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Sociologias, Issue: 8, Published: 2002
  • Untitled document Editorial

    Baumgarten, Maíra; Santos, José Vicente Tavares dos
  • Violências, América Latina: a disseminação de formas de violência e os estudos sobre conflitualidades Dossiê Violências, América Latina

    Santos, José Vicente Tavares dos
  • The new urban violence in Latin America

    Briceño-León, Roberto

    Abstract in Spanish:

    El artículo procura mostrar que la situación de violencia que se presenta a inicios del Siglo XXI en América Latina es un fenómeno novedoso desde el punto de vista sociológico, tanto por el crecimiento en sus magnitudes, como por lo singular de sus características. Se trata, argumenta el autor, de una violencia que no tiene orígenes o propósitos políticos, sino sociales y está vinculada al proceso de empobrecimiento que ha tenido la región a partir de los años ochenta y que ha creado unas condiciones de exclusión educativa y laboral para una gran parte de la población. Esta nueva violencia afecta fundamentalmente a los jóvenes de la segunda generación urbana quienes están expuestos a unas altas expectativas de consumo que no pueden satisfacer por los medios proscritos por la sociedad, y quienes ven en la violencia y el uso de las armas de fuego un medio para construir su identidad como hombres y lograr medios económicos para satisfacer sus aspiraciones. Este proceso de violencia delincuencial se ve acompañado de un incremento en la violencia policial, todo lo cual tiene grandes costos psicológicos y económicos para la población, costos y daños que se ven agravados por la desconfianza e ineficencia del sistema de justicia penal existente en América Latina.

    Abstract in English:

    This article depicts the violence situation at the beginning of the 21st century in Latin America as a novel phenomenon from the sociological standpoint, both for its increase in magnitude and for its unique traits. According to the author, it is a sort of violence deprived of political origins or purposes, having only social ones, linked to the process of impoverishment in the region after the 1980s, which has created conditions of educational and work exclusion for a sizable part of the population. That new violence affects essentially the youth of the second urban generation, whose exposure to high consumption expectations cannot be met by the means prescribed by society, and who see violence and the use of firearms as a way to built their identity as men as well as to obtain the economic means to fulfill their aspirations. Delinquent violence is followed by a rise in police violence, all at high psychological and economic costs to the population. Such cost and damage are worsened by the mistrust in the penal system of justice in Latin America, and its ineffectiveness.
  • Gunman or avenger: building life trajectories Dossiê Violências, América Latina

    Barreira, César

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Tendo em vista entender o sistema de pistolagem em articulação com valores culturais, o artigo salienta aspectos da vida cotidiana do pistoleiro, através das suas falas. Nessa perspectiva, privilegiando a fala do pistoleiro, alguns conceitos adquirem novos e importantes significados, a exemplo da compreensão que ele tem de punição, vingança, valentia e coragem. Nas trilhas da "lógica da suspeição", dois informantes, que expressam versões exemplares para se entenderem, os crimes por encomenda foram demarcando seus lugares. Um informante colocou-se claramente como pistoleiro, com crimes cometidos por encomenda. O outro negou qualquer envolvimento com crimes de pistolagem, colocando seus crimes no "campo da honra", motivados por vingança. Os casos foram montados a partir das entrevistas, e as suas versões deram o eixo central das histórias configuradas nas categorias de "vingador" e de "pistoleiro".

    Abstract in English:

    Aimed at understanding the gunmen system articulated with several cultural values, this article focuses on everyday life aspects of gunmen, through their own words. From that outlook, focusing on those words, some concepts take on new and relevant meanings, such as their understanding about punishment, vengeance, prowess and courage. In the trails of the 'suspicion logic', two informants - who express exemplar accounts to understand ordered crimes - have little by little established their spaces. One of them openly presented himself as a gunman, having committed crimes under someone else's order. The other one denied any involvement with gunmen's crimes, placing his deeds within the 'honor domain', motivated by revenge. The cases were built after interviews and their versions provided the guiding thread for the histories construed within the categories of 'avenger' and 'gunman'.
  • Socioeconomic exclusions and urban violence Dossiê Violências, América Latina

    Adorno, Sérgio

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Este texto aborda as relações entre violência e exclusão socioeconômica a partir de um caso determinado: o caso brasileiro. Traça um quadro das características e tendências mais recentes da violência. Examina três causas que comparecem ao debate público: mudanças nos padrões de violência e criminalidade, crise no sistema de justiça criminal, e desigualdade social e segregação urbana. Em particular, quanto a este último aspecto, procura, de modo geral, comentar as principais "teses" que sustentam ou contestam a chamada violência estrutural.

