Zoologia (Curitiba), Volume: 26, Issue: 3, Published: 2009
  • Reactions of the invasive alien species Achatina fulica to abiotic factors: perspectives for the management

    Fischer, Marta Luciane

    Abstract in English:

    Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 is an african snail that is invasive in different parts of the world, being characterized mainly by its high adaptability. Our objective was to evaluate the influence of abiotic factors, such as temperature and substrate, on the egg eclosion, adult and juvenile reaction to different abiotics factors, and the resistance of A. fulica to popular methods of control. Three studies were made, including 19 laboratory experiments and observations of free animals in the municipal district of Guaraqueçaba, southern Brazil. Eggs were characterized as the most fragile phase, whereas the juveniles and adults were resistant to the immersion in fresh and salt water and little resistant to temperature variation and salt, using burying, aestivation, and muscular force as defense strategies. Those strategies should be considered in management actions and in orientating popular methods of control.
  • Temporal variations of body mass and plumage in Arenaria interpres (Aves: Scolopacidae) along the Brazilian coast Biology

    Rodrigues, Roberta C.; Azevedo-Júnior, Severino M. de; Larrazábal, Maria E. L. de; Araujo, Helder F. P. de

    Abstract in English:

    Every year, Brazil receives large flocks of nearly 40 migratory shorebirds species. The accumulation of body fat and nutrients during the summer is necessary for the long return flights of these birds and is fundamental for feather moulting and the change of their plumage. We present here an examination of the relationship between body mass and plumage change in Arenaria interpres (Linnaeus, 1758), one of those birds, over time during its wintering period on the Brazilian coast. We analyzed information collected at five traditional stopover sites along the Brazilian coast, between 1997 and 2007. During the month of September, individuals with intermediate or breeding plumage had smaller body masses as compared to other months. From October to December, adult individuals were only observed with eclipse plumage and had average body masses of approximately 100 g. In March, individuals with intermediate, eclipse and breeding plumages were recorded, but their average body mass remained at approximately 100 g. In April and May the numbers of individuals with breeding or intermediate plumage increased, and they showed significant increases in body mass at a rate of approximately 1.5 and 2.3 g per day, in the north-northeastern and south coast, respectively, leading to an average mass of 124 and 143g in these months. That is suggested to be the departure mass of A. interpres in the Brazilian north-northeastern and south coast, respectively, when starting the migration to the breeding sites.
  • Post-marsupial development of Hyalella pleoacuta (Crustacea: Amphipoda): stages 1-4 Biology

    Garcia-Schroeder, Deise Leda; Araujo, Paula Beatriz

    Abstract in English:

    The goal of this study is to describe and compare the initial stages of the post-marsupial development of Hyalella pleoacuta González, Bond-Buckup & Araujo, 2006, prior to the development of sexual dimorphism. Ovigerous females were collected in São José dos Ausentes, RS, Brazil and kept in laboratory. Juveniles were kept separately after emerging from the marsupium and were monitored daily for the presence of exuvia. Individuals from post-marsupial stages (S) 1 to 4 were dissected and illustrated. Cuticular structures were observed through SEM. Twenty three types of setae, one type of setule, two types of pores, two types of denticles and one type of penicilium were found. Cuticular structures undergo modification through development in the matters of haste size, number and size of setules, and formation of the polygonal pattern, although there is no change from one type to another. Gnathopods and antennae are the appendages that go through more modifications. The articles number of the flagellum is constant until S2. The size of the coxal plate of gnathopods in relation to the propodus has a tendency to increase throughout the stages. The uropod proportion becomes smaller in S3 when compared to S1. The number of serrate setae in the external plate of maxilla 1 varies up to S4, being different from the adult whose number is 9. The telson modifies its shape but its setae number is constant.
  • The role of protein in the sexual behaviour of males of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae): mating success, copula duration and number of copulations Biology

