Abstract in English:Studies on the sociality of heterospecific assemblages of birds have promoted a greater understanding of the types of interactions and survivorship between coexisting species. This study verified the group compositions in bird assemblages and analyzed the sociality of migratory and resident species on sandy beaches of southeastern Brazil. A transect was established on the median portion of beaches and all the groups of bird species (monospecific, heterospecific) and solitary individuals were registered four days per month from November 2006 to April 2007. The sociality of each species was calculated by its frequency in heterospecific groups, its proportional number of contacts with other species in heterospecific groups, and the number of species that it associated with. Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766) and Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825 (both migratory) had the highest degree of sociality and did not show a preference to associate with either residents or migratory species. Sanderling Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764) (migratory) occupied the third position in the sociality rank and associated with migratory species frequently. Southern Caracara Carara plancus (Miller, 1777) and Black Vulture Coragyps atratus (Beschstein, 1793) (both resident) were uniquely found among heterospecific groups with necrophagous and resident species. Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 (resident) associated more frequently with resident species. The sociality in assemblages of birds may promote advantages such as an increased collective awareness in dangerous situations and indication of sites with abundant food sources.
Abstract in English:Animals in captivity are frequently exposed to environmental deprivation resulting in abnormal behaviors that indicate distress. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the "surprise pack" environmental enrichment technique in improving the welfare of small neotropical felids in captivity. In order to accomplish this, we used five individuals from the Rio de Janeiro Zoo. The experiment was divided into three steps corresponding to: I) period prior to the enrichment, II) period in which the animals were being submitted to enrichment stimuli, and III) period after the enrichment. In phase II, we observed a significant reduction in abnormal behavior compared to phases I and III. Only in phase II did the animals demonstrate the following behaviors: predation, social interaction and territory demarcation. However, in this same phase, the mean time spent interacting with the enrichment throughout the day showed a decrease.
Abstract in English:Land flatworms are carnivorous, mainly predators. However, knowledge on their predatory behavior and prey preference is very scarce. This paucity of data is a limiting factor in the study of their biology and organismal ecology, resulting in a very difficult task to breed them in the laboratory for prolonged periods if prey preference and predation frequency are unknown. We investigated the predatory behavior of Notogynaphallia abundans (Graff, 1899), Geoplaninae, based on laboratory experiments. In order to determine its predatory choices, we offered mollusks, earthworms, arthropods, and other land flatworms. Only land isopods were accepted, with an average consumption of 3.4 individuals per week. Linear regression showed a positive relationship between the number of consumed isopods and the increase/decrease in body mass. Consumption resulting in an increase in body mass was ca. four isopods per week. Predatory behavior, with a mean time-span of 28 min 45 s ± 15 min 47 s, includes encounter and capture of prey, immobilization, handling and feeding. Variation in the duration of this activity in N. abundans is clearly due to variations in the time necessary for transferring the prey from either the anterior or posterior thirds of the body to the mouth, as well as for external digestion and ingestion. In order to capture very active and fast-moving animals such as land isopods, N. abundans employs various strategies, using either the anterior or the posterior body regions to press the prey against the ground or against its own body, thus allowing it to deal with various responses by the prey, and thereby maximizing predatory success. Similar to other flatworms, both physical holding and entrapment in a mucous secretion are of fundamental importance for prey-immobilization. The different strategies employed by land flatworms in their predatory behavior are discussed, and behavioral plasticity in the capture and immobilization of prey in different platyhelminth groups is emphasized.
Abstract in English:A carcass of a giant squid Architeuthis sp. was found afloat off Southern Brazil (28°05'S, 45°35'W) on 29 August 1999. The specimen was a mature female of 116 cm mantle length and had arms incomplete and tentacles missing. The specimen was morphologically similar to those previously described for the Southwest Atlantic, but a few peculiarities were found on the shape of the fins, head and the cross-section and length of ventral arms. Spermatophores were found embedded within the skin of the left ventral arm, at around 60 cm from the mouth, and could be traced to the core of the arm, radiating nearly four centimeters from the point of entry. This was the third record of Architeuthis in Brazilian waters and the eighth in Southwest Atlantic when the specimen was found.
