalhães, Alon Carlos; Pereira, Creusa; Pena, Amanda Rosa; Santos, Maysa Flexa dos; Estevão, Vera Aparecida Oliveira; Duarte, Agnaldo Nepomuceno

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: This communication reports the colonization of Panstrongylus megistus in an urban area of the municipality of Taboão da Serra in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. METHODS: After receiving a notification from the population, entomological research comprising active search, collection, identification, and examination of triatomines was conducted. Wild animals were captured and examined. RESULTS: A colony of triatomines was found to be associated with dogs in the backyard of the property. CONCLUSIONS: The colonization of P. megistus shows the potential for their occupation of artificial ecotopes, which may pose a risk to the human population.
  • Confirmation of the first report of Psammolestes tertius Lent and Jurberg, 1965 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in Paraná State, Brazil Short Communication

    Paiva, Vinícius Fernandes de; Rosa, João Aristeu da; Ceretti Junior, Walter; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo; Oliveira, Jader de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION This study confirms the occurrence of Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in the state of Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: In 2002, a male specimen of P. tertius was collected in the municipality of Porto Rico, Paraná, Brazil. RESULTS: This finding adds to the data on the geographical distribution of P. tertius from 14 to 15 known occurrences in Brazilian states and, therefore, reports the increase in the diversity of triatomines in Paraná. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of P. tertius in the state of Paraná demonstrates that the biodiversity of these insects may have been underestimated.
  • Preliminary evaluation of the larvicidal activity of extracts and fractions from Ocotea nutans (Nees) Mez against Aedes aegypti Short Communication

    Betim, Fernando Cesar Martins; Oliveira, Camila Freitas de; Montrucchio, Deise Prehs; Miguel, Obdulio Gomes; Miguel, Marilis Dallarmi; Maurer, Juliana Bello Baron; Dias, Josiane de Fátima Gaspari

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue and yellow fever. Recently, the use of plant-sourced larvicides has gained momentum. METHODS: The hydroethanolic extracts and fractions ofOcotea nutansleaves and stems were bioassayed to determine the larvicidal efficacy of these samples. RESULTS: S-HEX (hexane fraction from the crude stem extract) demonstrated high potential for controlling third-stage larvae, with an LC50 of 14.14 µg.mL-1 (concentration required to inhibit 50% of the treated larvae). CONCLUSIONS Extracts from O. nutans were effective against third-stage larvae ofA. aegyptiafter 24 h of exposure.
  • Natural infection of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Cembrene-1 population) with Leishmania infantum in a new visceral leishmaniasis focus in the eastern region of São Paulo State, Brazil. Short Communication

    Silva, Mariana Dantas da; Galvis-Ovallos, Fredy; Casanova, Claudio; Silva, Vanessa Gusmon da; Leonel, João Augusto Franco; Oliveira, Trícia Maria Ferreira de Sousa; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) transmission has been associated with two different populations of the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex in São Paulo state. METHODS In a recent focus of VL, we captured and dissected sand flies and investigated Leishmania infantum infection by parasitological, PCR, and sequencing analysis. RESULTS Flagellates were observed in 2 of 47 (4.2%) cembrene-1 Lu. longipalpis females. The sequences obtained matched those of Le. infantum. CONCLUSIONS We found that the transmission of Le. infantum by cembrene-1 females may occur at a high rate in this focus of VL and presented new data on the vector capacity of this population.
  • Impact of concurrent epidemics of dengue, chikungunya, zika, and COVID-19 Short Communication

    Vicente, Creuza Rachel; Silva, Theresa Cristina Cardoso da; Pereira, Larissa Dell’Antonio; Miranda, Angelica E.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the epidemiological implications of arbovirus infections and coronavirus disease (COVID-19) co-occurrences in Espírito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: This ecological study of dengue, chikungunya, zika, and COVID-19 was performed from January 1 to July 31, 2020. RESULTS: Espírito Santo registered 44,614, 8,092, 3,138, and 91,483 cases of dengue, chikungunya, zika, and COVID-19, respectively (January-July, 2020). In the 27 and four municipalities with a high incidence of dengue and chikungunya, respectively, the incidence of COVID-19 was 647.0-3,721.7 and 1,787.2-3,403.0 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Espírito Santo experienced an overlap of epidemics, especially in urban areas.
  • Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chagas disease in a rural population of the Quixeré municipality, Ceará, Brazil Short Communication

    Fidalgo, Arduina Sofia Ortet de Barros Vasconcelos; Costa, Alanna Carla da; Ramos Júnior, Alberto Novaes; Leal, Luzia Kalyne Almeida Moreira; Martins, Alice Maria Costa; Silva Filho, José Damião da; Ferreira, Anderson Fuentes; Nunes, Francisca Mylena Melgaço; Marinho Júnior, Francisco Aucélio Alves; Lacerda, Julieth Mesquita; Oliveira, Maria de Fátima

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study estimated the seroprevalence and risk factors of Chagas disease (CD) in a population of the Quixeré municipality, Ceará. METHODS: We conducted serological methods to detect the Trypanosoma cruzi infection. The other variables were evaluated by a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of CD was 3.7%. Male sex, age >40 years, being farmers, low education level, origin from rural areas, and being born in Quixeré were significantly associated with infection. CONCLUSION: CD persists in this rural population of Northeast Brazil. Poverty, low education, and limited information regarding CD are critical issues that need to be addressed.
  • Relapse in leprosy and drug resistance assessment in a tertiary hospital of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil Short Communication

    Chagas, Danielle Ferreira; Diniz, Lucia Martins; Lucas, Elton Almeida; Moraes, Milton Ozório de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leprosy recurrence is the reappearance of the disease after treatment with current schemes and discharged for cure and may have variable incubation periods. METHODS: This is a descriptive observational study of leprosy recurrence in Espírito Santo diagnosed between January 2018 and January 2020. RESULTS: One hundred and ninety-two cases were available, of which 30 were diagnosed with leprosy recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: In 25 cases, the incubation period was 5-15 years after the first treatment, favoring bacillary persistence. In the remaining 5 cases, the disease had recurred after 15 years, pointing to reinfection as none of them exhibited drug resistance.
  • Residual foci of Triatoma infestans infestation: Surveillance and control in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 2001-2018 Short Communication

    Bedin, Cleonara; Wilhelms, Tânia; Villela, Marcos Marreiro; Silva, Guilherme Carlos Castilhos da; Riffel, Ana Paula Konzen; Sackis, Paulo; Mello, Fernanda de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: This retrospective study conducted from 2001 to 2018 investigated the residual foci of Triatoma infestans infestation in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: The data were obtained via entomological surveillance and the distribution of vector occurrence. The coverage of active research was mapped. RESULTS: The largest coverage rate for active research was observed in the northwest region of the total of 515,081 domiciles researched. Most T. infestans specimens were captured in the peridomicile. CONCLUSIONS: Infestation has decreased significantly since 2008, and T. infestans has not been captured since 2015.
  • Occurrence of triatomines (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) and their natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas, 1909) in Boca do Moa community, Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, Brazil Short Communication

    Jesus, Adila Costa de; Madeira, Fernanda Portela; Moraes, Madson Huilber da Silva; Morais, Adson Araújo de; Oliveira, Jader de; Rosa, João Aristeu da; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha; Meneguetti, Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira; Berrnarde, Paulo Sérgio

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Triatomines are insect vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. METHODS: Triatomines were collected from households and by dissecting palm trees in the peri-urban areas of Cruzeiro do Sul (Acre); they were identified using a specific key and via genital analyses. Trypanosomatid infection was determined through microscopy and polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: In total, 116 triatomines of the species Eratyrus mucronatus, Rhodnius pictipes, R. stali, and R. montenegrensis were collected, of which 13.8% were positive for T. cruzi. CONCLUSIONS: Four species of triatomines presented an infection rate above 13% in the Boca do Moa community.
  • Correlations among neck circumference and anthropometric indicators to estimate body adiposity in people living with HIV Short Communication

    Oliveira, Natália Alves; Guimarães, Nathalia Sernizon; Silva, Samantha Luiza Mazon e; Messias, Anny Carolina; Lopes, Gabriela Fonseca; Nascimento-Júnior, Israel Borges do; Vieira-Filho, Sidney Augusto; Caligiorne, Rachel Basques; Figueiredo, Sônia Maria de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Neck circumference (NC) and anthropometric data of people living with HIV (PLWH) are correlated. METHODS: Socioeconomic, NC, body mass index (BMI), tricipital skinfold thickness (TSF), mid-arm circumference (MAC), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) data of 72 PLWH were correlated. RESULTS Higher adiposity was observed in NC (40.3% [n=29]) and WC (31.9% [n=23]). Correlations between NC/BMI, NC/WC, NC/HC, NC/MAC, NC/MAMC, and NC/WHtR were significant. Increased NC (40.3%[n=29]) and WC (31.9 [n=23]) were associated with higher cardiometabolic risk. CONCLUSIONS: NC correlations are adequate for estimating cardiometabolic risk.
  • Evidence for current circulation of an ancient West Nile virus strain (NY99) in Brazil Short Communication

    Siconelli, Márcio Junio Lima; Jorge, Daniel Macedo de Melo; Castro-Jorge, Luiza Antunes de; Fonseca-Júnior, Antônio Augusto; Nascimento, Mateus Laguardia; Floriano, Vitor Gonçalves; Souza, Fransérgio Rocha de; Queiroz-Júnior, Eudson Maia de; Camargos, Marcelo Fernandes; Costa, Eliana Dea Lara; Carvalho, Adolorata Aparecida Bianco; Fonseca, Benedito Antonio Lopes da

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected, in 2018, in horses with neurological disease. AIM: We report the first case of WNV infection in a horse from Ceará state and the complete genome sequence of an isolate from Espírito Santo state. Both infections occurred in 2019. METHODS: WNV was isolated from the tissues of a horse with neurological signs in Espírito Santo and sequenced by MiSeq. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate belongs to lineage 1a, clustering with the NY99 strain, a strain that has not circulated in the USA since 2005. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that WNV has been silently circulating in Brazil for many years.
  • Antimicrobial-resistant enterobacteria in surface waters with fecal contamination from urban and rural communities Short Communication

