Abstract in English:ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: In the twenty-first century, tuberculosis remains a serious public health problem in Brazil. The aim here was to characterize tuberculosis in a municipality with a high human development index (HDI), based on clinical and epidemiological variables. DESIGN AND SETTING: Epidemiological study with analysis of incidence that included 533 new cases of tuberculosis in the municipality of Araraquara, São Paulo, reported to the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) between 2002 and 2011. METHODS: To identify trends, this period was divided into two five-year periods (2002-2006 and 2007-2011). The incidence rates were compared using ratios and confidence intervals. RESULTS: The incidence of tuberculosis was 26.82 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, and decreased by 22% between the two periods, which was statistically significant. Cases were more prevalent among men (72.61%) and among adults between 30 and 59 years of age with non-specialized professions and low education levels. There was a statistically significant reduction in cases among individuals over 50. The age group with highest incidence was 50-59 years in the first period and 30-39 years in the second. Total recovery occurred in more than 70%. There was a reduction in the number of diagnoses made within primary care and an increase within public hospital care between the two periods. The most common coinfections were AIDS and hepatitis C. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of tuberculosis in this municipality was lower than the national incidence, with a declining trend and a high cure rate, and the main coinfections were AIDS and hepatitis C.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of a variety of potentially pathogenic microorganisms in cystic fibrosis patients, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), has increased over the past decade. Given the increasing prevalence of MRSA and the few data available in the literature, better understanding of the clinical repercussions of colonization by this bacterium in cystic fibrosis patients becomes essential. This study aimed to evaluate the repercussions of chronic colonization by MRSA in cystic fibrosis patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study from January 2004 to December 2013 in a cystic fibrosis reference center. METHODS: Each patient with cystic fibrosis was evaluated for nutritional status (body mass index, BMI, and BMI percentile), pulmonary function and tomographic abnormalities (modified Bhalla scores) at the time of chronic colonization by MRSA or methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and throughout the study period. RESULTS: Twenty pairs of patients were included. There were no significant differences between the groups regarding nutritional characteristics. Spirometric data showed a trend towards greater obstruction of the airways in patients with MRSA. Patients with MRSA presented greater structural damage to their lungs, demonstrated not only by the total Bhalla score but also by its parameters individually. CONCLUSIONS: Patients colonized by MRSA presented greater functional and structural respiratory impairment at the time of chronic colonization. Disease progression was also faster in patients chronically colonized by MRSA than in those with MSSA. This was shown through comparisons that avoided possible confounding variables.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease with airway hyperresponsiveness. Spirometry is the most commonly used test among asthmatic patients. Another functional test used for diagnosing asthma is the bronchial challenge test. The aim of this study was to analyze the accuracy of spirometry for detecting asthma in the general population. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study with data analysis to evaluate the accuracy of spirometry through calculating sensitivity, specificity and predictive values and through the kappa agreement test. METHODS: Subjects who constituted a birth cohort were enrolled at the age of 23 to 25 years. Spirometric abnormality was defined as reduced forced expiratory volume in one second, i.e. lower than 80% of the predicted value. Measurement of bronchial responsiveness was performed by means of the bronchial challenge test with methacholine. The gold-standard diagnosis of asthma was defined as the presence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in association with respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: Asthma was detected in 200 subjects (10.4%) out of the sample of 1922 individuals. Spirometric abnormality was detected in 208 subjects (10.9%) of the sample. The specificity of spirometric abnormality for detecting asthma was 90%, sensitivity was 23%, positive predictive value was 22%, and negative predictive value was 91%. The kappa test revealed weak agreement of 0.13 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.07-0.19) between spirometry and the diagnosis of asthma. CONCLUSION: Spirometry, as a single test, has limitations for detecting asthma in the general population.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Sarcopenia is an emerging public health issue in Brazil. Because of its high prevalence and the lack of national data, the objective here was to identify cutoff points for appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) and handgrip strength in relation to fear of falling among Brazilian older adults. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study; in the community. METHODS: Participants underwent morphological and functional evaluations; and were asked about previous falls and fear of falling. Different adjustments to ASM and handgrip strength were used. Slow walking speed was defined as < 0.8 m/s or 1.0 m/s. Gender and age groups were compared using t tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA), chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to identify cutoffs for ASM and handgrip strength in relation to fear of falling. RESULTS: 578 older adults participated in this study. Function levels decreased with increasing age, and body composition differed between the sexes. In relation to fear of falling, the cutoffs for ASM adjusted for body mass index (BMI) were < 0.85 for men and < 0.53 for women; the cutoffs for absolute handgrip strength and relative handgrip strength (adjusted for BMI) were 30.0 kgf and 21.7 kgf, and 1.07 and 0.66, for men and women, respectively. CONCLUSION: The values presented can be used as references in clinical practice and research. We recommend use of ASM adjusted for BMI and choosing between absolute and relative handgrip strength for men and women, according to study needs.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between total and segmental bone mineral density (BDM) and physical activity (PA) in different domains (school, leisure and sports) among adolescents and children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in the Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP). METHODS: The study sample consisted of 173 children and adolescents (10.31 ± 1.87 years). The BMDs for the whole body (WB) and the regions of the trunk and legs were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). PA was measured using the Baecke questionnaire. A regression model was used to analyze the relationship between all the BMDs and the different domains of PA. RESULTS: 41.5% of the adolescents had high percentages of body fat. Regarding the comparison between physically active and insufficiently active adolescents, there were no statistically significant differences in any BMD variables (P > 0.05). The BMD of the legs showed positive relationships with the total PA (β = 0.009; P = 0.013) and sports PA (β = 0.010; P = 0.049) after insertion of the confounders. Similarly, the WB BMD showed the same relationships (total PA: β = 0.005; P = 0.045; and sports PA: β = 0.008; P = 0.049). No relationship was found between leisure and school PA and any of the BMDs (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results indicated that practice of sport was related to higher BMD values, independent of sex, age and body fatness.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic diseases are the main cause of death among adults and are responsible for most outpatient and hospital care expenses in Brazil. The objective here was to determine the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes and to analyze the associations with risk and protection factors among adults. DESIGN AND LOCAL: Cross-sectional study in a state capital in northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Data on adults of both sexes aged ≥ 45 years who were interviewed in the Vigitel telephone survey in 2014 were analyzed. Prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression, to identify associated factors. RESULTS: Among women, the prevalence of hypertension was 48.4% and of diabetes, 12.7%; among men, the prevalences were 41.9% and 13.8%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that for women, age group ≥ 65 years, overweight, self-assessed poor health and dyslipidemia remained associated with higher prevalence of hypertension. For men, overweight and self-assessed poor health remained associated with higher prevalence of hypertension. Regarding diabetes, in the multivariate model for women, age group 55-64 years, schooling level between zero and four years and no regular consumption of beans remained associated with higher prevalence. For men, age groups 55-64 years and ≥ 65 years and being married or in a stable partnership were associated with higher prevalence of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that the prevalences of hypertension and diabetes were high and that preventable factors were associated with this situation, thus providing support for public policies aimed towards coping with this.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) and progressive pancreatic β-cell dysfunction have been identified as the two fundamental features in the pathogenesis of obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. We aimed to investigate correlations between anthropometric indices of obesity and IR in non-diabetic obese individuals, and the cutoff value from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in a private clinic. METHODS: We included obese individuals (body mass index, BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) with no diabetes mellitus (fasting glucose levels ≤ 126 mg/dl). The participants were evaluated for the presence of cardiovascular risk factors and through anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests. Furthermore, IR was assessed indirectly using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)-IR and HOMA-β indexes. The area underthe curve (AUC) of the variables was compared.The sensitivity, specificity and cutoff of each variable for diagnosing IR were calculated. RESULTS: The most promising anthropometric parameters for indicating IR in non-diabetic obese individuals were waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist circumference (WC) and BMI. WHtR proved to be an independent predictor of IR, with risk increased by 0.53% in HOMA-IR, 5.3% in HOMA-β and 1.14% in insulin. For HOMA-IR, WHtR had the highest AUC value (0.98), followed by WC (0.93) and BMI (0.81). For HOMA-β, WHtR also had the highest AUC value (0.83), followed by WC (0.75) and BMI (0.73).The optimal WHtR cutoff was 0.65 for HOMA-IR and 0.67 for HOMA-β. CONCLUSION: Among anthropometric obesity indicators, WHtR was most closely associated with occurrences of IR and predicted the onset of diabetes in obese individuals.