Abstract in English:Studies of morphological caste syndromes in the tribe Epiponini help us to understand the evolution of social behavior in insects. Few studies have integrated morphological syndromes of various species from the same or distinct genera. We studied morphological differences between castes from three colonies of Pseudopolybia compressa de Saussure, 1854, in order to relate their caste syndrome with those of other species in the genus. We took eight morphometric measures and females were classified in relation to ovarian development and spermathecal contents. Females of Colony 1 (C1) present a higher distinction between castes than females of Colonies 2 and 3 (C2 and C3), and, in general, queens of the three colonies are larger than workers in some measures but smaller in others. In Pseudopolybia Dalla Torre, 1894, shape rather than size is a more important trait in caste divergence.
Abstract in English:The copepod assemblage on the inner continental shelf adjacent to the coastal system of Camamu Bay (state of Bahia, Brazil) is described in relation to hydrographic conditions, during the wet and dry seasons of 2004. The zooplankton samples were obtained in vertical tows using a net with 200 µm mesh size. Temperature and salinity were measured, and the total density, frequency and percentage occurrence of the copepod taxa were determined for each sampling period. The highest densities were observed at the entrance of Camamu Bay (up to 7.473 ind.m-3), and the lowest on the adjacent inner continental shelf south of Camamu Bay (less than 500 ind.m-3). A total of 57 copepod taxa were identified. Paracalanus quasimodo Bowman, 1971, Subeucalanus pileatus (Giesbrecht, 1888), Clausocalanus furcatus (Brady, 1883), Corycaeus giesbrechti F. Dahl, 1894, Temora turbinata (Dana, 1849), Oithona similis Claus, 1866, Temora stylifera (Dana, 1849) and Nannocalanus minor (Claus, 1863) dominated numerically. The densities measured in both sampling seasons were significantly different: the means were 1.849 ± 1.922 ind.m-3 and 3.657 ± 3.170 ind.m-3 for the wet season and dry season, respectively. Depth and temporal variation in temperature and salinity influenced species abundance during the wet and dry seasons, with the dominant species alternating. Species richness and diversity increased on the inner shelf adjacent to the coastal system of Camamu Bay at the 30- and 50-m isobaths, suggesting that most species were oceanic in origin. The diversity was similar to other coastal systems of northeast Brazil.
Abstract in English:Echinometra lucunter Linnaeus, 1758 is a tropical sea urchin with strong bioerosive potential. Consequently, this species has great ecological importance. The species occurs in high densities along the Brazilian coast, particularly in the south and southeast. The objective of this work was to evaluate both the effects of annual seasonality and the lunar cycle on the reproduction of E. lucunter. Individuals were sampled monthly for a period of one year and during four complete lunar cycles. The gonadosomatic index (GI) was calculated to determine the annual and monthly reproductive peaks based on the lunar phase. The sex ratio (male:female) was 1:1.04, without significant difference in sexual proportion. The GI was significantly higher for males than for females. The first sexual maturation occurs when carapace width reaches 23.30 mm, and 50% of the animals have gonads with 28.22 mm. The spawning peak generally occurs during the whole year from the full moon to the waning moon. However, there is an annual reproductive peak from summer to autumn.
Abstract in English:A population of the fiddler crab Uca rapax (Smith, 1870) found in Itaipu Lagoon, southeast Brazil, was sampled monthly from July 2006 to June 2007 in order to study population and reproductive features. The sex ratio of the population was statistically different from the expected (1:1) in almost every month, with a predominance of males. The reproductive cycle and the recruitment of juveniles were continuous, with two peaks. The fecundity ranged from 1.110 to 13.189 eggs (4.984 ± 2.493.8), not differing statistically among seasons. In contrast, the relative fecundity (F') and the reproductive intensity index (RII) were highest in the summer. Female size at the onset of sexual maturity was estimated as 6.1 mm and egg diameter ranged from 0.20 to 0.28 mm. The anthropogenic impact on the environment of Itaipu Lagoon probably had adverse effects on the local U. rapax population, as inferred by its low fecundity rates, early maturation age and biased sex ratio.