    Moretto, Vanessa Tibolla; Cordeiro, Soraia Machado; Bartley, Patricia Salcedo; Silva, Luciano Kalabric; Ponce-Terashima, Rafael; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Blanton, Ronald Edward; Barbosa, Lúcio Macedo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Inadequate wastewater treatment and fecal contamination have a strong environmental impact on antimicrobial resistance (AMR). This study evaluated the profile of AMR enterobacteria and fecal contamination from four surface waters: Jiquiriça-Brejões River and Cabrito, Tororó, and Abaeté Lagoons. METHODS: We analyzed AMR β-lactamase genes using the polymerase chain reaction method and fecal contamination using Coliscan®. RESULTS: We found high levels of fecal contamination, β-lactamase producers, and AMR genes (blaOXA-48, blaSPM, and blaVIM) in all waterbodies. CONCLUSIONS: Poor sanitation evidenced by fecal contamination and human activities around these surface waters contributed to the distribution and increase in AMR enterobacteria.
  • Specificity of HTLV screening tests and its impact on health care program costs: The perspective of antenatal screening in Brazil Short Communication

    Rosadas, Carolina; Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele; Taylor, Graham Philip

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brazil ranks first in the number of HTLV-1/-2-infected individuals worldwide. The high morbidity and mortality of HTLV-1-associated diseases, especially following infection in infancy, requires strong action to reduce vertical transmission. METHODS: To facilitate the appraisal of the implementation of the HTLV antenatal screening program by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, we determined the costs in distinct scenarios according to HTLV seroprevalence, specificity of the screening test, and type of confirmatory test. RESULTS: HTLV antenatal screening would cost R$ 55,777,012-R$ 77,082,123/year. Screening assays with high specificity reduce the need and cost of confirmatory assays by up to 25%. CONCLUSIONS: Careful selection of the screening assay is required to optimize the program.
  • Mayaro virus detection in the western region of Pará state, Brazil Short Communication

    Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Pereira, Andrew Mairom Nogueira; Coelho, João Alberto; Marques, Rose Grace Brito; Souza, Victor Costa de; Nascimento, Valdinete Alves do; Saatkamp, Jamille Gomes dos Santos; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; Figueiredo, Regina Maria Pinto de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION Mayaro virus (MAYV) was found in Pará state, Brazil, in 1955. Since then, sporadic outbreaks have occurred in different regions of the country. METHODS: Serum sample were collected from 49 individuals in 2016 and were initially tested for dengue virus (DENV) by real-time (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DENV-negative samples were tested for MAYV and Oropouche virus (OROV) by multiplexed RT quantitative PCR. RESULTS: All samples were negative for DENV and OROV, but MAYV was detected in four samples. CONCLUSIONS: Differential diagnoses of acute febrile syndrome are required, especially in regions where several arboviruses with similar clinical manifestations are endemic.
  • Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae): first report in Sergipe State, Brazil Short Communication

    Oliveira, Jader de; Rosa, João Aristeu da; Fontes, Felipe Mendes; Andrade, David Campos; Madi, Rubens Riscala; Melo, Cláudia Moura de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study reports the first occurrence of Psammolestes tertius (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in the state of Sergipe, Brazil. METHODS: In 2020, 95 specimens were collected from the municipality of Porto da Folha, Sergipe, Brazil. RESULTS: This finding expands the geographical distribution of the species from 15 states in Brazil to 16 and increases the biodiversity of triatomines in the state of Sergipe. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of P. tertius in the state of Sergipe demonstrated a wider distribution of this species in northeastern Brazil.
  • Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from New and Previously Treated TB Patients in China, 2017-2019 Short Communication

    Zeng, Mei-Chun; Jia, Qing-Jun

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) that causes death worldwide. METHODS: MTB was subjected to phenotypic drug-susceptibility tests (DST), and drug-resistant genes were sequenced. RESULTS: Previously treated patients were more likely to have positive smear results and exhibit drug resistance. New patients were more likely to be mono SM-resistant and less likely to be INH- and RIF-resistant. The most common mutations were katG (S315T), rpoB (S450L), rpsL (K43R), and embB (M306V). CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of mono-SM-resistant TB among new patients was higher.
  • Suckling by Schistosoma mansoni-infected mothers restored IgG2a and TGF-β production, but not IL-6 and delayed-type hypersensitivity in IL-12/IL-23-deficient mice Short Communication

    Silva, Fabiana Leticia da; Silva, Maria da Conceição; Holanda, Gabriela Calixto Ribeiro de; Coutinho, Eridan de Medeiros; Montenegro, Silvia Maria Lucena; Morais, Clarice Neuenschwander Lins de; Souza, Valdênia Maria Oliveira de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION Suckling by schistosomotic mice improves anti-ovalbumin (OA) antibody production, while delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) remains unaffected. This property of milk from schistosomotic mice was investigated in IL-12/IL-23-deficient mice (IL-12p40KO). METHODS We compared anti-OA DTH, IgG2a and cytokines in wild-type and IL-12p40KO mice suckled by infected (SIM) or non-infected (CONTROL) mothers. RESULTS SIM mice showed similar intensity and eosinophils in the DTH, which was abolished in IL-12p40KO and IL-12p40KO-SIM mice. In IL-12p40KO-SIM, IgG2a and TGF-β levels were higher, but IL-6 levels were lower. CONCLUSIONS Milk from schistosomotic mothers may evoke IgG2a without eliciting DTH in IL-12/IL-23 deficiencies, by changing TGF-β/IL-6 levels.
  • COVID-19 in children in the state of Pernambuco: Spatial analysis of confirmed severe cases and the Human Development Index Short Communication

    Silva, Amanda Priscila de Santana Cabral; Holanda, Eliane Rolim de; Abreu, Paula Daniella de; Freitas, Marcelo Victor de Arruda

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Health planning is required for the control and prevention of severe cases of COVID-19 in children. METHODS: Spatial analysis of severe COVID-19 cases in children of Pernambuco in the first six months of the pandemic and its autocorrelation with the Human Development Index was conducted. RESULTS: A total of 551 severe cases (39.4 cases/100,000 inhabitants) was initially concentrated in the metropolitan area, with later interiorization. The spatial autocorrelation of cases was identified. The bivariate analysis revealed alert regions in less developed municipalities (I=0.341; p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Considering the local particularities can assist in directing the priorities for decision making.
  • Risk factors associated with mortality in patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Short Communication

    Correal, Julio César Delgado; Solórzano, Victor Edgar Fiestas; Damasco, Paula Hesselberg; Martins, Maria de Lourdes; Oliveira, Adriana Guerreiro Soares de; Campos, Carla Salles; Fornasari, Marcos Fernando; Azeredo, Elzinandes Leal de; Damasco, Paulo Vieira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Understanding the mortality-associated risk factors of coronavirus disease 2019 will impact clinical decisions. METHODS: This retrospective longitudinal study included patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox regression analysis were used. RESULTS: Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score of ≥2 (hazard ratio 4.614; 95% confidence interval =2.210-9.634; p<0.001) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio of >5 (hazard ratio=2.616; 95% confidence interval=1.303-5.252; p=0.007) were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio on admission can identify coronavirus disease patients at increased risk of death and guide subsequent clinical decisions.
  • Larvicidal activity of Maytenus guianensis (Celastraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Short Communication

    Martins, Mirilene Mendes; Dias, Alyne Cunha Alves; Facundo, Valdir Alves; Lima, Renato Abreu; Meneguetti, Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira; Silva, Alexandre de Almeida e

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Bioprospection of plant products is used to discover new insecticides. METHODS: The larvicidal activity of ethanolic extract and triterpene (tingenone B) from the bark of Maytenus guianensis and their effect on pupation and emergence were evaluated against Aedes aegypti. RESULTS: Crude extract LC50 was 11.3 ppm and caused ejection of the larvae intestine; tingenone B LC50 was 14.8 ppm. Pupation was reduced by 20% and 10%, respectively; however, the emergence was not affected. CONCLUSIONS: The crude bark extract exhibited a higher larvicidal effect against the vector.
  • Efficacy of the 20-minute whole blood clotting test (WBCT20) in the diagnosis of coagulation alteration related to snakebites in a Western Brazilian Amazon hospital Short Communication

    Costa, Tamires Nascimento da; Silva, Ageane Mota da; Souza, Rodrigo Medeiros de; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Bernarde, Paulo Sérgio

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction: The efficacy of 20-minute whole blood clotting (WBCT20) and the Lee-White clotting time (LWCT) tests in diagnosing coagulation alterations from snakebites were compared. Methods: We evaluated 89 snakebite cases treated at the Hospital Regional do Juruá em Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, Brazil. Results: WBCT20 results were normal in 33.7% and unclottable in 66.3% of cases, while LWCT results were normal in 23.6% and altered (prolonged or unclottable) in 76.4% of cases, with no significant differences. Conclusions: The WBCT20 is important for rapidly diagnosing coagulation alterations from snakebites. Furthermore, it is efficient, inexpensive, and can be deployed in isolated hospitals.
  • First report of Microtriatoma borbai Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil: would M. borbai be living in eucalyptus crops? Short Communication

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio Reinaldo; Martins, David dos Santos; Silva, João Bosco da; Oliveira, Jader de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of Microtriatoma borbai in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil is reported by the first time. METHODS: A triatomine specimen collected in a hybrid eucalyptus crop in the municipality of Aracruz, Espírito Santo state was found to be a male M. borbai. RESULTS: This finding expands the geographical distribution of M. borbai from four to five Brazilian states. It is the first report of M. borbai occurrence inside a eucalyptus crop. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of M. borbai in the state of Espírito Santo broadens the geographical distribution of this species in southeastern Brazil.
  • Laboratory diagnosis of human T-lymphotropic virus in Brazil: assays, flowcharts, challenges, and perspectives Short Communication

    Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel Figueiredo; Alonso Neto, José Boullosa; Aragón, Mayra Gonçalves; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Ishak, Ricardo; Rosadas, Carolina

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION We present a data analysis and review of recent studies regarding the laboratory diagnosis of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) infections in Brazil. METHODS Target populations, available diagnostic serological assays (screening and complementary tests), molecular assays (in-house), causes of false-positive and false-negative results, and flowcharts were analyzed. RESULTS A table presents the target populations, two diagnostic flowcharts (depending on laboratory infrastructure and study population), and recent research that may improve how HTLV-1/2 is diagnosed in Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the implementation of public policies to reduce HTLV-1/2 transmission and its associated diseases.
  • Social distancing and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission: A case study from Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil Short Communication

    Figueiredo Filho, Dalson Britto; Silva, Lucas Emanuel de Oliveira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study evaluates the impact of social distancing on the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS: Using data from the Brazilian Ministry of Health, we conducted an interrupted time series analysis to estimate the impact of lockdown on the number of daily cases of COVID-19 in Araraquara, São Paulo. RESULTS: Policy changes neutralized the positive trend of the disease. To provide more reliable evidence, we added two control cases from Araçatuba and São Carlos to the regression model, and the results remained consistent. CONCLUSIONS: Social distancing interventions are effective tools for flattening epidemic curves.
  • Leishmaniasis in the Colombian post-conflict era: a descriptive study from 2004 to 2019 Short Communication

    Rodríguez, José Alejandro Iza; Rodríguez, Shirley Natali Iza; Olivera, Mario Javier

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is strongly associated with armed conflict. We describe the epidemiology of leishmaniasis before and after the peace agreement in Colombia. METHODS: Data for 2004-2019 period were collected from the National Public Health Surveillance System. The annual incidence per geographical department before and after the peace agreement was calculated and correlated with armed conflict severity. RESULTS: The annual incidence of leishmaniasis registered a downfall with an annual percentage change of 17.7% after the peace treaty. CONCLUSIONS: A decrease in hostilities has a positive impact on the leishmaniasis incidence, which may be the case for other public health issues.
  • Risk factors for leptospirosis and brucellosis in people living with human immunodeficiency virus who attended a referral hospital in southeastern Brazil Short Communication

    Brito, Flavio Gonçalves; Menozzi, Benedito Donizete; Mantovan, Karine Bott; Barbosa, Alexandre Naime; Victória, Cassiano; Langoni, Helio; Silva, Rodrigo Costa da

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis and brucellosis cause immunosuppression that worsens the clinical condition of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). We investigated the serological profile and risk factors of PLWHA. METHODS: Serum samples (n=238) were researched for Brucella spp. antibodies using Rose Bengal and tube agglutination tests and Leptospira spp. antibodies using the microscopic agglutination test. RESULTS: All samples were negative for Brucella spp. For leptospirosis, four samples (1.69%) were positive, and Andamana was the prevalent serovar. CONCLUSIONS: Low or no detection of these zoonoses does not reduce their importance in PLWHA. Vigilant, educational, and preventive measures should be adopted.
  • Reduction in Hospital Admissions Associated with Coronary Events during the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Brazilian Private Health System: Data from the UNIMED-BH System Short Communication

    Nascimento, Bruno Ramos; Brant, Luisa Campos Caldeira; Castro, Ana Cristina Teixeira; Froes, Luiz Eduardo Vieira; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho; Teixeira, Renato Azeredo; Cruz, Larissa Vilela; Araújo, Cynthia Bicalho Maluf; Souza, Charles Ferreira; Froes, Eduardo Tomaz; Souza, Soraya Diniz

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: We aimed to evaluate the impact of the new coronavirus disease 2019 on coronary hospitalizations in the Brazilian private health system. METHODS: Data on coronary admissions in 2020 and a 2-year historical series were collected from the UNIMED-BH insurance system. RESULTS: Admission rates in 2020 reduced by 26% (95%CI, 22-30) in comparison with 2018/2019, markedly from March to May (37%) compared to the peak of the pandemic (June-September, 19%). Mortality was higher in 2020 (5.4%, 95%CI 4.5-6.4) than in 2018/2019 (3.6%, 95%CI 3.2-4.1). CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant decrease in coronary admissions, with higher mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid shedding is variable for every person Short Communication

    Lima-Morales, Daiana de; Wink, Priscila Lamb; Volpato, Fabiana Caroline Zempulski; Camargo, Joíza Lins; de-Paris, Fernanda; Barth, Afonso Luís

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Considering the persistent positivity on RT-qPCR tests, the results of SARS-CoV-2 were monitored to evaluate the viral RNA shedding period. METHODS: Between March and June 2020, the sequential results of 29 healthcare workers’ were monitored using RT-qPCR. RESULTS: More than 50% of the individuals remained RT-qPCR positive after 14 days. Furthermore, this is the first study to describe positive RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 in a healthcare worker with mild symptoms 95 days after the first positive test. CONCLUSIONS: Sequential RT-qPCR results were heterogeneous, and the viral RNA shedding period is unique for each person.
  • Comorbidities and the risk of death among individuals infected by COVID-19 in Espírito Santo, Brazil Short Communication

    Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Aragon, Davi Casale; Pontes, Carolina Moreira; Nunes, Altacílio Aparecido; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia; Jabor, Pablo; Zandonade, Eliana

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: We investigated the association of self-reported comorbidities with fatality risk among individuals infected with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. METHODS: We included 212,620 individuals, ≥30 years old. The data were obtained from the COVID-19 panel. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression model were used. RESULTS: COVID-19-positive individuals presenting with chronic conditions were at a higher risk of fatality than individuals without these comorbidities. Age had a significant effect on these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Comorbidities were associated with an increased risk of fatality. Middle-aged people (30-59 years) with comorbidities should also be considered as a vulnerable group.
  • Pre- and post-COVID-19 evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility for healthcare-associated infections in the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital Short Communication

    Gaspar, Gilberto Gambero; Ferreira, Lécio Rodrigues; Feliciano, Cinara Silva; Campos Júnior, Cláudio Penido; Molina, Fabiana Murad Rossin; Vendruscolo, Andrea Cristina Soares; Bradan, Giovana Marcão Araújo; Lopes, Nátali Artal Padovani; Martinez, Roberto; Bollela, Valdes Roberto

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance has worsened since the onset of COVID-19. METHODS: This study involved patients admitted to the adult intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary hospital. Pre- and post-COVID-19 data were analyzed. The healthcare-related infections (HCRIs) reported between January 2018 and January 2020 and during the pandemic between February and July 2020 were compared. RESULTS: Antimicrobial resistance increased during the pandemic, especially for Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, with a rate increase from 5% to 50% for Polymyxin B. CONCLUSIONS: The susceptibilities of the main pathogens associated with HCRIs in the ICU changed and should be considered in managing severe COVID-19.
  • Impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 on the diagnoses of Hansen's disease in Brazil Short Communication

    Marques, Nelson Pereira; Marques, Nádia Carolina Teixeira; Cardozo, Iberto Medeiros; Martelli, Daniella Reis Barbosa; Lucena, Edson Gomes de; Oliveira, Eduardo Araújo; Martelli Júnior, Hercílio

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has limited the access of patients with Hansen's disease (HD) to care due to changes in routine health services. METHODS: To ascertain this, we compared the number of HD cases diagnosed before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The decrease in HD cases in Brazil reached 18,223 (-48.4%), corresponding to an average reduction of 1,518 cases per month during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: Therefore, effective measures should be implemented to minimize the damage and the consequent negative health impact of COVID-19 on the care of HD patients.
  • Trends in primary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the State of Rio de Janeiro: a retrospective study conducted during 2000-2019 Short Communication

    Bhering, Marcela; Kritski, Afrânio

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: We analyzed the trends in primary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). METHODS: We performed a time series analysis of primary MDR-TB cases reported in the State of Rio de Janeiro (RJ) during 2000-2019. The annual percent change and the average annual percentage change (AAPC) were computed using joinpoint regression analysis. RESULTS: The percentage of cases increased from 7.69% in 2000 to 38.42% in 2018. We observed an upward trend during this period (AAPC = 9.4; 95% confidence interval 1.4-18.0, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The trend indicates the increasing occurrence of MDR-TB transmission sources in RJ during 2000-2019.
  • Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus (Champion, 1899) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in Rondônia, Brazil: A novel report Short Communication

    Rocha, Dayse da Silva; Lobato, Alda; Galvão, Cleber

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: This short communication presents a novel report on the occurrence of Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus in the Brazilian state of Rondônia. METHODS: Two specimens were collected inside dwellings and identified using dichotomous keys. RESULTS: The present study showed the extensive geographic distribution of P. rufotuberculatus and the increased number of species in the state of Rondônia. CONCLUSIONS: This new record of P. rufotuberculatus is important for understanding the epidemiology of Chagas disease because this species is found naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Studies on the ecology, biology, and vector-host-parasite interactions of this species are essential for surveillance programs.
  • Occurrence of Leishmania infection in the immediate geographic region of Ji-Paraná, Rondônia State, Brazil Short Communication

    Almeida, Aliny Pontes; Paulo, Paula Frassinetti Medeiros de; Pereira Júnior, Antonio Marques; Gujanwski, Cinthya de Andrade; Ferreira, Valéria; Costa, Glaucilene da Silva; Rodrigues, Moreno Magalhães de Souza; Ferreira, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the immediate region of Ji-Paraná, Rondônia State. METHODS: Samples and epidemiological data were collected from 105 patients. RESULTS: Leishmania infection was observed in 58 (55.2%) patients, and Leishmania braziliensis was present in 82.9% of the 41 sequenced samples. Infected patients were predominantly male (93.1%). Leishmania infection was twice as prevalent among rural inhabitants versus urban inhabitants. Lesions were more frequent in the upper limbs (arms/hands, 41.82%). CONCLUSIONS: The present data corroborate the zoonotic profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis; this information could help to improve surveillance and control strategies.
  • Analysis of annexin-A1 in the macrophages and apoptotic cells of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis Short Communication