    Abstract in English:

    This text approaches the relationship between socioeconomic exclusion and violence based on one specific case: Brazil. It draws a picture of violence's the most recent characteristics and trends. It also examines three causes that emerge in public debate: the changes in violence and crime patterns; the crisis in the criminal justice system; and social inequality and urban segregation. Specifically regarding the latter aspect, it seeks to make a general comment on the central "theses" that sustain or challenge the so-called structural violence.
  • Informalization and privatization of social control: responses to fear and delictuous violence

    Salazar, Alexis Romero

    Abstract in Spanish:

    En la actual situación de violencia delincuencial, en Venezuela, lo relevante no es el incremento de las tasas sino el aumento de la letalidad de las agresiones. Lo cual se expresa en el aumento de los homicidios y de los robos a mano armada. Tal reforzamiento del contenido violento de la delincuencia se produce en un contexto en el cual el Estado muestra su mayor ineficiencia; tanto en lo atinente al aparato policial (incapacidad para atender las denuncias, procesarlas y capturar a los delincuentes), como al sistema judicial (lentitud y negligencia en la imposición de las penas). La impunidad propicia que la sociedad se llene de miedo y que la percepción del peligro condicione la vida cotidiana. El estado anímico provocado conduce a la privatización e informalización de la protección, a través de la utilización de diferentes estrategias, entre las cuales destacan el cierre de los espacios residenciales - amurallamiento -, la contratación de vigilantes y, en el caso extremo, la afiliación a organizaciones ilegales que ofrecen seguridad de personas y bienes. Estas modalidades de protección no pueden ser estudiadas dentro de la concepción clásica del control social; porque no están referidas a una política que toma la prevención en función del ejercicio de un control socializador, en el cual el individuo desviado es considerado como el objetivo principal de la intervención. Más bien, se refieren a la expectativa de la disminución del riesgo de que situaciones relacionadas con la violencia delincuencial afecten la vida privada. Al respecto, en el artículo se exponen tres enfoques que podrían facilitar la explicación del fenómeno y se ofrecen los resultados de una investigación relacionada con estas nuevas formas de control social.

    Abstract in English:

    In the current situation of delinquent violence in Venezuela, the rise in violence rates is not the most relevant aspect; it is rather the increase in the lethality of aggressions. That is expressed in the growth in homicide and armed robberies. Such rise in the violent character of delinquency is generated within a context in which the State shows its highest deficiency, both regarding police apparatus (inability to respond to complaints, process them and arrest the delinquent) and the justice system (delay and negligence in imposing punishment). Impunity makes society fearful and establishes a perception of danger in everyday life. This state of mind leads to privatization and informalization of safety by distinct strategies, among which the closure of residential areas - hiring private security personnel and, at the extreme, joining illegal organizations that offer protection to people and property. Those types of protection cannot be examined within the classical conception of social control, since they do not concern policies that ground prevention upon the exercise of a socializing control, in which the deviant individual is seen as the main objective of the intervention. They rather regard the expectation of the decrease in the risk of private life being affected by delinquent violence-related situations. The article presents three approaches on the subject, which could facilitate the explanation of that phenomenon, and offers the results of an investigation related to those new forms of social control.
  • Violence and mass media in contemporary society Dossiê Violências, América Latina

    Porto, Maria Stela Grossi

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    O artigo faz uma breve consideração inicial sobre os conceitos tratados, conforme aparecem no título, e, baseando-se em resultados de pesquisa, se detém na análise dos meios de massa enquanto variável causal na produção da violência contemporânea. Reconhecendo a existência de estreitas relações entre mídia e violência, enfatiza o caráter plural do fenômeno e de suas causas, apontando para os riscos de se diabolizar o papel da mídia responsabilizando-a, de modo unilateral pela produção e/ou crescimento da violência.