Abstract in English:Even though millipedes display high plasticity in their reproductive strategies, they are poorly studied in the tropical region. The present study describes the biological cycle and reports the parthenogenetic reproduction of Poratia salvator Golovatch & Sierwald, 2000 under environmental conditions. Collections were carried out in Pantanal of Mato Grosso and in Várzea Grande, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The individuals were kept at room temperature in individual plastic pots. All 18 females used in the experiment reproduced parthenogenetically, resulting in a total of 699 young individuals. Of these, 18% survived until the adult phase. The lowest survival rate of P. salvator was recorded for the first developmental stage (46%). The mean duration of each developmental stage ranged between 6.8 ± 0.8 days for stage I and 14.9 ± 10.4 days for stage VI. The reproductive adult phase of females was the longest phase in the development, followed by the juvenile and pre-reproductive adult phases. The mean time of maturity was 75.1 ± 23.6 days. The mean duration of the total development was 66.1 ± 16.7 days. The number of eggs per nest varied between seven and ten, and the emergence of young individuals occurred after an average of 9.9 ± 1.4 days. Sexual proportion was 1 male:139.8 females, which indicates a tendency towards a parthenogenetic reproduction in this species.
Abstract in English:This study analyzes data on the biology of sperm whales, Physeter macrocephalus Linnaeus, 1758, obtained between 1965 and 1980 by the COPESBRA at the Costinha Whaling Station, Paraíba, Brazil. The data come from the log books of the whaling ships and from the spreadsheets containing biological information filled out by employees of the SUDEPE at the flensing plan of the whaling station. The catches occurred from June to December, in an area delimited by 06º22'-07º52'S and 33º26'-34º58'W. A total of 641 sperm whales were killed in this period. The average sex ratio was 2.05 females to each male. The mean largest frequency of females was recorded in the first and the last months of the season, and that of males in July/August. The mean total length (TL) of males was 11.4 m (minimum 7.2 m, maximum 17.6 m). The females had a mean TL of 10.1 m (minimum 8.6 m, maximum 12.9 m). A decrease was observed in the TL of females along the years. Fetuses were observed in 8.3% of the catches. They had TL between 0.24 and 4.3 m. All sperm whales had food in their stomachs, showing that they feed in the area. As in other places north to the 40ºS, there was a higher frequency of females than males. The difference between the time of maximum catch of males and females may reflect a temporal segregation in the arrival of sperm whales in the area. The reproductive activity of sperm whales in these tropical waters occurs year-round.
Abstract in English:The giant African snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 was introduced into Paraná, Brazil, in the 1980s. Since then, it has spread across the country, despite its known invasive status on a global scale. The main objective of this study was to assess the problems faced in the management of the giant African snail. To accomplish that, we gathered and analyzed information available on the internet, scientific databases, field studies, as well as interviews and consultations with official agencies, NGOs, museums, the scientific community and people that coexist with the species. Despite the fact that extensive information has been generated regarding A. fulica (1,340 articles, 65 summaries in national annals, 40,700 pages on the internet), essential to promote control measures to hinder the propagation of this species, the majority of the available information remains inaccessible to the world at large. Moreover, the environmental, economic and health impacts of this species remain unclear, which may contribute to discouraging the initiation of management actions. Finally, control measures are still inefficient due to the generalist profile of this species and the lack of knowledge concerning its biology and ecology. Thus, in conclusion, even though A. fulica has been an invasive species for over a century in many other countries, it is difficult to find evidence supporting the need to subsidize its management. This may be an indication that many other, poorly known exotic species will have time and the proper conditions to become established and cause problems before they come to be recognized as invasive.