    Pona, Mariana Nascimento; Dietrich, Jordhana Mendonça; Silva, Joselina Maria da; Silva, Helen Aguiar Lemes da; Hueb, Marcia; Damazo, Amilcar Sabino

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION This study aimed to determine the number of macrophages and apoptotic cells and perform annexin-A1 detection in patients with leishmaniasis. METHODS Patients with Leishmania infection were admitted to Júlio Müller University Hospital. RESULTS The number of apoptotic cells was higher in the exudative granulomatous reaction. The exudative cellular reaction displayed higher levels of annexin-A1 detection in macrophages and apoptotic cells. The correlation between annexin-A1 detection in apoptotic cells and macrophages was observed in exudative necrotic reaction and exudative necrotic-granulomatous reaction. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate the relevance of annexin-A1 in the regulation of apoptosis and phagocytosis in leishmaniasis.
  • Comparison of two commercial tests (Immy vs. Dynamiker) for cryptococcal capsular antigen Short Communication

    Noguera, María Clara; Escandón, Patricia; Rodríguez, Javier; Parody, Alexander; Camargo, Leidy

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION Lateral flow assay is an advanced method useful in the early diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis. We aimed to compare two commercial tests for cryptococcal capsular antigen in the sera of asymptomatic patients with human immunodeficiency virus in Barranquilla, Colombia. METHODS Thawed (n=162) previously collected serums (2016-2019) were processed using IMMY and Dynamiker cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay. RESULTS Compared to IMMY’s results, Dynamiker’s sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and kappa index were 100%, 89.9%, 48.3%, 100.0%, and 0.61, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The Dynamiker test had excellent sensitivity, acceptable specificity, and a low detection threshold for cryptococcal antigen in the tested samples.
  • Hepatitis B virus genotypes prevalence in patients from hepatology services in Ceará, Brazil Short Communication

    Cruz, José Napoleão Monte Da; Villar, Lívia Melo; Mello, Francisco Campello Do Amaral; Lampe, Elisabeth; Hyppolito, Elodie Bomfim; Lima, José Milton De Castro; Hyppolito, Silvia Bomfim; Pires Neto, Roberto Da Justa; Nicolete, Larissa Deadame De Figueiredo; Coelho, Ivo Castelo Branco

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a public health problem; therefore, we aimed to report HBV genotypes in Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: A total of 103 HBsAg-positive samples were subjected to HBV genotyping and subgenotyping. RESULTS: The following genetic compositions of samples were found: F-54% (F2-83.33%), A-40% (A1-65%), D-6%, C2-1%, E-1%, and G-1%. CONCLUSIONS: Some genotypes are only prevalent in certain parts of the world; however, the State of Ceará is a hub for migration and has one of the most important liver transplantation centers in Brazil, which can explain the prevalence of the F genotype.
  • Enhanced rapid commercial DNA extraction kit for the molecular detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2: Easy adaptation to current protocols Short Communication

    Pessoa-e-Silva, Rômulo; Oliveira, Priscilla Stela Santana de; Gonçalves, Sayonara Maria Calado; Guarines, Klarissa Miranda; Carvalho, Lidiane Vasconcelos do Nascimento; Correia, Maria Andreza Bezerra; Rosa, Michelle Melgarejo da; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha; Pereira, Michelly Cristiny

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION Herein, the authors describe a simple enhancement to a commercial rapid DNA extraction kit based on simple viral lysis for detecting COVID-19 via RT-qPCR. METHODS After testing several different modifications, the adapted protocol with the best results in preliminary experiments was statistically evaluated in comparison with an automated robotic protocol. RESULTS Processing and testing of 119 nasopharyngeal samples ultimately yielded near-perfect agreement with the automated protocol (κ = 0.981 [95% confidence interval 0.943-1.000]). CONCLUSIONS The low cost and rapidity of the enhanced protocol makes it suitable for adoption in laboratories diagnosing COVID-19, especially those with high demand for examinations.
  • Systemic inflammatory syndrome in children during COVID-19 pandemic in Ceará state, northeastern Brazil: an observational study Short Communication

    Farias, Luís Arthur Brasil Gadelha; Almeida, Magda Moura de; Linhares, Pâmela Maria Costa; Brito Alves, Bruno Cavalcante Fales de; Duarte Filho, Roberto Jorge Colares; Leite, Roberio Dias; Safadi, Marco Aurelio Palazzi; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this study, we report the occurrence of multisystemic inflammatory syndrome among 64 children (2 deaths) with recent severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) infections in the northeast region of Brazil. The major clinical symptoms and signs reported were exanthema (60.9%), abdominal pain (56.3%), nausea and vomiting (46.9%), diarrhea (37.5%), and dyspnea (37.5%). Laboratory findings revealed that the levels of C-reactive protein (75.0%), hemoglobin (51.6%), D-dimer (48.4%), lymphocytes (43.8%), LDH (45.3%), AST (42.2%), ALT (51.6%), and ferritin (48.4%) were above the reference values for a given age and gender. The clinical findings were similar to those observed in Kawasaki disease, although it represents a separate entity, emphasizing the need for proactive surveillance and early treatment.
  • Determinants of minute ventilation-carbon dioxide production relationship in Chagas cardiomyopathy Short Communication

    Oliveira, Lucas Frois Fernandes; Andrade, Janaina Martins; Figueiredo, Pedro Henrique Scheidt; Ávila, Matheus Ribeiro; Silva, Whesley Tanor; Vianna, Marcus Vinicius Accetta; Trede Filho, Renato Guilherme; Costa, Henrique Silveira; Rocha, Manoel Otávio Costa; Lima, Vanessa Pereira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: The minute ventilation-carbon dioxide production relationship (VE/VCO2 slope) is among the main prognostic factors of Chagas cardiomyopathy whose determinants remain unknown. METHODS: Seventy-eight patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy were evaluated using clinical assessment, cardiopulmonary exercise test, echocardiography, and International Physical Activity Questionnaire. RESULTS: Age, functional class, International Physical Activity Questionnaire score, and dilated cardiomyopathy with systolic dysfunction were independent determinants of VE/VCO2 slope, and these variables explained 63% of its variance. CONCLUSIONS: The VE/VCO2 slope was related to age, functional class, physical activity level, and dilated cardiomyopathy with systolic dysfunction in patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy.
  • Spatial distribution of human visceral leishmaniasis cases in Cametá, Pará, Eastern Amazon, Brazil Short Communication

    Miranda, Claudia do Socorro Carvalho; Bonito, Jorge; Oliveira, Rafael Aleixo Coelho de; Guedes, Juan Andrade; Santos, Conceição; Oliveira, João Sérgio de Sousa; Filgueiras, Tainara Garcia; Oliveira, Francisco de Assis; Filgueiras, Tainã Garcia; Gonçalves, Nelson Veiga

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Human visceral leishmaniasis is considered a major public health problem in the municipality of Cametá, Pará, Brazil. METHODS: This ecological study was conducted using data obtained from official Brazilian agencies. Spatial analysis of the variables was performed using the kernel interpolation technique and the bivariate Global Moran’s Index. RESULTS: The spatial distribution of the disease was not homogeneous, and it was associated with socio-environmental risk factors and public policies. CONCLUSIONS: Different relationships were observed between the variables studied and disease occurrence.
  • Evaluation of the insecticide susceptibility profile in Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) in Belo Horizonte (Brazil) Short Communication

    Pessoa, Grasielle Caldas D’Ávila; Silva, Diego Oliveira da; Rosa, Aline Cristine Luiz; Andrade, Pedro Horta; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Since 2013, major Cimex lectularius infestations have been detected in public shelters in Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Due to this, insecticide resistance has been investigated as one of the possible causes for the failure to control bedbugs. METHODS: Cimicids were subjected to bioassays according to the World Health Organization recommendations using deltamethrin and all commercial insecticides available for control of Cimex in Brazil. RESULTS: Cimicids were deltamethrin resistant and presented indicative of resistance to other insecticides, except for propoxur 1%. CONCLUSIONS: The commercial insecticides have a limited effect on bedbug populations, which may justify the unsatisfactory control observed in the shelters studied.
  • Seropositivity for Chagas disease in blood donors from the state of Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil: an 11-year time series study Short Communication

    Abreu, Sílvia Letícia da Conceição; Bezerra-Santos, Márcio; Damasceno, Flávia Silva

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract INTRODUCTION Chagas disease can be transmitted by blood transfusion. Herein, we assessed the seropositivity for Chagas disease in blood donors from Alagoas, during 2010-2020. METHODS Data were requested from the Alagoas blood center. Time trend analysis was performed using a joinpoint regression model. RESULTS Seropositivity rate during the study period was 0.35%, which decreased from 2014 to 2020, (annual percentage change, APC = -29.38; p-value <0.05), while the total number of tests performed remained stable (APC = 6.5). CONCLUSIONS Despite the drop in the seropositivity for Chagas infection in donors, it is imperative to maintain the screening of donors for the epidemiological control.
  • A case report of human intoxication due to a snakebite by the opisthoglyphous dipsadid Thamnodynastes lanei Bailey, Thomas & Silva-Jr, 2005 Case Report

    Ganança, Pedro Henrique Salomão; Fraga, Rafael de; Vasconcelos Neto, Lourival Baía de; Santos Júnior, Alfredo Pedroso dos

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract We present a case of human intoxication due to a snakebite by the opisthoglyphous dipsadid Thamnodynastes lanei. A 26-year-old man was bitten on the right hand and was not medicated. Bleeding lasted a few seconds, while paresthesia, chills, and headache persisted for up to 10 hours. The pain disappeared after a week, and the edema, itching, and prickling persisted for another 3 days. Although this patient’s symptoms were typical of bites by South American opisthoglyphous snakes, they persisted longer than those of bites by some congeneric species. Our report adds a species to the list of medically relevant snakes.
  • Detection and characterization of a coxsackievirus B2 strain associated with acute meningoencephalitis, Brazil, 2018 Case Report