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have distinct personality traits, compared with control subjects, although the role of anxiety and positive and negative affects in this finding is unclear. DESIGN AND SETTING: A case-control study enrolling 103 antidepressant-free depressed patients and 103 age and gender-matched controls was conducted at the University Hospital, University of São Paulo. METHODS: The self-reported scales of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) were applied. Temperament and character traits were compared between groups using multivariate and bivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA and ANOVA). The influence of anxiety and affect was further investigated using ANOVA and mediation analyses. RESULTS: Depressed patients presented higher harm avoidance and lower self-directedness scores than controls. After adjustment for anxiety trait, harm avoidance was no longer significantly different between groups. Mediation analysis revealed that the anxiety trait, but not state-anxiety or affect, fully mediated the influence of group (depressed versus control subjects) on harm avoidance. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm that depressed patients present personality traits distinct from those of controls and suggest that MDD is not directly associated with harm avoidance, but that this effect is fully mediated through the anxiety trait.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Patients undergoing the same neuromodulation protocol may present different responses. Computational models may help in understanding such differences. The aims of this study were, firstly, to compare the performance of aphasic patients in naming tasks before and after one session of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and sham, and analyze the results between these neuromodulation techniques; and secondly, through computational model on the cortex and surrounding tissues, to assess current flow distribution and responses among patients who received tDCS and presented different levels of results from naming tasks. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, descriptive, qualitative and quantitative, double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled study conducted at Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de São Paulo. METHODS: Patients with aphasia received one session of tDCS, TMS or sham stimulation. The time taken to name pictures and the response time were evaluated before and after neuromodulation. Selected patients from the first intervention underwent a computational model stimulation procedure that simulated tDCS. RESULTS: The results did not indicate any statistically significant differences from before to after the stimulation.The computational models showed different current flow distributions. CONCLUSIONS: The present study did not show any statistically significant difference between tDCS, TMS and sham stimulation regarding naming tasks. The patients’responses to the computational model showed different patterns of current distribution.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Electrocardiograms (ECGs) are an essential examination for identification and management of cardiovascular emergencies.The aim of this study was to report on the frequency and recognition of cardiovascular emergencies in primary care units. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational retrospective study assessing consecutive patients whose digital ECGs were sent for analysis to the team of the Telehealth Network of Minas Gerais. METHODS: Data from patients diagnosed with cardiological emergencies in the primary care setting of 750 municipalities in Minas Gerais, Brazil, between March and September 2015, were collected via telephone contact with the healthcare practitioner who performed the ECG. After collection, the data were subjected to statistical analysis. RESULTS: Over the study period, 304 patients with cardiovascular emergencies were diagnosed within primary care. Only 73.4% of these were recognized by the local physicians. Overall, the most frequent ECG abnormalities were acute ischemic patterns (44.7%) and the frequency of such patterns was higher among the ECGs assigned as emergency priority (P = 0.03). It was possible to obtain complete information on 231 patients (75.9%). Among these, the mean age was 65 ± 14.4 years, 57.1% were men and the most prevalent comorbidity was hypertension (68.4%). In total, 77.9% were referred to a unit caring for cases of higher complexity and 11.7% of the patients died. CONCLUSION: In this study, cardiovascular emergencies were misdiagnosed in primary care settings, acute myocardial ischemia was the most frequent emergency and the mortality rate was high.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Cats are a significant source of allergens that contribute towards worsening of allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between sensitization to cat allergens and allergic respiratory diseases.This was an observational retrospective study based on the skin pricktests results of patients at a tertiary-level hospital in São Paulo. A total of 1,985 test results were assessed. The prevalence of sensitization to cat allergen was 20% (399 patients). Our data indicated that in this population of atopic patients, a positive skin prick test result for cat allergen was not associated significantly with a diagnosis of respiratory allergy.