Abstract in English:Habitat fragmentation may cause population subdivision, affecting genetic variation, leading to heterozygosity loss and increased inbreeding, and contributing to population extinction. However, some genetic models have shown that under some conditions, population subdivision can favor heterozygosity and allelic diversity, and small populations may adapt to inbreeding. Here I investigate the relationship between population subdivision and genetic diversity for the marsupial Micoureus paraguayanus (Tate, 1931) using the program Vortex. Hypothetical populations of 100 and 2000 individuals were partitioned into 1, 2, 5 or 10 populations that were linked by varying rates of dispersal and also by sex-biased dispersal. Results suggested that heterozygosity and allelic diversity declined rapidly when a population was subdivided. Genetic and demographic stochasticity diminished the effectiveness of selection against recessive lethal alleles. Dispersal partly reversed the impacts of population subdivision. However, even high rates of dispersal did not eliminate demographic fluctuations or prevent extinction. Although gene flow largely prevented genetic divergence between populations, dispersal did not prevent heterozygosity from being lost more rapidly in subdivided populations than in single populations of equivalent total size. The dynamics of small, fragmented populations were critically dependent on interactions between demographic and genetic processes. Populations of M. paraguayanus may have to be relatively large and continuous to avoid significant losses of genetic diversity.
Abstract in English:The diet of macroinvertebrates sampled in leaf-bags incubated in a tropical stream was analyzed on a spatial scale (one forested and one deforested area) and on a temporal scale (dry and rainy seasons). The macroinvertebrates were mostly represented by detritivores specialized in fine detritus (69%), followed by generalist detritivores (10% with a diet based on fine and coarse detritus), carnivores (10%), omnivores (8%), and one detritivore genera specialized on coarse detritus (3%). The detritivores exhibited a broad spatial and temporal distribution and were represented mainly by Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Diptera. Phylloicus sp. (Trichoptera) consumed mostly coarse detritus (CPOM) and can be classified as the unique specialist shredder in this stream. Carnivores were represented by Anacroneuria sp. (Plecoptera), Hetaerina sp. and Heteragrion sp. (two Odonata). Omnivory was observed for Anacroneuria sp. and Smicridea sp. (Trichoptera), which evidently varied spatially and temporally in the proportion of the food consumed. The high diversity and the wide distribution of the taxa that used organic matter as food resource demonstrated the great importance of this food item to the macroinvertebrates community in this tropical stream.
Abstract in English:The Caravelas River estuary and adjacent coastal region were studied during the rainy and dry seasons of 2003-2004 to assess the copepod community structure. Abiotic and biotic parameters were measured, and the total density, frequency and percentage of copepod taxa were determined for each sampling period. Copepod densities showed significant differences between sampling periods, with higher densities in the rainy seasons (Mean: 90,941.80 ind.m-3; S.D.: 26,364.79). The sampling stations located to the north and south, in the coastal region adjacent to the Caravelas River estuary presented the lowest copepod density values. The copepod assemblage was composed mainly of estuarine and estuarine/coastal copepods. The seasonal variations in temperature and salinity influenced the abundance of species during the rainy and dry seasons, with the following dominant species alternating: Paracalanus quasimodo Bowman, 1971 in the rainy season of 2003, Parvocalanus crassirostris Dahl, 1894 in the dry season of 2003 and Acartia lilljeborgii Giesbrecht, 1892 in the rainy and dry seasons of 2004. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling indicated differences in copepod assemblages between sampling periods, but not between sampling stations.
Abstract in English:Ocean rocky formations are known as islands. When islands become completely submerged, they are called stone slabs. Like reefs, these formations alter the flux of water produced by the waves, which in turn interacts with the adjacent sediment, altering the sediment and its undulation marks. The alterations caused by the interaction between the waves and emerged or submerged rigid structures can potentially alter the composition and the distributional patterns of the infauna of the adjacent, unconsolidated substrate. In order to evaluate the strength of these alterations, we sampled the infauna and the sediment adjacent to two ocean structures, one emerged and one submerged. Collecting was performed in winter and summer, while discriminating between the faces of the structures, the distances from them, and the troughs and crests of ripple marks. The granulometric characteristics of the sediments and the dimensions of the undulation marks differed in regards to the orientation of and the distance from the structures. Infaunal associations showed differences that can be explained by the sedimentation patterns. However, there were no differences in sediment characteristics and composition of the infauna when troughs and crests were compared. The waves interacted most intensely with the submerged structure, where the sediment showed larger grains next to the undulation marks, what resulted in a more pronounced differentiation of the infauna.