    Abstract in English:

    The article briefly considers the concepts expressed in the title and, based on research results, focuses on mass media analysis as a causal variable in producing contemporary violence. Acknowledging the existence of close relations between media and violence, it stresses the plural character of the phenomenon and its causes, pointing out the risks of demonizing the role of the media by ascribing it the sole responsibility for generating and/or increasing violence.
  • Homicidal violence and crime structures in Bogotá

    Llorente, María Victoria; Escobedo, Rodolfo; Echandía, Camilo; Rubio, Mauricio

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Desde mediados de la década de los noventa la tasa de homicidios en Bogotá ha descendido continuamente y ha llegado a niveles relativamente bajos dentro del contexto urbano nacional. Aún así, la intensidad de la violencia en el distrito sigue siendo considerable bajo cualquier parámetro internacional y en algunos sectores de la ciudad se registran tasas de homicidio verdaderamente altas. En este artículo se hace una aproximación a la incidencia de estructuras criminales en los niveles de homicidio de la ciudad, a partir de un análisis de las distintas manifestaciones de la violencia y del patrón espacial y de difusión de los homicidios en Bogotá. Tres conclusiones centrales se desprenden de la evidencia sobre violencia homicida en Bogotá para el período 1997-1999: 1) las muertes violentas están altamente concentradas en unos pocos focos y este patrón geográfico es persistente en el tiempo, 2) la violencia de tipo instrumental (los homicidios producto de ajustes de cuentas y de atracos) aporta un mayor número de muertes que la impulsiva (los homicidios resultado de agresiones en el hogar y de riñas callejeras que al calor de los tragos culminan fatalmente), y 3) existe una importante convergencia geográfica entre focos de intensa violencia y presencia de estructuras criminales asociadas a mercados ilegales y a actividades ilícitas y del "bajo mundo". Estas conclusiones controvierten el diagnóstico preponderante en Colombia que le da un mayor peso a los fenómenos urbanos de violencia producto de problemas generalizados de convivencia ciudadana, en particular la intolerancia, y que minimizan o ignoran aquellos que resultan del progresivo aumento de la delincuencia organizada.

    Abstract in English:

    From mid-90s on, the homicide rate in Bogotá steadily decreased and has reached relatively low levels within the national urban context. Nevertheless, violence in the capital is still considerable under any international standards and some sectors of the city have really high homicide records. This article approaches the influence of crime structures on the homicide levels in the city, based upon an analysis of the distinct manifestations of violence, as well as spatial and diffusional homicide patterns in Bogotá. Three core conclusions emerge from the evidence on homicide violence in Bogotá for the 1997-199 period: 1) violent deaths are highly concentrated in a few points and that geographical pattern is consistent along time; 2) instrumental violence (those that are the result of retributions and fights) contributes with a higher number of deaths than the impulsive type (homicide resulting from domestic violence and street fights, which together with drinking, end up being fatal); and 3) there is a relevant geographical convergence between intense violence hotspots and the presence of crime structures associated to illegal markets and outlaw activities, and belonging to the "underground world". These conclusions challenge the predominant debate in Colombia, which focuses on urban violence phenomena resulting from general problems of citizenship socialization - specially intolerance - and which minimizes or ignores those resulting from the gradual rise in organized delinquency.
  • Violence, conflict and social integration in rural Uruguay

    Piñeiro, Diego E.

    Abstract in Spanish:

    En el Uruguay no ha habido en las últimas décadas episodios de violencia física en el campo derivados de la violencia de clase o de la violencia política. Los pequeños productores y los trabajadores rurales están sometidos a situaciones de violencia cotidiana: disminución de la rentabilidad de sus pequeñas explotaciones, expulsión de sus tierras y emigración para los primeros. Bajos salarios, accidentes laborales, e impedimentos para organizarse para los segundos. Sin embargo, los mecanismos de integración social con que cuenta la sociedad uruguaya amortiguan los disensos e impiden que estos desemboquen en formas de violencia.