    Joachim-Bravo, Iara Sordi; Anjos, Cyntia Santiago; Costa, Anne Moreira

    Abstract in English:

    In this paper, we investigated the influence of protein ingestion during the early adult phase on the sexual behavior of males of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824). The following parameters were evaluated: mating success (ability to be chosen by females), number of copulations, and copula duration. Experiments were carried out using a fifteen-year old laboratory lineage with the occasional introduction of wild flies. Two groups of adult males fed a high-protein diet during their larval phase were given either a high-protein diet (based on Brewer's yeast, concentration = 6.5 g/100 ml) or a no-protein diet. Both groups of males were exposed to females fed either a high-protein diet or a no-protein diet and were subsequently evaluated for the parameters listed above. All experiments were conducted at 25ºC, 70% R.H. and with a photoperiod of L12:D12. The number of copulations was the only parameter affected by adult diet. Males fed a high-protein diet and exposed to females fed a no-protein diet had a greater number of copulations compared with males fed a no-protein diet.
  • Effects of temperature and volume of water on the growth and development of tadpoles of Pleurodema diplolister and Rhinella granulosa (Amphibia: Anura) Biology

    Maciel, Thely A.; Juncá, Flora A.

    Abstract in English:

    The capacity of tadpoles to reduce their metamorphosis time and body size in response to fluctuations in environmental variables of temporary ponds has been recorded in field and laboratory studies. The main alterations in this habitat are related to the decrease of the water level and increase in temperature. However, few studies tried to dissociate the effect of these two variables. The aim of the present study was to analyze simultaneously the effects of water volume reduction and temperature on the development and growth in tadpoles of Pleurodema diplolister (Peters, 1870) and Rhinella granulosa (Spix, 1824) - species that use temporary ponds for reproduction. The tadpoles of these two species were subject to four treatments: (1) constant volume of water of 2000 ml and constant temperature of 26ºC; (2) gradually decreasing water volume from 2000 ml to 200 ml or 150 ml and constant temperature of 26 ºC; (3) Constant water volume as in (1) and constant temperature of 30 ºC or 33 ºC and (4) Decreasing water volume (as above) and constant temperature as in the treatment (3). There was no interaction between both tested variables on the growth and development of tadpoles of both species. Tadpoles of P. diplolister and R. granulosa responded to high temperature by decreasing development time. Tadpoles responded to decreasing volume of water by metamorphosing into smaller size. Tadpoles of P. diplolister maintained at 30ºC showed growth reduction. Tadpoles of R. granulosa increased their body size when subject to the treatment at 30ºC.
  • Abundance and distribution of Aeglidae (Crustacea: Anomura) in function of land use in Rio Jacutinga hydrographic basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Trevisan, André; Hepp, Luiz Ubiratan; Santos, Sandro

    Abstract in English:

    This study investigated the influence of land use and occupation on the density and distribution of aeglids in the hydrographic basin of the Jacutinga river (northern state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil). Sampling was carried out during the summer and winter of 2004, at 12 sites distributed in river spring, agriculture, grazing, and urban areas. Animals were collected using a Surber sampler. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to evaluate differences in the density of species in each land use and sampling period. Biological data were classified using cluster analysis (Euclidian distance; UPGMA). A total of 226 aeglids were captured, including 167 (78.89%) specimens of Aegla platensis Schmitt, 1942 and 59 (26.11%) specimens of A. singularis Ringuelett, 1948. The aeglid distribution was associated with land use and occupation. In river spring and grazing areas, A. platensis was predominant, whereas in urban and agricultural areas A. singularis was the most prevalent species.
  • Morphological pattern and life cycle of Eutetranychus banksi (Acari: Tetranychidae) from different localities and hosts

    Mattos, Viviane M.; Feres, Reinaldo J. F.