Abstract in English:This study evaluated the isotopic composition of three zooplankton species - Notodiaptomus amazonicus (Wright, 1935), Moina minuta Hansen, 1899 and Bosmina hagmanni Stingelin, 1904 - from the Upper Paraná River floodplain. We predicted that there would be isotopic variability among species in the different sampled environments. Samplings were conducted in three lakes from the Baía subsystem and in two lakes from the Paraná subsystem. At each location, some abiotic variables were measured, and zooplankton (3 to 4) and phytoplankton (3) samples were taken. The species sampled did not present significant differences between subsystems; however, they were different among the lakes, with variations of about 10.8‰ for δ13C and 5.8‰ for δ15N. The isotopic values found for phytoplankton also did not differ significantly among sampling stations, presenting variations of about 9.3‰ for δ13C and 7.4‰ for δ15N. These results indicate that the isotopic values of species varied among the lakes, and that they are dependent on isotopic signals from phytoplankton.
Abstract in English:Specimens of Imparfinis schubarti (Gomes, 1956) collected in the Piumhi river drainage, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were studied cytogenetically. The river was diverted from the Rio Grande Basin into the São Francisco basin in the early 1960s. All individuals presented 2n = 58 chromosomes, including 18 metacentric, 34 submetacentric and six subtelocentric chromosomes. A secondary constriction was observed in the interstitial region of the long arm of the largest chromosome pair, coinciding with the NOR. A single conspicuous heterochromatic block located in the largest pair of metacentric chromosomes was observed, adjacent to the secondary constriction. A detectable 18S rDNA probe hybridization region occurs in only one chromosome pair and is synthenic with the marking obtained with 5S rDNA probe. These results fit the cytogenetic pattern previously described for the genus Imparfinis Eigenmann & Norris, 1900.
Abstract in English:The sabellariid Phragmatopoma caudata (Kroyer, 1856), Morch, 1863 is widely distributed in the Americas and constructs large reef agglomerates that provide substrates for other benthic species. However, the difficulty in obtaining size data (especially length) hampers population studies, making it necessary to carry out morphometric studies as basis for studies of population dynamics. The objective of the present study is to determine the best morphological descriptor of length in P. caudata. A total of 17 morphometric variables were measured in specimens from four different populations. Measurements were performed using an ocular micrometer attached to a stereoscopic microscope. Correlations in the dataset were tested using Pearson's linear correlation coefficient, and the hypothesis of morphometric differences among populations was tested using MANOVA and principal component analysis. Correlation coefficients were different amongst populations, as well as in the measured traits . Moreover, the results suggest that populations differ more strongly in body size than in shape. Although populations presented different morphometric relationships, the length of the first thoracic chaetiger was one of the variables with highest correlation with total length. This result, as well as the fact that such region is located on the anterior portion of the body, suggests that this structure is a good length descriptor in P. caudata.
Abstract in English:The innate immune activity of the freshwater turtle Phrynops geoffroanus (Schweigger, 1812) was investigated, using a sheep-red-blood cell hemolysis assay. The time- and concentration-dependent hemolytic activity of the turtle plasma was low compared to that reported for other reptiles. However the plasma of P. geoffroanus exhibited higher activity at elevated temperatures, resulting in temperature-dependent hemolysis. The sensitivity of turtle plasma to temperature could be interpreted as a mechanism by which freshwater turtles use basking behavior to elevate body temperature, thus enhancing the innate immune response. However, we cannot discard the possibility that environmental contaminants could be affecting the turtle's immune response, since the animals in this investigation were captured in a polluted watercourse.