    Abstract in English:

    In Uruguay, the last decades have not witnessed physical violence episodes in rural areas resulting from class or political violence. Small farmers and rural workers are under everyday violence: for the former, it is decrease in profitability at their small enterprises, being expelled from their land, emigration; for the latter, it is low wages, work accidents, and the absence of freedom of organization. However, the mechanisms of social integration available to the Uruguayan society absorb the dissent and prevent them from ending up in violence.
  • Comparative analysis of the effects of socioeconomic status, crime type and prison conditions on criminal recidivism Dossiê Violências, América Latina

    Fandiño Mariño, Juan Mario

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    O objetivo central do trabalho é identificar e mensurar o poder explicativo relativo das seguintes três dimensões causais hipotéticas da reincidência criminal: a) variáveis biográficas ou socioeconômicas, a saber: estado civil, filhos, naturalidade, idade, religião, raça, instrução formal e nível de qualificação da ocupação; b) tipo de delito, segundo os seguintes oito tipos simplificados: homicídios, lesões corporais, roubos, furtos, estelionatos, posse e uso de entorpecentes e estupros); e c) condições de prisão, incluindo a disponibilidade e qualificação dos funcionários - tanto de segurança quanto administrativos -, trabalho prisional dos apenados, treinamento profissionalizante e instrução em geral, espaços disponíveis e superlotação, e programas de assistência social ao apenado. O trabalho resume e avalia a literatura internacional relativa à reincidência criminal, tanto em termos metodológicos quanto teóricos, e apresenta um panorama histórico recente da criminalidade no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, como pano de fundo da análise da reincidência propriamente dita. Utilizando dados longitudinais oficiais das prisões para os anos de 1989 a 1997, e o cadastro geral oficial de apenados do estado, uma série de regressões é calculada pelo método step-wise, relacionando as três dimensões em questão com a variável reincidência, dicotomizada. A dimensão biográfica explica 32% da reincidência, o tipo de crime explica outros 9%, e as condições de prisão explicam ainda 16%, sugerindo uma ampla influência da política prisional na redução da reincidência.

    Abstract in English:

    This work is primarily aimed at identifying and measuring the relative explicatory ability of the following three hypothetical causal dimensions of criminal recidivism: a) socioeconomic variables, namely: marital status, children, place of birth, age, religion, race, educational level and qualification level of the occupation; b) type of offense, according to eight simplified types: homicide, assault and battery, larceny, robbery, embezzlement, possession and use of illegal drugs, and rape); and c) prison conditions, including the availability and qualification of prison personnel - both in security and management - prison work by inmates, professional training and general educational level, available spaces and overpopulation, and social programs for inmates. The work summarizes and evaluates international literature on criminal recidivism, both in methodological and in theoretical terms, presenting a recent historical overview on crime in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, as the background for analyzing recidivism itself. Based on official longitudinal data from 1989 to 1997, and the state's general inmates registry, a series of regressions are calculated by the step-wise method, relating the three dimensions in question with the variable of recidivism, dichotomizing it. The socio-economic dimension explains 32% of recidivism, crime type explains other 9% of recidivism, and prison conditions explain an additional 16%, suggesting a wide margin of recidivism reduction by prison policies. Some closing considerations are presented in relation to the "new penology" and prisonal philosophy in Brazil.
  • Social movements and protest in Latin-American rural worlds: new scenarios and new approaches

    Giarracca, Norma

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Cuando el mundo agrario paracía haber entrado en la etapa agroindustrial, con aplicación de altas tecnologías e inexorables desplazamientos poblacionales, la cuestión de la tierra y del acceso a ella o la lucha por conservarla, se convierten en la América Latina atravesada por las políticas neoliberales, en problemas de primer orden. El trabajo trata de mostrar que esta nueva centralidad de las luchas por la tierra es una situación de fines de siglo XX y comienzos del XXI y amerita conceptualizaciones de estos nuevos tiempos. Para tal objetivo revisa los enfoques de mitad del siglo XX y presenta las nuevas conceptualizaciones postestructuralistas. Pero las nuevas conceptualizaciones, no clasistas, pueden dar lugar a considerar que toda lucha agraria es una lucha por una sociedad más justa e igualitaria. El trabajo toma, justamente, acciones de agricultores de Uruguay y Argentina, donde los reclamos son de tipo corporativos y no pueden asemejarse a las luchas de los sectores subalternos por sus derechos perdidos o nunca adquiridos. Para el caso argentino se agregan los nuevos movimientos de campesinos, chacareras endeudadas, etc. que en los noventa preanunciaron las grandes rebeliones de fines de 2001. Fue la "nueva protesta agraria".