    Sousa Jr, Ivanildo Pedro de; Machado, Raiana Scerni; Burlandy, Fernanda Marcicano; Silva, Edson Elias da

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Although different etiological agents can cause acute meningoencephalitis, this syndrome is usually associated with viruses. Among these, enteroviruses play a significant role. Here, we describe a fatal case of meningoencephalitis in a previously healthy teenager. Real-time RT-PCR and cell culture assays were performed with serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from a clinically diagnosed meningoencephalitis case that occurred in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Coxsackievirus B2 (CVB2) was identified. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the identified CVB2 was genetically related to strains known to cause neurological diseases. This case highlights the importance of continuous laboratory surveillance of central nervous system infections.
  • Ramsey hunt syndrome after antimonial treatment for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Case Report

    Cavalcante, Melissa de Sousa Melo; Rodríguez, Karina López; Diéguez, José Alejandro Lazo; Santos, Luciana Mendes dos; Guerra, Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Ramsay Hunt Syndrome (RHS), also known as herpes zoster oticus, is caused by the reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) in the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve. Herein, we report a case of Ramsey Hunt Syndrome in a patient after antimonial treatment for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. The patient presented with microvesicles grouped on an erythematous base, starting in the neck and ascending towards the scalp margin on the right side of the head. The patient also developed grade V peripheral facial palsy the day after initiating the herpes zoster treatment, this outcome corroborated the assumption of Ramsey Hunt Syndrome.
  • Gnathostomiasis acquired after consumption of raw freshwater fish in the Amazon region: a report of two cases in Brazil Case Report

    Haddad Junior, Vidal; Oliveira, Ísis Fiorello de; Bicudo, Natália Parenti; Marques, Mariângela Esther Alencar

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Gnathostomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by the helminth Gnathostoma spp., acquired through the consumption of raw or undercooked contaminated aquatic animals.The disease is endemic in Southeast Asia and Central America. Two male patients, both middle-aged, presented with single itchy erythemato-edematous plaques on the anterior thorax and left flank. Both had consumed raw fish in the Amazon region. The clinical and epidemiological examinations suggested gnathostomiasis, and treatment with albendazole caused total regression of the lesions. Health teams should be familiar with the disease to provide correct diagnosis. The control strategy should be based on health education for the population.
  • Report of envenomation in humans by handling a dyeing poison frog Dendrobates tinctorius (SCHNEIDER, 1799) (Anura: Dendrobatidae) in the Amazon, Brazil Case Report

    Corrêa, Bruno Alessandro Augusto Peña; Sena, Vitor Matheus Alcântara de; Matsushita, Rubens Hisanari; Citeli, Nathalie Kaladinsky

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract We report a case of envenomation by Dendrobates tinctorius in the northwest of the Amazon Forest. The patients were two men, who presented with numbness in the right arm and slight numbness in the lower lip, respectively. Dendrobates tinctorius secretions contain pumiliotoxin, one of several toxins found in the dendrobatidis skin, which interferes with muscle contraction and causes locomotor difficulties. Although Dendrobatidae is a family of anurans known for their venom, few studies describe the symptoms of envenomation in humans.
  • Reactivation of Chagas disease after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation Case Report

    Chalela, Claudia Marcela; Peña, Angela Maria; Roa, Angela Maria; Reyes, David L.; Rueda, Jennifer Paola; Salazar, Luis Antonio; Rosales, Manuel; Gomez, Edgar David; Bernal, Edgar Augusto; Melo, Claudia Lucia Sossa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Chagas disease (CD) is a protozoan zoonosis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Reactivation of CD occurs via drug-induced immunosuppression before and during transplantation. Here, we report the case of a 62-year-old man diagnosed with classic Hodgkin lymphoma who received highly aggressive conditioning chemotherapy before undergoing stem cell transplantation (SCT). The patient tested positive for CD in pre-transplantation evaluation. The patient exhibited persistent fever and elevated C-reactive protein levels before and after SCT, and was treated with antibiotics. Micro-Strout test showed evidence of trypomastigotes and he was treated with benznidazole until tested negative. Post-transplantation seropositive patients should be screened for possible reactivation.
  • Acute uveitis: A rare adverse effect of miltefosine in the treatment of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis Case Report

    Pandey, Krishna; Pal, Biplab; Topno, Roshan Kamal; Lal, Chandra Shekhar; Das, Vidya Nand Rabi; Das, Pradeep

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis is a skin disorder occurring in 5-10% of visceral leishmaniasis patients after treatment with miltefosine,the first-line drug for this skin disorder. We reported a case of acute anterior uveitis,a rare adverse effect, experienced by a patient treated with miltefosine for post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. This adverse effect developed after 15 days of miltefosine consumption, and the patient himself discontinued the treatment. The ophthalmic complication was completely resolved with antibiotics and steroid eye drops. After recovery from the ophthalmic complication, the patient was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B for the skin lesions.
  • Bee sting envenomation severe cases in Manaus, Brazilian Amazon: clinical characteristics and immune markers of case reports Case Report

    Mendonça-da-Silva, Iran; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Sachett, Jacqueline Almeida Gonçalves; Barbosa, Endila Souza; Cordeiro-dos-Santos, Marcelo; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Melo, Gisely Cardoso; Costa, Allyson Guimarães; Val, Fernando Fonseca Almeida

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Bee venom is a natural toxin composed of several peptides. Massive envenoming causes severe local and systemic reactions. We report two cases of severe bee envenomation, of which one was fatal. We also describe clinical characteristics and immune markers. Both victims suffered from respiratory distress, renal failure, rhabdomyolysis, and shock. They required invasive mechanical ventilation, vasoactive drugs, and renal replacement therapy. Moreover, serum levels of chemokines, cytokines, and cell-free circulating nucleic acids demonstrated an intense inflammatory process. Massive envenoming produced systemic injury in the victims, with an uncontrolled inflammatory response, and a more significant chemotactic response in the fatal case.
  • Case report of Chagas disease reactivation: new diagnosis tool by direct microscopic observation of biopsy specimen and its preservation fluid Case Report

    Lopez-Albizu, Constanza; Bravo, Martín Pablo; Pico, Marisa; Fernandez, Marisa L.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Chagas Disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. This infection is endemic in the Americas region. Neurological Chagas reactivation is diagnosed through the visualization of the parasite in the cerebrospinal fluid, blood, or tissue samples. Herein, we report the visualization of trypomastigotes by direct microscopic observation of a brain biopsy specimen and its preservation fluid (PF) in a paitient infected with VIH and T. cruzi. This easy and simple diagnostic method coupled with quantitative polymerase chain reaction can be used in all tissue biopsies and PF of T. cruzi seropositive patients, suspected of Chagas disease reactivation.
  • New pandemic, old bugs: A case of cimicosis (Bed Bug) in a neglected elderly patient during the coronavirus disease quarantine Case Report

    Dellatorre, Gerson; Haddad Jr, Vidal

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Bed bugs are hematophagous arthropods that can parasitize humans. During the coronavirus disease pandemic, there has been an increase in elderly neglect. A man in his 90s came to the hospital complaining of generalized pruritus. Despite being a dependent patient, he was left alone in a home by his relatives during the pandemic. Examination revealed inflammatory nodules in addition to a live bed bug crawling over his trunk. Identifying a bed bug during consultation is an uncommon feature that can help determine a particular diagnosis. As this case shows, the need for social isolation during pandemics can contribute to elder abuse and neglect.
  • Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis associated with paracoccidioidomycosis in a patient with mannose receptor deficiency: First case reported in the literature Case Report

    Vasconcelos, Dewton de Moraes; Bertolini, Dalton Luís; Ferreira, Maurício Domingues

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract We describe the first report of a patient with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis associated with disseminated and recurrent paracoccidioidomycosis. The investigation demonstrated that the patient had a mannose receptor deficiency, which would explain the patient’s susceptibility to chronic infection by Candida spp. and systemic infection by paracoccidioidomycosis. Mannose receptors are responsible for an important link between macrophages and fungal cells during phagocytosis. Deficiency of this receptor could explain the susceptibility to both fungal species, suggesting the impediment of the phagocytosis of these fungi in our patient.
  • Lobular panniculitis of the thigh as the only cutaneous manifestation of reactivation of Chagas disease in a renal transplant patient: a case report Case Report

    Oliveira, Walmar Roncalli Pereira de; Romero-Sandoval, Karina; Magalhães, Tiara Souza; Giannotti, Marcelo Abrantes; Tyring, Stephen Keith; Costa, Pedro Victor Alcantara da

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Reactivation of chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) has been reported. The patient presented with a 2-week history of two painful erythematous, infiltrated plaques with central ulceration and necrotic crust on the left thigh. She had a history of chronic indeterminate Chagas disease (CD) and had received a kidney transplant before 2 months. Skin biopsies revealed lobular panniculitis with intracellular amastigote forms of T. cruzi. The patient was diagnosed with CD reactivation. Treatment with benznidazole significantly improved her condition. CD reactivation should be suspected in SOTRs living in endemic areas with clinical polymorphism of skin lesions.
  • Efficacy of imiquimod 5% cream as first-line management in cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania mexicana Case Report

    Fuentes-Nava, Gabriela; Tirado-Sánchez, Andrés; Fernández-Figueroa, Edith A.; Sánchez-Montes, Sokani; Becker, Ingeborg; Bonifaz, Alexandro

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) involves several differential diagnoses as it lacks a gold standard diagnostic test. Its diagnosis is easier in endemic regions; however, many cases come from travelers to endemic areas. A 22-year-old patient, who had recently visited Oaxaca, Mexico, developed two asymptomatic ulcers weeks later on the left auricle and the nose. Leishmania mexicana was identified using polymerase chain reaction. The patient was treated with imiquimod 5% cream three times/week, providing favorable results after 12 weeks, without relapse 2 months after therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of CL due to L. mexicana effectively treated with imiquimod.
  • Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator prevents sudden death in patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy in the Brazilian Amazon Case Report