Abstract in English:This research aimed to investigate the ecological indexes of the helminths of the digestive system and coelom of Prochilodus argenteus Spix & Agassiz, 1829. A total of 150 specimens (53 males and 97 females) taken from the upper reaches of the São Francisco River in the municipality of Três Marias (18º12'32"S, 45º15'41"W), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were examined. The specimens were collected in July, 2003 and January, 2004. Ninety-eight fish (65.3%) were infected by at least one species of helminth. Five helminth species were found: one digenean, Saccocoelioides nanii Szidat, 1954; two Eucestoda, Valipora sp., and one undetermined metacestode; one nematode, Spinitectus asperus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928; and one acanthocephalan, Neoechinorhynchus prochilodorum Nickol & Thatcher, 1971. The sex of the host did not influence parasite indexes. The total length of the hosts influenced the abundance of S. nanii (r s = -0.21, p = 0.01) and the prevalence of the metacestode (r = -0.91, p = 0.01). Saccocoelioides nanii was the dominant species in the parasite fauna of P. argenteus. Saccocoelioides nanii, Valipora sp., S. asperus and N. prochilodorum are reported here for the first time in P. argenteus and their known distribution is expanded to the São Francisco River.
Abstract in English:Twelve new species of Neotrichia Morton, 1905 from state of Amazonas, Brazil are described and illustrated: N. gilmari sp. nov., N. djalmasantosi sp. nov., N. bellinii sp. nov., N. orlandoi sp. nov., N. niltonsantosi sp. nov., N. zitoi sp. nov., N. didii sp. nov., N. vavai sp. nov., N. garrinchai sp. nov., N. zagalloi sp. nov., N. pelei sp. nov., and N. feolai sp. nov. Neotrichia gilmari sp. nov. can be recognized by elongate and bifid processes on posterodorsal margin of segment IX; Neotrichia djalmasantosi sp. nov. is distinguished from N. colmillosa Harris, 1990 by the posteromesal margin of the segment IX produced into two long lobes in lateral view; N. bellinii sp. nov. differs from N. yanomonoa Harris & Davenport, 1992 by subgenital plate divided apically and with long lateral processes; N. orlandoi sp. nov. is distinguished from N. cuernuda Harris, 1990 by short inner portion of the inferior appendages and by phallus with stout apical hook; N. niltonsantosi sp. nov. is characterized by phallus with two short acute apical processes and a stout subapical spine; N. zitoi sp. nov. differs from other species particularly by phallic apex membranous and with flattened process; N. didii sp. nov. is somewhat similar to N. orlandoi sp. nov., but can be distinguished by stout posterolateral process of segment IX posteriorly directed and the paramere extending anteriorly; N. vavai sp. nov. is easily distinguished from other species of Neotrichia by the chelate processes on posterolateral margins of the segment IX; N. garrinchai sp. nov. can be recognized by asymmetrical posterolateral processes on segment IX and by long subgenital plate; N. zagalloi sp. nov. resembles N. dientera Harris, 1990, but can be easily recognized by broad, quadrangular inferior appendages with two excisions on apical margin and by phallic apex flattened and narrowing apically; N. pelei sp. nov. is characterized by narrow subgenital plate and by phallus apically with three lobes and a sclerotized hook; Neotrichia feolai sp. nov. is distinguished from N. biuncifera Flint, 1974 by phallus with only one apical process. In addition, N. browni Harris, 1990 and N. colmillosa Harris, 1990 are recorded from Brazil for the first time. With these new species and the new records, 26 species are now known from Brazil.
Abstract in English:The male of the leafhopper Deselvana falleni (Stål, 1858) is for the first time described and illustrated based on material from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Notes comparing D. falleni to other species of Deselvana Young, 1968 are given. Males and females of D. falleni can be recognized by the dark brown to black dorsum with four well-defined yellow maculae on each forewing, two on clavus and two on corium. The sexual dimorphism of color found in other Deselvana species was not observed in D. falleni.
