Availability of immature embryos as explants to establish wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by tissue culture can be limited by climatic factors and the lack of high quality embryos frequently hampers experimentation. This study evaluates the effects of rainfall, various temperature-based variables and sunshine duration on tissue culture response (TCR) traits including callus formation (CF), regenerating calli (RC), and number of plants per embryo (PPE) for 96 wheat genotypes of worldwide origin. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the significance of a particular climatic factor on TCR traits and to determine the period of wheat growth during which these factors were the most effective. The genotypes were grown in an experimental field during three seasons differing in meteorological conditions. The relationships between TCR traits and climatic factors within three time periods of wheat growth: 2, 6 and 10 weeks prior to embryo sampling were analysed by biplot analysis. The tissue culture traits were influenced at very different degrees by climatic factors: from 16.8% (RC) to 69.8% (CF). Donor plant environment with high temperatures and low rainfalls reduced (p < 0.05) the tissue culture performance of wheat genotypes. Callus formation was most sensitive to the temperature based factors. The environmental conditions between flowering and the medium milk stage were the most important for CF, while RC and PPE were not particularly related to any period.
Triticum aestivum L.; biplot; correlation analysis; environment variable; growth period