    Abstract in English:

    Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor, 1914) is a phytophagous, polyphagous and cosmopolitan species recorded on 23 plant families in 24 countries in North, Central and South Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa. Specimens of E. banksi present morphological variability among individuals of the same population and also among populations from different host species, being commonly referred to as a polytypic species, despite the fact that studies based on meristic comparisons of these populations are lacking. Also, there is no data available in the literature on the biological life tables of E. banksi on different hosts. Specimens collected in Brazil, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mexico, and Paraguay were investigated in order to recognize morphological patterns among populations from different localities and hosts. A redescription of the species is provided based on data both from literature and new observations. Also, the biological cycle on three hosts, experiments of hosts exchange and the possibility of interbreeding in individuals originating from different populations were evaluated. Significant differences in the morphology of the females of different populations were detected when comparing the different hosts. The length of the dorsal pairs of setae v2, sc2, c1, c3, e1 and h1 differentiated the specimens of the populations collected from Citrus sp. from those of Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. and Pachira aquatica Aubl.. Herein we observed significant variation among the life cycle of this species on the three hosts studied. When a substrate different from the one where the mites were collected was used for the biological cycle essay, significant variation was observed in several parameters such as average oviposition rate, events of arrenothoky, and sex ratio. Interbreeding with populations collected from Citrus sinensis and P. aquatica resulted in no descendants, although mating was observed.
  • Comparative diet analyzes from four species of cuckoos (Aves: Cuculidae) in South Brazil

    Repenning, Márcio; Basso, Helena C. de P.; Rossoni, Jonas R.; Krügel, Marilise M.; Fontana, Carla S.

    Abstract in English:

    We studied stomachs contents of 50 specimens of four common cuckoo species (Cuculidae) from southern Brazil: Guira guira (Gmelin, 1788) (n = 21), Coccyzus melacoryphus (Vieillot, 1817) (n = 8), Crotophaga ani (Linnaeus, 1758) (n = 11), and Piaya cayana (Linnaeus, 1766) (n = 10). We measured stomach volume and prey were identified and quantified based in their dimensions. The size of the prey was associated with bill width and body mass. Diet items were analyzed and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level, based on literature, scientific collection data, and specialists. The diet of the four species was composed by 100% animal species, with invertebrate dominance. Only in G. guira stomachs the presence of vertebrates was observed more than once (amphibian, reptile, and bird). C. ani, which had similar diet, ingested a large number of Arachnida and Orthoptera. Piaya cayana ate mostly Hemiptera. The predominance of caterpillars (Lepidoptera), suggested in the literature was not observed in the diet of C. melacoryphus. There was a statistically significant difference in bill width and body mass among the bird species, and there was no correlation between bill width and the proportion of medium and large-sized prey.
  • The endemic and threatened lizard Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Liolaemidae): current geographic distribution and areas of occurrence with estimated population densities Conservation

    Rocha, Carlos F. D.; Siqueira, Carla da C.; Ariani, Cristina V.

    Abstract in English:

    Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 is a critically endangered lizard endemic to the restinga habitat of the state of Rio de Janeiro. We surveyed 25 restinga habitats in order to locate remaining populations, evaluate the status of the species, and determine the nature of local habitat degradation. We found remnant populations of L. lutzae in 18 restinga habitats of six municipalities. The conservation status of each population varied between areas: the population of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro municipality, is the most preserved and the population of Praia do Forte, in Cabo Frio, is the most disturbed. No L. lutzae were found in Niterói municipality. The most destructive type of habitat degradation identified was the removal of beach vegetation associated with the construction of coastal roads and/or sidewalks, destruction of the vegetation due to trampling, vehicle traffic and garbage dumping. Our data revealed that generally, beach habitats under a larger number of impact sources were those with smaller population sizes of L. lutzae. We consider that the most effective conservation measure for L. lutzae is the strict protection of its habitat, with restoration of the original beach vegetation. Finally, we recommend vegetation recovery to be followed by a program of reintroduction of the species in localities where it has been eradicated.
  • Records of the giant-armadillo Priodontes maximus (Cingulata: Dasypodidae) in the Atlantic Forest: are Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo the last strongholds of the species? Conservation

    Srbek-Araujo, Ana Carolina; Scoss, Leandro M.; Hirsch, André; Chiarello, Adriano G.

