Results from transcranial Doppler examination on children and adolescents with sickle cell disease and correlation between the time-averaged maximum mean velocity and hematological characteristics: a cross-sectional analytical study

Resultados do estudo do Doppler transcraniano em crianças e adolescentes portadores de doença falciforme e correlação entre a velocidade média máxima e características hematológicas: um estudo transversal analítico

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Transcranial Doppler (TCD) detects stroke risk among children with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Our aim was to evaluate TCD findings in patients with different sickle cell disease (SCD) genotypes and correlate the time-averaged maximum mean (TAMM) velocity with hematological characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study in the Pediatric Hematology sector, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: 85 SCD patients of both sexes, aged 2-18 years, were evaluated, divided into: group I (62 patients with SCA/Sß0 thalassemia); and group II (23 patients with SC hemoglobinopathy/Sß+ thalassemia). TCD was performed and reviewed by a single investigator using Doppler ultrasonography with a 2 MHz transducer, in accordance with the Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP) protocol. The hematological parameters evaluated were: hematocrit, hemoglobin, reticulocytes, leukocytes, platelets and fetal hemoglobin. Univariate analysis was performed and Pearson's coefficient was calculated for hematological parameters and TAMM velocities (P < 0.05). RESULTS: TAMM velocities were 137 ± 28 and 103 ± 19 cm/s in groups I and II, respectively, and correlated negatively with hematocrit and hemoglobin in group I. There was one abnormal result (1.6%) and five conditional results (8.1%) in group I. All results were normal in group II. Middle cerebral arteries were the only vessels affected. CONCLUSION: There was a low prevalence of abnormal Doppler results in patients with sickle-cell disease. Time-average maximum mean velocity was significantly different between the genotypes and correlated with hematological characteristics.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, transcranial; Anemia, sickle cell; Hemoglobin SC disease; Stroke; Child; Adolescent

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