The article aims to foster consistent debates about Open Science development in Latin America. Thus, it presents, in the first section, elements to support a conjuncture analysis about this international movement, seeking to identify through discourses and actions of the agents who are conducting this debate, their motivations and directions. Subsequently, in the second section, this study presents Latin American perspectives from the experience of the Open and Collaborative Science Research Network in Development Network and the discussions on the elaboration of the Panama Declaration on Open Science by activists and researchers in November 2018. In the concluding remarks, indicates the existence of, at least, two Open Science perspectives in dispute. The first fosters a utilitarian view of science in terms of greater effectiveness, productivity and competitiveness while the second ones focuses on issues such as the guarantee of rights, cognitive justice and social justice. This debate dialogues closely with the phenomenon of academic capitalism and the transition of universities from knowledge production institutions for the common good to a market-oriented enterprise and the idea of efficiency.
Latin America; Conjuncture analysis; Open Science