    Abstract in English:

    We report 20 records of Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) collected between 1990 and 2009 in three nature reserves located in forested areas of southeastern Brazil within the Atlantic Forest biome. Seventeen records were collected in Parque Estadual do Rio Doce (PERD), state of Minas Gerais, two in Reserva Biológica de Sooretama and one in Reserva Natural Vale, both located in the state of Espírito Santo. The records were burrows (n = 11), photographs from camera-traps (n = 6), sightings (n = 2) and carcass (n = 1). Given the higher number of records, the PERD seems to maintain the largest population among the three study areas. We searched the literature and found no other recent evidence of the species' presence in the Atlantic forest of Brazil. There are few Museum specimens and a general lack of information on the presence of the species in this biome as a whole. These facts suggest that the conservation status of the giant armadillo is extremely critical in the Atlantic Forest.
  • A study of fish traces taken from the archaeological sites of the areas surrounding the Machadinho Hydroelectric power station, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Ricken, Cláudio; Malabarba, Luiz Roberto

    Abstract in English:

    The analysis of the material obtained in the rescue of archaeological sites in the area surrounding the Hydroelectric Plant of Machadinho, Rio Grande do Sul, revealed that a considerable amount of bones and fish scales incorporated in the alimentary remains. Using an osteological collection as reference, we identified remains of Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816) (Characidae), Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849) (Characidae), Pogonopoma obscurum Quevedo & Reis, 2002 (Loricariidae), Hemiancistrus fuliginosus Cardoso & Malabarba, 1999, Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836) (Prochilodontidae), Schizodon sp. (Anostomidae), Leporinus sp. (Anostomidae), Hoplias sp. (Erythrinidae), Hypostomus sp. (Loricariidae) and Crenicichla sp. (Cichlidae). Based on specimens from fish collections, regressions were obtained comparing the size of the pre-maxillary bone in Crenicichla spp. and the length of the pectoral fin spine of Hemiancistrus fuliginosus, Pogonopoma obscurum and Hypostomus spp, with the standard length and weight of corresponding specimens. The estimated size and weight of the specimens obtained from fish remains in the archaeological sites varied between 79.7-153.9 mm and 13.5-33.9 g for Hemiancistrus fuliginosus, 158.2-151.0 mm and 179.5-194.3 g for Pogonopoma obscurum, 117.1-166.2 mm and 86.6-93.1 g for Crenicichla spp., and 62.2-397.2 mm and 34-20.3 g for Hypostomus spp. Therefore using these estimates of standard lengths and weights it was possible to formulate a hypotheses on the fishing technology used by the inhabitants of these sites.
  • Vertical and time distribution of Diplopoda (Arthropoda: Myriapoda) in a monodominant forest in Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil Ecology

    Battirola, Leandro D.; Marques, Marinêz I.; Rosado-Neto, Germano H.; Pinheiro, Tamaris G.; Pinho, Nelsina G. C.

    Abstract in English:

    In this study different sampling techniques for Diplopoda in soil, tree trunks and canopies were applied in an integrated way in the northern region of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. This was done in order to assess the relationship within the fauna in each forest strata, as well as its richness and temporal distribution. In all these habitats there were a total of 1,354 diplopods, distributed in four taxonomic orders, with Polyxenida being predominant over Polydesmida, Spirostreptida and Spirobolida. The largest representation was found on the trunks of the Vochysia divergens (721 ind.), intercepted by tree photoecletors, whereas in the canopies sampling reached only 65 specimens. In the edaphic stratum 568 diplopods were captured, most with the use of the Winkler extractor, followed by pitfall traps and soil photoecletors. In spite of being an important group in these environments, both in terms of richness and diversity, this was less than has been observed in other Neotropical areas. However, due to seasonal changes in the Pantanal the existence of a relationship between the soil and the tree fauna was found as well as different survival strategies observed during the flood period. Regarding vertical distribution, the greatest richness and variety of taxonomic groups was found in the forest's edaphic environment demonstrating its association mainly with this forest stratum.
  • Composition of mixed-species bird flocks in forest fragments of southern Brazil Ecology