Abstract in Portuguese:RESUMO CONTEXTO: A síndrome de microangiopatia trombótica, ou púrpura trombocitopênica trombótica-síndrome hemolítico urêmica (PTT-SHU), descreve doenças diversas com clínica e achados patológicos comuns: anemia hemolítica microangiopática e trombocitopenia, na ausência de outra causa aparente. RELATO DO CASO: Primigesta de 18 anos no segundo trimestre apresenta-se com quadro de 15 dias de fraqueza intensa seguida por diarreia há seis dias. Relata ter plaquetas baixas desde a infância e nega sangramentos e anormalidades menstruais. Investigação laboratorial identificou anemia com esquizócitos, plaquetopenia e hipo-haptoglobulinemia. Foi realizada transfusão de plaquetas e concentrado de hemácias. A hipótese de PTT ou SHU foi aventada e realizou-se pesquisa da atividade da enzima ADAMTS13. A paciente evoluiu com elevação das plaquetas, mesmo sem tratamento específico, tendo alta. Retornou após um mês da alta com queixa de fraqueza há um dia e inchaço de face e pernas. A atividade da ADAMTS13 foi menor que 5%, sem autoanticorpos. Nas duas internações anteriores (aos 9 e 16 anos), com quadros similares, houve remissão espontânea na primeira internação e, na segunda, o diagnóstico de PTT foi suspeitado e foi realizada plasmaférese, porém sem a pesquisa da atividade da ADAMTS13. CONCLUSÃO: Até esta data, este é único relato de TTP congênita com duas remissões espontâneas na literatura. Este relato revela a importância da suspeição desta patologia na presença de anemia hemolítica microangiopática e trombocitopenia sem outra causa aparente.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Thrombotic microangiopathy syndrome or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-hemolytic uremic syndrome (TTP-HUS) describes distinct diseases sharing common pathological features: microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, without any other apparent cause. CASE REPORT: An 18-year-old second-trimester primigravida presented with a history of fifteen days of intense weakness, followed by diarrhea over the past six days. She reported having had low platelets since childhood, but said that she had never had bleeding or menstrual abnormalities. Laboratory investigation showed anemia with schistocytes, thrombocytopenia and hypohaptoglobulinemia. Red blood cell concentrate and platelet transfusions were performed. The hypothesis of TTP or HUS was put forward and ADAMTS13 enzyme activity was investigated. The patient evolved with increasing platelet counts, even without specific treatment, and she was discharged. One month afterwards, she returned presenting weakness and swollen face and legs, which had developed one day earlier. The ADAMTS13 activity was less than 5%, without presence of autoantibodies. Regarding the two previous admissions (at 9 and 16 years of age), with similar clinical features, there was spontaneous remission on the first occasion and, on the second, the diagnosis of TTP was suspected and plasmapheresis was performed, but ADAMTS13 activity was not investigated. CONCLUSION: To date, this is the only report of congenital TTP with two spontaneous remissions in the literature This report reveals the importance of suspicion of this condition in the presence of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia without any other apparent cause.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Despite the high prevalence of vitamin D supplementation, its use remains controversial. The objective of this review was to identify and summarize the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews regarding vitamin D supplementation for preventing ortreating any clinical condition. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: A search was conducted to identify all Cochrane systematic reviews that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Titles and abstracts were screened by two authors. RESULTS: We included 27 Cochrane systematic reviews: 10 assessing use of vitamin D for prevention and 17 for treatment. The reviews found moderate to high quality of evidence regarding the benefit of vitamin D for pregnant women (prevention of adverse events: preterm birth risk [rate ratio, RR 0.36; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.14 to 0.93] and low birthweight risk [RR 0.40; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.67]) and for asthma patients (reduction of severe exacerbations [RR 0.63; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.88]). No benefit was found regarding vitamin D supplementation alone (without calcium) for preventing hip or any new fracture. For all other outcomes assessed under various conditions, the current quality of evidence is low or unknown, and therefore insufficient for any recommendation. CONCLUSION: Based on moderate to high quality of evidence, the Cochrane systematic reviews included here showed that there were some benefits from vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women and asthma patients and no benefits for preventing fractures.