    Couceiro, Katia do Nascimento; Ortiz, Jessica Vanina; Silva, Mônica Regina Hosannah da Silva e; Sousa, Débora Raysa Teixeira de; Souza, Kenny Rodrigues de; Alencar, Gabriela Maciel; Magalhães, Laylah Kelre Costa; Guerra, Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa; Ferreira, João Marcos Bemfica Barbosa; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Chagas disease (CD), with approximately 10,000 deaths annually, has become a worldwide health problem. Approximately 35% of cases may show cardiac manifestations such as arrhythmias and/or conduction disorders, heart failure, thromboembolic accidents, and sudden death. The Amazon region has long been considered a non-endemic area for CD; however, in the last decades, with an increase in the number of acute and chronic cases, disease evolution has received greater attention. Here, we report the successful implementation of a cardioverter-defibrillator for the prevention of sudden death in a patient with autochthonous Chagas cardiomyopathy in the Brazilian Amazon.
  • Unusual manifestation of genital cutaneous leishmaniasis in an immunocompetent patient from São Paulo, Brazil: A case report Case Report

    Reis, Luiza Campos; Lindoso, José Angelo Lauletta; Celeste, Beatriz Julieta; Braz, Lucia Maria Almeida; Ramos-Sanchez, Eduardo Milton; Yamashiro-Kanashiro, Edite Hatsumi; Goto, Hiro; Oyafuso, Luiza Keiko Matsuka

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract A 31-year-old male patient developed an ulcer on the glans penis that evolved for three months without healing. We diagnosed it as leishmaniasis using polymerase chain reaction. No immunosuppression or associated diseases were observed. The patient was treated with meglumine antimoniate that cured the lesion in a month post-treatment. Here, we report this case of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesion at the unusual location of glans penis in an immunocompetent individual. The lesion likely developed due to the bite of a vector, highlighting the need for considering cutaneous leishmaniasis among differential diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases in areas endemic for leishmaniasis.
  • Treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis in two hemodialysis patients with end-stage renal disease using two series of pentamidine Case Report

    Petruccelli, Karla Cristina; Couceiro, Kátia Nascimento; Guerra, Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa; Vasconcelos, Zanair Soares; Brandão, Alba Regina Jorge; Silva, Monica Hosannah Silva e; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this study, we present two cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in patients with end-stage renal disease, who were treated solely with intramuscular pentamidine. In such cases, treatment implies a fine line between therapeutic efficacy and toxicity. This is suggestive of a knowledge gap; however, findings indicate that this is still the fastest and safest alternative to the treatment with antimonials. Also, it can help avoid the side effects that occur upon using antimonials.
  • Is splenectomy an option for multiple relapses in a child with visceral leishmaniasis? A case report Case Report

    Campos, Marcos Adriano Garcia; Moraes Filho, Andrey Salgado; Rêgo, Gustavo Ribeiro Féres Moraes; Silva, Raphael Oliveira Lima; Sousa, Rebeca Aranha Barbosa; Tchuisseu, Yolande Pokam; Silva, Gyl Eanes Barros; Gama, Mônica Elinor Alves

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease caused by Leishmania spp. The recurrence of the disease occurs, in general, in patients with decreased or loss of T-cell function, whether due to the use of corticosteroids, immunosuppressive disease, or another cause. In some cases, splenectomy may be a therapeutic option. However, the effectiveness of splenectomy is not well defined. This report describes the evolution of a pediatric patient with seven recurrences of VL, who relapsed post-surgery after drug therapy and splenectomy.
  • Challenges in diagnosis of genital ulcers: a genital leishmaniasis case series Case Report

    Souza, Marina Dias de; Falqueto, Aloísio; Morais, Gabriela Lopes de; Salomão, Amanda da Silva; Pereira, Fernanda Daher

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Leishmaniasis is a tropical infectious disease caused by Leishmania spp. protozoa and is transmitted by insects from the Phlebotominae subfamily. It can manifest as cutaneous leishmaniasis, a painless ulcer that can develop into a more serious systemic affliction as the protozoa spreads lymphatically or hematogenously, depending on the host's immunity. In this case series, the authors present a rare form of genital mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, with consideration of epidemiologic characteristics, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and treatments offered.
  • First report of bla GES-1 in Proteus mirabilis clinical isolates Case Report

    Beltrão, Elizabeth Maria Bispo; Oliveira, Érica Maria de; Lopes, Ana Catarina de Souza

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Proteus mirabilis is one of the main pathogens causing urinary tract infections and sepsis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a P. mirabilis hosting bla GES. The presence of these genes was determined using PCR and sequencing. We identified the presence of bla GES-1 in all three isolates. In addition, we identified the bla KPC-2 and bla NDM-1 genes in the two strains. These data emphasize the importance of monitoring and surveillance of all enterobacteria. The circulation of P. mirabilis strains carrying bla GES-1 constitutes a new scenario of resistance in this species and should be an epidemiological alert for global health.
  • Children’s Multisystem inflammatory syndrome with myopathy Case Report

    Azevedo, Zina Maria Almeida de; Camacho, Karla Gonçalves; Caixeta, Daniella Mancino da Luz; Lima-Setta, Fernanda; Salles, Tania Regina Dias Saad; Góes, Fernanda Veiga de; Nehab, Marcio Fernandes; Figueiredo, Carlos Eduardo da Silva; Leite, Maria de Fátima Monteiro Pereira; Vasconcelos, Zilton Farias Meira de; Melgaço, Juliana Gil; Bom, Ana Paula Dinis Ano; Moore, Daniella Campelo Batalha Cox

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This report describes a case of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in a child that evolved with a pattern of toxic shock syndrome with coronary artery ectasia and neurological involvement, documented by magnetic resonance imaging, with changes in the corpus callosum and myopathy in the pelvic girdle and paravertebral musculature.
  • Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing unit TcIV implicated in a case of acute Chagas disease in a domiciliated dog in the western Amazon Case Report

    Vasconcelos, Luciene Almeida Siqueira de; Oliveira, Josué Costa; Silva Junior, Rubens Celso Andrade da; Justiniano, Silvia Cássia Brandão; Souza, Éder dos Santos; Magalhães, Laylah Kelre Costa; Silveira, Henrique; Silva, George Allan Villarouco da; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira; Guerra, Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Seven lineages have been identified based on different molecular markers, namely TcI, TcII, TcIII, TcIV, TcV, TcVI, and TcBat. Dogs play the role of epidemiological sentinels being domestic reservoirs of T. cruzi. The aim of the current study was to report the first case of CD in a domestic dog in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, infected with T. cruzi DTU TcIV. We hope our report encourages veterinarians and surveillance professionals to a take a deeper look at T. cruzi infection in domestic animals.
  • Long-Term Persistence of Serum-Specific Anti-Chikungunya IgM Antibody - A Case Series of Brazilian Patients Case Report

    Costa, Denise Maria do Nascimento; Coêlho, Maria Rosângela Cunha Duarte; Gouveia, Pedro Alves da Cruz; Bezerra, Luan Araújo; Marques, Claudia Diniz Lopes; Duarte, Angela Luzia Branco Pinto; Valente, Lucila Maria; Magalhães, Vera

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The persistence of serum-specific anti-chikungunya IgM antibodies (CHIKV-IgM) can vary after chikungunya fever (CHIK) infection. However, the factors related to its production are not yet known. We described a case series drawn up from data collected from 57 patients between 12 and 36 months after the acute phase of CHIK infection in Northeastern Brazil. CHIKV-IgM was detectable in 7/57 (12.3%) patients after 28.3 months of infection. No frequency differences in chronic musculoskeletal manifestations and underlying conditions were detected between patients with or without CHIKV-IgM. CHIKV-IgM was detected for up to 35 months in Brazilian patients after CHIK infection.
  • Diagnosis and management of coronavirus disease-associated immune thrombocytopenia: a case series Case Report

    Aydın, Fatma Yılmaz; Demircan, Vehbi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Data on health problems and fatal complications associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have consistently been reported. Although immune thrombocytopenia has been associated with multiple viral infections, only few studies have shown its association with COVID-19. Here, we have reported a case series of two cases pertaining to patients diagnosed with COVID-19-associated immune thrombocytopenia, elaborating on the clinical course, management, and response to treatment.
  • Pulmonary thromboembolism in conjunction with intracavitary thrombus caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection in a patient living with human immunodeficiency virus Case Report

    Silva, Ana Carolina Veronese; Machado-Junior, Paulo André Bispo; Anizelli, Leticia Bressan; Stocco, Rebecca Benicio; Moura, Lidia Ana Zytynski; Motta Junior, Jarbas da Silva; Blume, Gustavo Gavazzoni

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Approximately one-third of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) present with coagulation disorders and hematological changes. However, the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 and prognoses of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain controversial. This study reports the case of a 27-year-old HIV-infected man who regularly used antiretroviral medications, had no other comorbidities and was admitted for acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by COVID-19. Complementary examinations during hospitalization revealed a diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism in association with an intracavitary thrombus.
  • Dengue fever as a potential cause of sickle cell intrahepatic cholestasis: A report of two cases Case Report

    Oliveira, Leonardo Rodrigues de; Costa, Ana Laura Castro; Almeida, Paula Veloso; Zago, Luzia Beatriz Ribeiro; Silva, Vanessa Afonso da; Soares-Silva, Sheila

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Sickle cell intrahepatic cholestasis is a potentially fatal syndrome characterized by jaundice, painful hepatomegaly, and organ dysfunction. Two cases of sickle cell intrahepatic cholestasis associated with dengue fever were described. Endothelial damage/dysfunction is a mechanism involved in severe hepatobiliary complications related to sickle cell diseases. However, the reasons for the lack of increase in the admission of patients with sickle cell disease having severe acute hepatobiliary complications triggered by endothelial damage/dysfunction due to dengue fever remain unknown. This study describes the first association between sickle cell intrahepatic cholestasis and dengue fever.
  • Intramuscular hydatid cyst in the lower extremity: report of three cases Case Report