    Brandt, Cláudia S.; Hasenack, Heinrich; Laps, Rudi R.; Hartz, Sandra Maria

    Abstract in English:

    The present study aimed to evaluate the composition of mixed-species bird flocks in a fragmented landscape of the Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil. We recorded 117 species in 218 mixed-species flocks. The correspondence analysis showed two distinct groups of fragments according to degree of connectivity with other fragments. The percentage of original cover surrounding a sampled fragment area up to a ratio of 2.5 and 1 km was the variable that presented highest correlation with the formation of different composition of mixed-species bird flocks, followed by altitude. Based on these results, we concluded that, in landscapes with low levels of fragmentation, the composition of mixed flocks reflects the local species pool. Thus, future studies comparing composition of mixed-specie flocks should concentrate their efforts in areas where some of these variables remain constant, as for example where fragments are at similar altitudes.
  • Spatiotemporal variation in the fish fauna of Praia do Cassino, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Lima, Mauro Sergio Pinheiro; Vieira, João Paes

    Abstract in English:

    This study analyzes the spatiotemporal variation of the ichthyofauna of the surf zone of Praia do Cassino, municipality of Rio Grande (state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) from October 2005 to September 2006. Fishes were collected monthly and during daytime using a large beach seine net (30 m x 1.8 m, with 12 mm uniform mesh manufactured with monofilament nylon wire). Five hauls were conducted on each of three sampling sites: one near the jetties of Patos Lagoon and two located 5 km and 10 km south from the jetties, respectively. We caught 10,066 fishes, weighting 128,486 g, distributed in 37 species belonging to 18 families that are similar in species composition to the dominant fish fauna - Trachinotus marginatus (Cuvier, 1832), Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825), Brevoortia pectinata (Jenyns, 1842), Mugil platanus (Gunther, 1880), Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758), Menticirrhus littoralis (Holbrook, 1847), and Oncopterus darwinii (Steindachner, 1874) - usually collected in the beaches of Rio Grande do Sul with a smaller net. The dominant size classes were between 50 and 100 mm TL and represent 43% of total catch. Based on CCA analysis we suggested that the ichthyofauna is primarily structured by seasonal variation in the physicochemical and environmental parameters and secondarily by the spatial difference between areas nearer (< approximately 10 km) or more distant (> approximately 10 km) from the Patos Lagoon's jetties. The composition and dominance of the fish community of the surf zone of Cassino Beach changed little in the latest 20 years, indicating a possible stability of the system.
  • Comparison of visceral anatomy of six species of Amphisbaenidae (Squamata: Amphisbaenia)

    Navega-Gonçalves, Maria Eliana C.

    Abstract in English:

    Visceral anatomy of amphisbaenids Amphisbaena vermicularis Wagler, 1824; Anops kingii Bell, 1833; Aulura anomala Barbour, 1914; Bronia bedai Vanzolini, 1991; Cercolophia cuiabana Strüssmann & Carvalho, 2001, and Leposternon microcephalum Wagler, 1824 were comparatively described and the size and the position of the organs in the pleuroperitoneal cavity was established in relation to the ventral scutellation. The main results were: the right lung presents different degrees of size reduction compared to the left lung, being conspicuous only in A. anomala, and L. microcephalum; the limit between small and large intestines is clear due to the presence of a caecum; the right lobe of the liver is larger than the left one, but its length varies within the same species and among species; the right gonad occupies a more cranial position in relation to the left one, in all six studied species; the right ovary is also larger than the left one in all studied specimens, whereas the left testicle can be larger or of the same size as the right one in some specimens; the shape of the testicles varies from elongated, kidney-shaped or oval; kidneys are symmetrically positioned at the caudal portion of the pleuroperitoneal cavity and one kidney can be larger than the other.
  • Pivotal temperature and sexual dimorphism of Podocnemis expansa hatchlings (Testudines: Podocnemididae) from Bananal Island, Brazil Morphology And Physiology