    Abstract in English:

    When the agrarian world seemed just to have stepped into the agroindustrial stage, with high technology application and inexorable population displacement, the issue of land and the access to it, as well as the struggle to keep it become top-level problems in neoliberal policy-stricken Latin America. This work shows that this new centrality of the struggle for land is a typical situation of the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st Century, allowing for conceptions about these new times. In order to do that, it reviews mid-20th-century approaches and presents new post-structuralist conceptualizations. However, the new nonclass conceptualizations might allow us to consider that any agrarian struggle is a struggle for a fairer and more egalitarian society. The work is based precisely on actions by Uruguayan and Argentinean small farmers, whose demands are corporative and cannot be equaled to those by subordinate sectors for their lost or never acquired rights. In the Argentinean case, new rural workers' movements are added as well as those by indebted small farmers, who in the 90s heralded the great rebellions of late 2001 - the "new agrarian protest".
  • Notes on youth bearing juvenile violence within post-industrial societies

    Pegoraro, Juan S.

    Abstract in Spanish:

    El artículo presenta una descripción-explicación del crecimiento de la violencia juvenil asociada al delito y aspectos de la exclusión-degradación de las formas de sobrevivencia social. La argumentación se nutre de elementos antropológicos de la vida de los jóvenes que han sido excluidos socialmente e incluidos culturalmente en una economía de mercado y por lo tanto de consumos diversos, materiales y simbólicos. Por lo tanto el fenómeno de la violencia juvenil no puede ser reducido a un esquema jurídico-penal incapaz de resolver la problemática social en el que aparece en los últimos años del siglo XX y en estos inciales del XXI.

    Abstract in English:

    The article presents an explanation-description of the rise in juvenile violence associated to misdemeanor and aspects of the degrading-exclusion of forms of social survival. The argument feeds on anthropological elements of lives of youngsters socially excluded and culturally included in a market economy, thus characterized by distinct forms of consumptions, whether material or symbolic. Therefore, the phenomenon of juvenile violence cannot be reduced to a judicial-penal scheme, incapable of solving the social problematics as it emerges in the last years of the 20th century and in these first years of the 21st century.
  • An experience integrating civil and military (State) police: Model-Districts in the Northern Brazilian city of Fortaleza Dossiê Violências, América Latina

    Brasil, Glaucíria Mota; Abreu, Domingos

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    O presente artigo tem como objetivo discutir e analisar a experiência de integração vivenciada pelos policiais civis e militares a partir das ações policiais desenvolvidas nos Distritos-Modelo, criados no Ceará em 1998. Estes são vistos como modelos de integração de uma política de segurança pública que unificou o seu comando no Estado e tem buscado a integração das ações policiais em toda a estrutura de poder dos aparelhos policiais, apesar das diferenças de atribuições e interesses, das disputas e rusgas existentes entre as duas policias.

    Abstract in English:

    The present article is aimed at discussing and examining the experience of integration of civil and military policemen (state police), from police actions developed in the Model-Districts created in the northern Brazilian state of Ceará in 1998. Those districts are seen as models for integration in a public safety policy that has unified its authority in the state and has sought the integration of police actions in the whole power structure of police systems, in spite of their distinct attributions and interests as well as the disputes and quarrels between both police forces.
  • Taking risks in order not to loose one's job: the health sequels for construction workers in Mercosur

    Silva, María Alejandra

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Los proyectos de construción más publicitados en los países miembros del Mercosur carecen de referencias a la gestión preventiva de los riesgos del trabajo y la salud, dentro de los pliegos de licitaciones o los estudios de factibilidad. Por eso, se intenta plantear el estado actual del debate sobre los riesgos del trabajo en obras de la construcción. El objetivo fue interpretar los determinantes sociales del proceso de salud-enfermedad en la obra e identificar los modos de gestión de los riesgos del trabajo. La metodología es cuali-cuantitativa, mediante el uso de los datos secundarios (censos y encuestas); la técnica de observación directa en las obras, las entrevistas y las encuestas. Además se analizan los alcances de las negociaciones en el subgrupo 10 y 11 del Mercosur. Como corolario, se plantean las limitaciones de los sistemas de cobertura y de registro de enfermedades y accidentes laborales dentro de un crecimiento del "empleo no registrado" y el "empleo informal"; a partir de su contraste con el enfoque de la salud globalizada y la gestión de los riesgos en cada fase de la obra.