    Şimşek, Sadullah; Hattapoğlu, Salih

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Hydatid cysts are rarely detected in the muscle tissue, even in endemic countries. Echinococcus granulosis is the most common causative agent, whereas Echinococcus alveolaris is rare. Three patients, two females and one male, with primary echinococcosis of the skeletal muscles are described in this report. Mean patient age was 33.3 ± 14.6 years. The disease occurred as soft tissue masses in all three patients, and no hydatid foci were detected elsewhere in the patients. Skeletal muscle echinococcosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of limb masses, especially in endemic countries.
  • Stroke in COVID-19 and Pregnancy: A Case Report Case Report

    Gama, Mylana Dandara Pereira; Angelo Júnior, José Ronaldo Lessa; Cunha-Correia, Carolina da

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Neurological manifestations add prognostic severity to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Here, we report a case of a pregnant patient with COVID-19 that progressed with neurological complications. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed cerebral ischemic insults associated with cortical laminar necrosis, in addition to an intraparenchymal brain hematoma. The mechanisms of vascular injury may have multifactorial origins and result in complex radiological presentations. Since stroke associated with pregnancy is one of the main causes of long-term disability in women, accurate identification of cerebrovascular events may potentially reduce sequelae.
  • Vertical transmission of maternal COVID-19 antibodies after CoronaVac vaccine: A case report Case Report

    Menegali, Bruno Thizon; Schuelter-Trevisol, Fabiana; Barbosa, Alexandre Naime; Izidoro, Talita Menegali; Feurschuette, Otto Henrique May; Marcon, Chaiana Esmeraldino Mendes; Trevisol, Daisson José

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The use of coronavirus disease 2019 RNA vaccines in pregnant women led to reports on the first cases of newborns with antibodies to sudden acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a phenomenon that was unknown when using immunizations with inactivated viruses. Thus, this study aimed to report a case of passive anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity in a newborn through immunoprophylaxis of a pregnant woman who received the CoronaVac® vaccine in the third trimester of pregnancy. Twenty-four hours after delivery, samples were collected from the newborn and screened by enzyme immunoassays, which revealed antibodies to SARS-CoV-2.
  • Dramatic secukinumab-mediated improvements in refractory leprosy-related neuritis via the modulation of T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 17 (Th17) immune pathways Case Report

    Kurizky, Patrícia Shu; Motta, Jorgeth de Oliveira Carneiro da; Bezerra, Natanael Victor Furtunato; Sousa, Marcia Carolline dos Santos; Corazza, Danilo; Borges, Tatiana Karla dos Santos; Gomes, Ciro Martins

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract A 39-year-old woman was diagnosed with relapsed multibacillary leprosy and refractory neuritis. Here, we describe an evident loss of therapeutic effectiveness after the third pulse of corticosteroids, which may be attributed to tachyphylaxis and the posterior modulation of interferon- γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α,) interleukin-17A (IL-17A), and IL-12/23p40 after the induction phase of secukinumab. In this case, plasma cytokine analysis showed that secukinumab induced a reduction in IL-17 concomitant with impressive clinical improvements in the patient’s neural function. Interestingly, secukinumab induced reductions in cytokines related to Th1 responses and earlier stages of the Th17 response, including IL-23/12.
  • Unusual Case: Ophthalmomyiasis Images In Infectious Diseases

    Can, Fatma Kesmez; Alay, Handan; Çinici, Emine
  • Palpebral myiasis due Cochliomyia macellaria in an alcoholic patient Images In Infectious Diseases

    Farias, Luis Arthur Brasil Gadelha; Teixeira, Maria Jânia; Pires Neto, Roberto da Justa
  • Extensive pulmonary involvement in Kaposi sarcoma in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Images In Infectious Diseases

    Silva, Sildomar Queiroz e; Frank, Carlos Henrique Michiles; Almeida, Taynná Vernalha Rocha
  • Gelatinous pseudocysts in cryptococcal meningoencephalitis Images In Infectious Diseases

    Ribeiro, Bruno Niemeyer de Freitas; Marchiori, Edson
  • Acute flaccid myelitis in a polio-like syndrome Images In Infectious Diseases

    Pereira, Ronaldo Gonçalves; Muniz, Bernardo Carvalho; Ribeiro, Bruno Niemeyer de Freitas
  • Primary iliopsoas abscess due to Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia Images In Infectious Diseases

    Chang, Chee Yik; Teoh, Sing Chiek
  • Myelitis and Radiculitis Complicating Varicella-Zoster Virus Reactivation Images In Infectious Diseases

    Corrêa, Diogo Goulart; Tsuno, Niedja Santos Gonçalves; Cruz Júnior, Luiz Celso Hygino da
  • Disseminated crusted scabies in an elderly patient Images In Infectious Diseases

    Neumaier, Luís Felipe Teixeira; Chemello, Diego; Chemello, Raíssa Massaia Londero
  • COVID-19 and spontaneous pneumomediastinum: a rare complication Images In Infectious Diseases

    Albuquerque, Júlio Holanda Cavalcanti de; Silva, Angélica Maria Holanda Pascoal da; Almeida, Tássia Ívila Freitas de; Farias, Luís Arthur Brasil Gadelha
  • Hepatic actinomycosis: a very rare form of actinomycosis Images In Infectious Diseases

    Albayrak, Ayse; Ozkurt, Zulal; Ozden, Kemalettin
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis as an uncommon cause of intracranial abscesses Images In Infectious Diseases

    Ribeiro, Bruno Niemeyer de Freitas; Marchiori, Edson
  • Klebsiella granulomatis infection in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection Images In Infectious Diseases

    Araújo, Max Roberto Batista; Sant’Anna, Lincoln Oliveira; Santos, Louisy Sanches dos
  • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis Images In Infectious Diseases

    Yakut, Nurhayat; Kepenekli, Eda; Dogru, Omer
  • Hepatic alveolar echinococcosis in a child Images In Infectious Diseases

    Yilmaz-Cankaya, Bahar; Pirimoglu, Berhan
  • Pott disease: Vertebral Tuberculosis Images In Infectious Diseases

    Chicué, Libardo Valencia; Bisso, Indalecio Carboni; Heras, Marcos Las
  • Cystic echinococcosis involving the cardiac interventricular septum Images In Infectious Diseases

    Çankaya, Bahar Yılmaz; Çolak, Abdurrahim
  • Giant hydatid cysts in pregnancy: A rare presentation Images In Infectious Diseases

    Çankaya, Bahar Yılmaz; Yeşilyurt, Mustafa
  • Tuberculosis tenosynovitis: A rare case report Images In Infectious Diseases

    Can, Fatma Kesmez; Tuncer, Kutsi; Çankaya, Bahar Yılmaz
  • Tinea nigra: A series of three cases observed in Botucatu, São Paulo Images In Infectious Diseases

    Valentim, Flávia de Oliveira; Lacerda, Priscila Neri; Haddad, Gabriela Roncada
  • An Atypically Located Hydatid Cyst Images In Infectious Diseases

    Parlak, Emine; Tekin, Salim Başol
  • Hydatid cyst in the stomach wall Images In Infectious Diseases

    Polat, Gökhan; Çankaya, Bahar Yılmaz; Sade, Recep
  • Involvement of bone in disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis Images In Infectious Diseases

    Martins, Philippe Alcântara Gonçalves; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna
  • Acute necrotizing encephalopathy with H1N1 virus infection in a child Images In Infectious Diseases

    Pirimoglu, Berhan; Keskin, Halil; Tan, Huseyin
  • Chronic paronychia as a manifestation of skin leishmaniasis Images In Infectious Diseases

    Santos, Luciana Mendes dos; Santos, Joel Lucas Dantas dos; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira
  • Disseminated tegumentary leishmaniasis refractory to liposomal amphotericin B treatment Images In Infectious Diseases

    Borges, Ana Flávia; Molina, Juliana D'Andrea; Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado de
  • Hydatid cyst in the wrist Images In Infectious Diseases

    Tekin, Rojbin Ceylan; Özkul, Emin; Tekin, Recep
  • Radiological imaging of pericardial hydatid cyst Images In Infectious Diseases

    Cakir, Okan; Sade, Recep; Alper, Fatih
  • Association between periorbital cutaneous leishmaniasis and basosquamous carcinoma Images In Infectious Diseases

    Grisolia, Danielle Santos; Teles-Filho, Ricardo Vieira; Guilarde, Adriana Oliveira
  • Meningeal tuberculoma: when to consider it? Images In Infectious Diseases

    Kitamura, Matheus Augusto Pinto; Silva, Marcelo Palmares Oliveira e; Silva, Vitor Palmares Oliveira e
  • Campylobacter fetus spondylodiscitis during immunochemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma Images In Infectious Diseases

    Cunha, Jéssica Santos; Queiroz, Fernando Franco Lafetá; Molina, Rodrigo Juliano; Oliveira, Leonardo Rodrigues de
  • Renal infarction in a patient with Coronavirus Disease 2019: another rare thrombotic event Images In Infectious Diseases

    Farias, Luís Arthur Brasil Gadelha; Cruz, Eberson de Alcântara; Silva, Angélica Maria Holanda Pascoal da; Almeida, Tássia Ívila Freitas de
  • Injuries and infection caused by capybara bites in a human Images In Infectious Diseases

    Rossetto, André Luiz; Amarante, Lucas Franklin; Rossetto, Ana Letícia; Haddad Junior, Vidal
  • Intracranial hemorrhage secondary to disseminated histoplasmosis in AIDS: an uncommon presentation Images In Infectious Diseases

    Stucchi, Raquel Silveira Bello; Billis, Athanase; Reis, Fabiano
  • Lucio’s phenomenon, a mutilating manifestation of leprosy Images In Infectious Diseases