    Lubiana, Adélio; Ferreira Júnior, Paulo Dias

    Abstract in English:

    A common problem when trying to identify the sex of hatchling turtles is that juveniles are not obviously externally dimorphic and current techniques to identify sex are often invasive. In this paper, 300 eggs of Podocnemis expansa from Bananal Island, state of Tocantins (Brazil), were incubated at constant temperatures. The carapaces of the hatchlings were photographed and subjected to geometric morphometric analysis. The hatchlings were subsequently euthanized and had their gonads removed for sex determination. The pivotal temperature of P. expansa was 33.5ºC, confirming that this species has the highest pivotal temperature among reptiles. Geometric morphometric analysis of the shape of the carapace proved efficient in differentiating the sex of the hatchlings and confirmed that this methodology can be efficient for studies that need to ascertain the sex ratio in P. expansa hatchlings.
  • Parasitism of chewing lice (Insecta) and feather mites (Acari) on Turdus leucomelas (Aves) during reproductive and molt seasons at the State Park of Rio Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Enout, Alexandre M. J.; Lobato, Débora N.; Azevedo, Cristiano S. de; Antonini, Yasmine

    Abstract in English:

    The rates of infestation by chewing lice and feather mites on Turdus leucomelas Vieillot, 1818 (Aves: Turdidae) were used to test the hypothesis of that parasitism either increases or decreases according to, reproductive and molting seasons, respectively. Samples were obtained at the State Park of Rio Preto, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in October and December of 2006 and in March of 2007. The dust-ruffling technique was used in to remove the parasites from the body of their hosts. Five species of chewing-lice were found on the birds, with Myrsidea sp. and Brueelia sp. being the most prevalent parasites, whereas Menacanthus eurysternus Burmeister, 1838 was the least prevalent. No statistically significant difference was found between the infestation rates in the reproductive and molt seasons. Two suborders and four families of Acari were found on the birds.
  • The immature stages of Labrundinia tenata (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) and redescription of the male Taxonomy And Nomenclature

    Silva, Fabio Laurindo da; Gessner, Alaide Aparecida Fonseca

    Abstract in English:

    The immature stages of Labrundinia tenata Roback, 1987 (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) are described and illustrated and the male is redescribed. Larvae were collected in aquatic systems in southeastern Brazil, where they are associated with aquatic macrophytes. The three semaphoronts of L. tenata are recognized: (a) Male by the abdominal segments I pale brown, II-VI with brown transverse band along proximal margin, VII, VIII almost wholly brown; hypopygium brown; anterior margin of sternapodeme rounded, no distinct spur. (b) Pupa by the thoracic horn S-shaped and a shallow preapical groove; abdominal segment VII with two lateral setae. (c) Larva with posteroventral spine group; posterior parapod with single elongate claw serrated on inner margin and numerous simple claws.
  • Campylorhamphus procurvoides successor (Aves: Dendrocolaptidae) is a junior synonym of Campylorhamphus trochilirostris notabilis Taxonomy And Nomenclature

    Portes, Carlos Eduardo; Aleixo, Alexandre

    Abstract in English:

    The taxonomy of the genus Campylorhamphus Bertoni, 1901 is still uncertain, with many inconsistent evolutionary patterns implied by current taxonomy. A re-analysis of the type-series of Campylorhamphus procurvoides successor Todd, 1948 revealed that the holotype is indistinguishable from Campylorhamphus trochilirostris notabilis Zimmer, 1934, while the paratypes belonged either to the latter taxon or to a second already named taxon (Campylorhamphus trochilirostris snethlageae Zimmer, 1934), and a third and yet undescribed taxon allied to Campylorhamphus procurvoides. Here, we present statistical analyses of morphological data supporting the synonymization of C. p. successor into C. t. notabilis, the name with priority. Our findings resolve the long-standing controversy related to the distribution of Campylorhamphus procurvoides populations in the várzea habitats of the lower Amazon River.
  • Brazilian species of Onychophora with notes on their taxonomy and distribution Taxonomy And Nomenclature

    Sampaio-Costa, Cristiano; Chagas-Junior, Amazonas; Baptista, Renner L. C.

    Abstract in English:

    A revision of the currently known distribution of Onychophora (velvet worms) in Brazil is presented. Twenty-four morphospecies (half of them undescribed) belonging to four genera of the Peripatidae (Peripatus Guilding, 1826, Epiperipatus Clark, 1913, Macroperipatus Clark, 1913 and Oroperipatus Cockerell, 1908) are recorded. This high number of "unidentified" morphospecies is due to three major reasons: the poor quality of the characters used in species-level identification, the inadequate specimen conservation in ethanol, and, in most cases, the lack of additional specimens for analysis of intra- and inter-specific variation. The morphological characters currently used to separate Peripatidae species present a large degree of variation and may not be sufficient to allow accurate identification. There are records of these animals from 16 states, located in four political regions of the country (North, Center-West, Northeast and Southeast). Oroperipatus balzani is recorded for the first time from Brazil. The southernmost record for Onychophora is Itacuruçá island, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro State (E. edwardsii) and the northernmost is Vila Tepequém, Amajari, Roraima State (Epiperipatus sp. 4). Considering the large territorial area of Brazil and the paucity of localities where Onychophora have been collected, we may expect a total diversity of these animals much larger than the currently known one.
  • Kelp gulls, Larus dominicanus (Aves: Laridae), breeding in Keller Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula Short Communication

    Branco, Joaquim O.; Costa, Erli S.; Araujo, Jansen de; Durigon, Edison; Alves, Maria Alice S.

    Abstract in English:

    We examined the distribution, abundance and density of the Kelp Gull, Larus dominicanus (Lichtenstein, 1823), at Keller Peninsula on two occasions during the breeding season of 2007-2008 (once for incubation and once for chick stages) and compared our results with previously published data. We present information on the number of eggs, incubation success, and initial development of L. dominicanus chicks in the studied sites. The abundance and density of the species has remained statistically similar in Keller Peninsula over the last 30 years (since 1978-1979). Although the abundance and density were almost unchanged, we recorded alterations in the occupation of the breeding areas by L. dominicanus, mainly the abandonment of breeding sites in the eastern portion of Keller Peninsula. The results of the present study compared with similar previous investigations on the abundance of L. dominicanus indicate that the populations have been in equilibrium over the years.
  • Water dispersal of Amphisbaena alba and Amphisbaena amazonica (Squamata: Amphisbaenia: Amphisbaenidae) in Brazilian Amazonia Short Communication

    Maschio, Gleomar F.; Prudente, Ana L. da C.; Mott, Tami

    Abstract in English:

    Information on the use of aquatic environments by two species of amphisbaenids (Amphisbaena amazonica Vanzolini, 1951 and Amphisbaena alba Linnaeus, 1758) are presented. These findings suggest that aquatic environments are not a barrier to these animals, until now considered as strictly fossorial. New studies on amphisbaenians in natural conditions are needed in order to better understand which species may use water environment during dispersal events and the frequency of this behavior in the group.
  • Construction of arboreal nests by brown-nosed coatis, Nasua nasua (Carnivora: Procyonidae) in the Brazilian Pantanal Short Communication

    Olifiers, Natalie; Bianchi, Rita de C.; Mourão, Guilherme de M.; Gompper, Matthew E.