    Abstract in English:

    The most publicized construction projects in Mercosur member-countries lack references for work risks and health preventive management, in bidding documents and feasibility studies. That is why we intend to draw a picture of the current state of the debate on work risks in construction works. The aim was to interpret social determinants of the health-disease process in construction sites and to identify the ways for managing work risks. The methodology adopted was quali-quantitative, with use of secondary data (census and polls); the direct observation technique in construction sites; interviews and polls. Besides, the scope of negotiations in the 10 and 11 Mercosur subgroups are examined. Finally, limitations of cover systems and record of labor diseases and accidents are argued, within a rise in "non-registered employment" and "informal employment", from its contrast with the globalized health approach and risk management in each stage of the construction work.
  • Intercompany relations and employment in the businesses network: the experience of internalization of one company from the telecommunications industry Artigos

    Ruduit, Sandro

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    A reestruturação do setor de telecomunicações vem implicando a formação de estruturas empresariais na forma de rede. Neste artigo, examinam-se os padrões de relacionamento interfirmas e de emprego na rede de empresas liderada pela Companhia Riograndense de Telecomunicações (CRT). A análise abrange onze empresas, prestadoras de diferentes tipos de serviços (digitalização de centrais de comutação, cabeamento e instalação de terminais telefônicos) e localizadas em diversos níveis da rede ("empresas terceiras", "quartas", "quintas" e "sextas"). Conclui-se que existe grande diversidade no relacionamento interempresas (relacionadas à interação entre a estratégia competitiva da empresa central e os tipos de serviços prestados) e nas práticas de emprego (associadas às relações interfirmas e à posição das empresas nos níveis da rede).

    Abstract in English:

    Restructuring in the telecommunications industry has implied the construction of network business structures. In this article, patterns of relationship between companies and employment within the network led by CRT (Companhia Riograndense de Telecomunicações, the Telecommunications Company in the southern Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul) are examined. The analysis encompasses eleven companies providing different kinds of services (switch units digitalization, cables and phone lines installation) and located at several levels of the network ("third", "fourth", "fifth" and "sixth" companies). We come to the conclusion that there is a great variety within the relationship between companies (regarding the interaction between competitive strategy of the leading company and the kind of services provided) and in employment practices (associated to intercompany relationships and the position of each company at the network levels).
  • Violence in schools: how French sociologists approach the issue Interfaces

    Charlot, Bernard

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    A violência na escola é um fenômeno social. Para tornar-se objeto de pesquisa, esse fenômeno deve ser definido pelo pesquisador. Ademais, uma boa parte do esforço de pesquisa consiste em definir do que se fala. Este artigo analisa a maneira como os sociólogos franceses abordam a questão da violência e as distinções conceituais que eles propõem: a violência na escola, à escola e da escola; a violência, a agressão, a agressividade; a violência, a transgressão, a incivilidade, etc. Por baixo da violência como sintoma, é necessário estudar a tensão engendrada, ao mesmo tempo, pelas relações sociais e pelas práticas quotidianas da escola.

    Abstract in English:

    Violence in schools is a social phenomenon. In order to become a research object, that phenomenon must be defined by the researcher. Besides, a great deal of the research effort consists in defining what one is speaking about. This article examines the way French sociologists approach the issue of violence and the conceptual distinctions they put forward: violence in the school, to the school and by the school; violence, aggression, aggressiveness; violence, transgression, incivility, etc. Behind violence as a symptom, it urges to study the tension simultaneously engendered by social relations and everyday school practices.
  • Polícia. Tem futuro? Polícia e sociedade em David Bayley Resenhas

    Ribeiro, Iselda Corrêa
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Sociologia - UFRGS Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500 Prédio 43111 sala 103 , 91509-900 Porto Alegre RS Brasil , Tel.: +55 51 3316-6635 / 3308-7008, Fax.: +55 51 3316-6637 - Porto Alegre - RS - Brazil
E-mail: revsoc@ufrgs.br