    Roncada, Eduardo Vinicius Mendes; Marques, Isabella Andrade; Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado de
  • Disseminated talaromycosis in an HIV-infected patient Images In Infectious Diseases

    Chang, Chee Yik; Wahid, Adrena Abdul; Ong, Edmund Liang Chai
  • Bilateral striatal necrosis associated with enterovirus infection Images In Infectious Diseases

    Cabrera Filho, Ferdinand Dueñas; Ribeiro, Bruno Niemeyer de Freitas; Marchiori, Edson
  • Extensive progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy as the first manifestation of AIDS Images In Infectious Diseases

    Couto, Lénio Parreira do; Barcelos, Vanessa; Goulart, André
  • Pneumorrhachis: an uncommon finding in patients with COVID-19 Images In Infectious Diseases

    Hochhegger, Bruno; Mattos, Juliane Nascimento de; Marchiori, Edson
  • Aquagenic syringeal acrokeratoderma in an adolescent female with COVID-19 Images In Infectious Diseases

    Alay, Handan; Bilen, Handan
  • An unusual case of tuberculous pericarditis diagnosed exclusively by positive acid-fast staining Images In Infectious Diseases

    Chemello, Diego; Neumaier, Luís Felipe Teixeira; Lovatel, Ivy Bauer
  • Spinal cord and cutaneous involvement in paracoccidioidomycosis Images In Infectious Diseases

    França, Andrea Fernandes Eloy da Costa; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira; Reis, Fabiano
  • Cardiac and hepatic hydatid cyst in a child with chest pain Images In Infectious Diseases

    Cakir, Ismet Mirac; Aslan, Serdar; Bekci, Tumay
  • Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in a patient with HIV infection: complex diagnosis using Giemsa-stained bronchoalveolar lavage fluid Images In Infectious Diseases

    Santos, Louisy Sanches dos; Sant’Anna, Lincoln de Oliveira; Araújo, Max Roberto Batista
  • Severe bullous cutaneous anthrax with malignant edema Images In Infectious Diseases

    Tartar, Ayşe Sağmak; Akbulut, Ayhan; Demir, Betül
  • Cerebral malaria: A life-threatening complication Images In Infectious Diseases

    Bekci, Tumay; Cakir, Ismet Mirac; Aslan, Serdar
  • Cryptococcal meningoradiculitis presenting with acute flaccid paralysis Images In Infectious Diseases

    Chang, Chee Yik
  • Spondylodiscitis complicated by paraspinal abscess in a 10-year-old child Images In Infectious Diseases

    Gicchino, Maria Francesca; Di Maio, Nicoletta; Di Sessa, Anna
  • Spontaneous pneumomediastinum associated with Covid-19 pneumonia in a pregnant woman Images In Infectious Diseases

    Sayit, Asli Tanrivermis; Elmali, Muzaffer; Onal, Mesut
  • Isolated posterior tibial artery thrombosis after non-severe SARS-CoV-2 infection Images In Infectious Diseases

    Aslan, Serdar; Bekci, Tumay; Cakir, Ismet Mirac
  • AIDS-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient presenting with cerebellar ataxia Images In Infectious Diseases

    Chang, Chee Yik
  • Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Patient with COVID-19 Pneumonia Images In Infectious Diseases

    Fonseca Jr, Cyro Antonio; Zanetti, Gláucia; Marchiori, Edson
  • Pneumothorax in a COVID-19 Patient Receiving Long-Term Mechanical Ventilation Images In Infectious Diseases

    Yuzuak, Erdem; Aslan, Serdar; Cakir, Ismet Mirac
  • Pneumomediastinum in a patient with severe Covid-19 pneumonia Images In Infectious Diseases

    Chang, Chee Yik
  • Aureobasidium melanogenum isolation from the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: A novel report Images In Infectious Diseases

    Sant’Anna, Lincoln de Oliveira; Santos, Louisy Sanches dos; Araújo, Max Roberto Batista
  • Invasive Aspergillus rhinosinusitis complicated with cerebral abscess Images In Infectious Diseases

    Wang, Vee Vian; Chang, Chee Yik; Radhakrishnan, Anuradha P.
  • Spinal Cord involvement in Dengue Images In Infectious Diseases

    Loeb, Laura; Mei, Paulo Afonso; Reis, Fabiano
  • Primary Mycobacterium avium Enteritis in a Patient Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Images In Infectious Diseases

    Chang, Chee Yik
  • Diagnosis of Ocular Loiasis in a Patient from a Dirofilaria-Endemic Area Images In Infectious Diseases

    Kumar, Anil; Shashindran, Nandita
  • Lemierre Syndrome: An Uncommon Cause of Septic Embolism Images In Infectious Diseases

    Gomes, Antônio Carlos Portugal; Mattar, Eduardo; Marchiori, Edson
  • Necrotizing Orchitis due to COVİD-19 Images In Infectious Diseases

    Aslan, Serdar; Eryuruk, Uluhan
  • Pediatric COVID-19 patient with exacerbated generalized pustular psoriasis Images In Infectious Diseases

    Pala, Erdal; Melikoğlu, Mehmet; Erkayman, Merve Hatun
  • Comorbidity of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever and COVID-19 Images In Infectious Diseases

    Albayrak, Ayse; Alay, Handan; Yilmaz, Sibel Iba
  • COVID-19-associated leukoencephalopathy and brain microhemorrhages Images In Infectious Diseases

    Sabino, João Vitor; Gonçales, Eduardo Sellan Lopes; Reis, Fabiano
  • Detection of meningovascular neurotuberculosis through intracranial vessel wall imaging Images In Infectious Diseases

    Daniel, Paulo Márcio Borges; Sprenger, Flávia; Teixeira, Bernardo Corrêa de Almeida
  • Granulomatous Mastitis Images In Infectious Diseases

    Can, Fatma Kesmez; Güven, Fadime; Karadeniz, Erdem
  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis presenting as high-attenuation mucous impaction Images In Infectious Diseases

    Hochhegger, Bruno; Patel, Pratik; Marchiori, Edson
  • Atypical exuberant presentation of sycosiform tinea barbae Images In Infectious Diseases

    Oliveira, Valentina Lourenço Lacerda de; Souza, Emilly Neves; Diniz, Lucia Martins; Moura, Luana Amaral de
  • Primary tuberculosis of the tongue Images In Infectious Diseases

    Martins-de-Barros, Allan Vinícius; Silva, Emanuel Dias de Oliveira e; Araújo, Fábio Andrey da Costa; Carvalho, Marianne de Vasconcelos
  • Loxoscelism leading to penile necrosis Images In Infectious Diseases

    Simões, Gabriel Chahade Sibanto; Paladino Júnior, Joao Roberto; Simões, Alexandre Gomes Sibanto
  • Occurrence of erythemato-purpuric patches upon contact with a myriapod (diplopod) Images In Infectious Diseases

    Basano, Sergio de Almeida; Silva Junior, Cipriano Ferreira da; Meneguetti, Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira
  • Can the municipal social deprivation index influence the time trend of the leprosy detection rate? Letter

    Souza, Carlos Dornels Freire de; Santos, Victor Santana; Nery, Joilda Silva; Fernandes, Tânia Rita Moreno de Oliveira; Magalhães, Mônica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra
  • Letter to the editor regarding the paper “Tick infestation of the eyelid” Letter

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe
  • What happens in Brazil? A pandemic of misinformation that culminates in an endless disease burden Letter

    Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro de Barros; Fernandes, Ana Paula Morais; Santos, Isabel Kinney Ferreira de Miranda
  • Rickettsioses in Brazil: distinct diseases and new paradigms for epidemiological surveillance Letter

    Faccini-Martínez, Álvaro A.; Krawczak, Felipe da Silva; Oliveira, Stefan Vilges de; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Angerami, Rodrigo Nogueira
  • SARS-CoV-2 reinfection: a case report from Portugal Letter

    Fernandes, Ana Carolina; Figueiredo, Rui
  • A new focus of Brazilian spotted fever in the central-west region of São Paulo state, Brazil Letter

    Fornazari, Felipe; Freirias, Cristianne Dantas; Lima, Heloísa Coppini de; Rodrigues, Mauricio Mariani; Langoni, Helio; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto
  • Twenty years of successful academic outreach at Núcleo de Medicina Tropical (NACE-NUMETROP/USP) in Santarém, Pará Letter

    Said, Renato do Carmo; Assy, João Guilherme Pontes Lima; Silva, Kamila Vieira; Brandão, Alisson dos Santos; Pinheiro, Olívia Campos; Esper, Helena Rangel; Gryschek, Anna Luiza de Fátima Pinho Lins; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita; Amato, Valdir Sabbaga; Boulos, Marcos; Segurado, Aluísio Augusto Cotrim; Gryschek, Ronaldo César Borges; França, Francisco Oscar de Siqueira; ,
  • Medical importance of candiru catfishes in Brazil: A brief essay Letter

    Haddad Junior, Vidal; Zuanon, Jansen; Sazima, Ivan
  • The risk of exotic venomous snakes to public health in Brazil Letter

    Bernarde, Paulo Sérgio; Wen, Fan Hui; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo
  • Fatal rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis infection associated with diabetic ketoacidosis post-COVID-19 Letter

    Bonates, Paula; João, Guilherme Augusto Pivoto; Cruz, Kátia Santana; Ferreira, Marcelo de Souza; Baía-da-Silva, Djane Clarys; Farias, Maria Eduarda Leão de; Brito-Sousa, José Diego; Santana, Monique Freire; Oliveira, Luciana Aires de; Cortez, Ana Cláudia Alves; Souza, João Vicente Braga; Lacerda, Marcus Vinicius Guimarães
  • Vaccination against COVID-19 in the Brazilian indigenous population: Has science been defeated by fake news? Letter

    Barbosa, Marcelo dos Santos; Croda, Mariana Garcia; Simionatto, Simone
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  • Erratum Erratum

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