Abstract in English:In samples of raw sewage collected from a sewage treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro (ETE-Penha), we found populations of two species, Deviata estevesi Paiva & Silva-Neto, 2005 and Deviata brasiliensis sp. nov. The organisms were studied in vivo under phase contrast microscopy, differential interference contrast (DIC), and after protargol-impregnation. The population of D. estevesi exhibited more extensive variation in cirral pattern than previously described. The interphasic organisms of new species D. brasiliensis sp. nov. are distinguishable from their congeners based on a series of morphometric features: cirral row R3 usually presents 1-3 cirri behind the right frontal cirrus, on average there are four macronuclear nodules, and, during morphogenesis of cell division, primordium V of the proter originates from the anterior region of cirral row R5 instead of row R6, as in the type species D. abbrevescens Eigner, 1995. In D. estevesi, the ventral cirral rows replicate by within-row primordia, which develop independently for the proter and for the opisthe, suggesting that it belongs to or is closely related to Parastrongylidium, hence the combination P. estevesi comb. nov. is established.
Abstract in English:In this note, the occurrence of phoresy between larvae of Rheotanitarsus sp. (Diptera: Chironomidae) and larvae of Heteragrion sp. (Odonata: Megapodagrionidae) and of unidentified genera of Calopterygidae (Odonata) collected in a first-order stream in an area of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil is reported. During the dry season of 2007 and the rainy season of 2008, with the aid of a Surber sampler, 15 samples of each of the following mesohabitats were collected: litter from riffle areas, litter from pool areas and sediment in pool areas. Eighty-five Odonata larvae were obtained, 10 (11.76%) with cases of phoresy by Rheotanytarsus sp.. These chironomids were associated with only one specimen of Megapodagrionidae, whereas the other larvae were recorded in association with Calopterygidae. Most of the Odonata with cases of phoresy by Rheotanytarsus sp. were recorded in the dry season. In the present study, the absence of the phoretic association with other potential hosts for Rheotanytarsus sp. found in the samples indicates a possible preference of these larvae for Odonata, which accounted for only 2.42% of the collected macroinvertebrates in litter and sediment.
Abstract in English:Recruits of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763), rarely encountered in the field were found co-inhabiting burrows of larger male and female conspecifics in the mangrove forest. They were located in the sediment of the inner walls and burrow plugs. Average carapace width (CW) of the hosting and co-inhabiting crabs was 3.8 ± 0.20 and 0.9 ± 0.03, respectively. As shown by the size-frequency distribution, while most recruits leave the conspecific burrows after reaching 1.0 cm CW, some stay until they reach a size of 2.5 cm CW. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of recruitment patterns in this ecologically and economically important mangrove crab species. Follow-up studies are however needed to fully determine the role of conspecific burrows for juvenile habitat choice and survivorship in U. cordatus.
Abstract in English:Phrynops geoffroanus (Schweigger, 1812) is the freshwater turtle with the widest geographical distribution in South America. During 2006, physical examination and hematological evaluation were performed on free-ranging turtles from two polluted rivers, the Piracicaba River (n = 51) and its tributary Piracicamirim (n = 42), in southeastern Brazil. Red blood cell and thrombocyte counts, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin levels differed in turtles from the two water courses. Although free-ranging turtles showed ectoparasites and boat propeler lesions, animals apparently had no signs of clinical disease. In spite of our results, further monitoring of the demography and health status of Phrynops geoffroanus in anthropogenically altered environments is recommended.
Abstract in English:The identification of predators of birds' nests, crucial to a better understanding of predator-prey interactions, remains poorly known. Here we provide evidence that birds, and especially passerines, may depredate birds' nests in the Cerrado (Neotropical Savannah) of Central Brazil. Data was collected primarily in a Conservation Unit (Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas) during the breeding season, between 2003 and 2007. We report and discuss details on 14 events of nest predation, 12 of which by passerines, mostly by curl-crested jays - Cyanocorax cristatellus (Temminck, 1823). The results of our study suggest that the role of birds as nest predators in the Cerrado has been underestimated and needs to be further investigated.