    Abstract in English:

    The construction of arboreal nests is rare among mammals in the order Carnivora. However, coatis (Procyonidae: Nasua Storr, 1780) build arboreal nests that are used for resting or birthing. Here we describe Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766) nests located during a telemetry study of coatis in the Brazilian Pantanal. Coati nests were all "bird-like", that is, open nests having a semispherical shape. Nests were constructed of twigs, branches, and lianas sometimes interlaced with leaves. Nest volume was 30-50 cm³ and average nest height was approximately 9.5 m. Nests were found in open "cerrado" vegetation, along forest edges, or in interior "cordilheiras" forest. The reasons why coatis build such nests are unclear, but may relate to inter or intraspecific competition for nesting sites, litter size, thermoregulation, and predation avoidance.
  • Description of the puparium of Manotes plana (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Pachygastrinae) from the Ilha da Marambaia, Mangaratiba, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Short Communication

    Xerez, Roberto de; Lopes, Ana Lúcia de Freitas

    Abstract in English:

    The puparium of Manotes plana Kertész, 1916 is described based on the exuviae of six larvae collected under the bark of a plant in early state of decomposition in the Ilha da Marambaia (23°04'15"S, 43°53'59", at sea level), state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The external morphology and chaetotaxy is compared with the previously described puparium of Manotes crassimanus James, 1980. The texture and shape of the setae of M. crassimanus are plumose and some setae are claviform while M. plana are setiform. In M. plana the ventro-craneal furrow extends from the posterior region of the mouthparts until the median region of the head. In M. crassimanus, the furrow extends until the posterior third of the head. No diferrence occurs in position in the puparia of both species in relation of pupal respiratory spiracles.
  • Nhandu tripepii is a senior synonym of Nhandu vulpinus (Araneae: Theraphosidae) Short Communication

    Nagahama, Roberto H.; Fukushima, Caroline S.; Bertani, Rogério

    Abstract in English:

    The holotype of Eurypelma tripepii Dresco, 1984 from state of Pará, Brazil, is revised and illustrated. Its palpal bulb and tibial apophysis are similar in shape to species of Nhandu Lucas, 1983. Therefore, the species is transferred to the genus Nhandu, establishing the new combination Nhandu tripepii (Dresco, 1984) comb. nov., which is considered a senior synonym of Nhandu vulpinus (Schmidt, 1998) syn. nov. The protuberances present on the holotype's chelicerae are here considered a morphological anomaly.
  • The effects of seasonality on the foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata: Tropiduridae) living in sympatry in the Caatinga of northeastern Brazil Short Communication

    Kolodiuk, Miguel F.; Ribeiro, Leonardo B.; Freire, Eliza M. X.

    Abstract in English:

    In this study, we performed field observations of 38 and 84 specimens of the lizards Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825) and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825), respectively, inhabiting a Caatinga in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil, in order to describe the foraging behavior, measure the foraging intensity (number of movements, time spent stationary, distance traveled and number of attacks on preys) and investigate the effects of seasonality on the foraging strategies of these two species of lizards. During the dry season, both species showed no significant differences in foraging intensity. In the wet season, on the other hand, only the distance traveled was similar for both species. Tropidurus semitaeniatus displayed a larger mean number of movements (9.8 ± 1.2) and attacks on preys (1.7 ± 0.3) when compared to T. hispidus (3.0 ± 0.8 moves; 0.3 ± 0.1 attacks). Additionally, mean time spent stationary was significantly longer for T. hispidus (596.6 ± 1.0 seconds) than for T. semitaeniatus (587 ± 2.1 seconds). Results suggest that the low number of movements and short distance traveled (maximum of 1000 cm during 10-minute intervals) are consistent with the categorization of T. hispidus and T. semitaeniatus as sit-and-wait foragers. Given our results, we conclude that both species co-exist under limiting conditions during the dry season, with similar foraging behavior and similar rates of foraging intensity, segregating with respect to these variables in the wet season.
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