Abstract in English:Cuckoos are widely distributed, but are concentrated in the tropics, where they occupy a wide range of habitats. Both terrestrial and arboreal behaviors can be found in this group, but there is no consensus on as to whether these behaviors have arisen more than once. Moreover, the historical distribution of cuckoos is poorly understood. This paper presents a biogeographyc analysis of the early history of the distribution of these birds. The analysis was performed by using the Principle of Parsimony based on primary and secondary "Brooks Parsimony Analysis" (BPA). Despite some exceptions, the primary BPA corroborated events of vicariance (general pattern) in the early distribution of cuckoos and a terrestrial ancestor widespread in the Gondwana. The most parsimonious hypothesis suggests that the distribution of terrestrial cuckoos (basal group) is associated with the break-up of the Gondwana (Early to Mid Cretaceous), consistent with molecular data for other living birds. On the other hand, the fossil records indicate a more recent origin (Paleocene to Upper Tertiary) in the Laurasia. Nevertheless, to corroborate the fossil records, the early distribution of cuckoos would not be explained by parsimony, since additional steps on dispersion and local extinctions should be added. In addition, according to the secondary BPA, most exceptions can be explained by dispersion as the origin of the arboreal cuckoos (derived group) in South America, where they dispersed to other continents.
Abstract in English:The population dynamics and reproductive strategy of the polychaete Scolelepis goodbodyi (Jones, 1962), were investigated between June 2009 and May 2010 at Manguinhos beach, southeastern, Brazil. A total of 9,242 individuals were collected. The density did not differ significantly from one month to another. The estimated values of the growth, recruitment, and mortality rates were studied using the width of the third setiger and the growth curves for the populations were adjusted by the Bhattacharya method (L'= 1.23, K = 1.2, mortality = 0.73). Two annual cohorts were identified in the period. Significant differences between males and females were observed in the population (x² = 71.6, p < 0.01) and between sexually defined and sexually indeterminate individuals (x² = 158.4, p < 0.01). Five stages of gonadal development were identified. The coexistence of recruits and mature individuals throughout the study period suggests that this population presented continuous reproduction.
Abstract in English:The present study focused on the decapod fauna of the fluvial-estuarine environment of the Guajará Bay, in the Brazilian state of Pará, where specimens were collected monthly from six sites, from May 2006 to April 2007. A total of 6,793 specimens were captured, belonging to 11 species of crab and shrimp: eight palaemonids - Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862), Macrobrachium surinamicum Holthuis, 1948, Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758), Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879), Macrobrachium spp. 1-4 -, one portunid - Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 -, and two trichodactylids - Sylviocarcinus devileii H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 and Sylviocarcinus pictus (Milne-Edwards, 1853). While no significant differences were found in the ecological indices of diversity with respect to season, site, or trap size, a tendency for increased abundance and species richness was found during the dry season (August-November), in particular at some sites, apparently reflecting the influence of the estuary's saline wedge.
Abstract in English:A new subfamily, a new genus and a new species of Bethylidae are described and illustrated from a single individual in Early Cretaceous amber from central Lebanon. Lancepyrinae subfam. nov. represented by Lancepyris opertus gen. and sp. nov. present a mosaic of features common among several bethylid subfamilies. The new taxon is easily distinguished from related taxa mainly by the forewing venation, which has an unusual combination of closed lanceolate marginal cell, Rs+M tubular and well pigmented and M+RS angled. Phylogenetic analysis including indicates that Lancepyris opertus gen. and sp. nov. is a sister group of all subfamilies that have Coleoptera as hosts. A checklist of the 45 known fossil bethylid species is provided.
Abstract in English:Despite the great importance of the siphons for infaunal bivalves, only a few studies have examined their tissues using histology techniques or scanning electron microscopy. In the present study, the siphons of Tellina lineata Turton, 1819 and Macoma biota Arruda & Domaneschi, 2005 were investigated. The siphon walls are composed by a series of muscle sheets of longitudinal ("L"), circular ("C") and radial ("R") fibers, with a clear pattern common to both species: there is a main median longitudinal layer (Lm), and two peripheral circular layers, one inner (Ci) and one outer (Co), near the epithelia. A median circular layer (Cm) separates an internal (Lmi) from an outer (Lmo) median longitudinal layer. Further, the Co is split by a thin outer longitudinal layer (Lo), forming Coi and Coo layers, the former being obliquely oriented. Thin radial fibers (R) delimit clear packages of Lmi and Lmo fibers. In each siphon, there are six longitudinal nerve cords, running within the Lmi layer, adjacent to the Cm. The inhalant and exhalant siphons of M. biota are very similar in structure, but the Lmo of the exhalant siphon is almost twice as thick as its Lmi, while in the inhalant siphon these layers have similar thicknesses; the Coi is very thick, especially in the exhalant siphon. The inhalant siphon of T. lineata is very similar to that of M. biota, differing only with respect to the thickness of the Coi, which in the former species is not as well developed as in the latter. The Lmo of the exhalant siphon of T. lineata is by far the most developed layer, with the Lmi represented only by uniseriate small cells; in the vicinities of the nerve cords, the Cm is split in two layers. The epithelia of both siphons of M. biota and T. lineata bear ciliated receptors, which were difficult to observe as they were frequently covered with mucus. It was possible to observe that cilia are present in both species, differing in length and in the number per receptor between the inhalant and exhalant siphons, and between the species. Detailed comparisons among the siphons of M. biota and T. lineata and other bivalve species are very difficult, because of at least two reasons. First, each investigator has used different methods to prepare and observe the siphons through histological sections; and second, different nomenclatural schemes are used to describe the musculature of the siphons, causing confusion when the same layers are compared among different species. In order to unify the nomenclature of tissue layers of the bivalve siphons, we now propose a scheme to name these layers based on topological homology.
Abstract in English:Twenty one of 29 species of snappers (Lutjanidae), examined for dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) from the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, the Indo-west and eastern Pacific Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea were parasitized by 16 new and 11 previously described species of Euryhaliotrema: Euryhaliotrema adelpha sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema anecorhizion sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema cardinale sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema chrysotaeniae, Euryhaliotrema cognatus sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema cryptophallus sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema diplops sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema distinctum sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema fajeravilae sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema fastigatum, Euryhaliotrema fatuum sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema ferocis sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema hainanense, Euryhaliotrema longibaculum, Euryhaliotrema mehen comb. nov., Euryhaliotrema paracanthi, Euryhaliotrema paululum sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema perezponcei, Euryhaliotrema ramulum sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema seyi sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema simplicis sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema spirotubiforum, Euryhaliotrema tormocleithrum sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema torquecirrus, Euryhaliotrema tubocirrus, Euryhaliotrema xinyingense, and Euryhaliotrema youngi sp. nov. Six species of Euryhaliotrema, previously reported from lutjanid hosts, were not collected: Euryhaliotrema anguiformis comb. nov., Euryhaliotrema guangdongense, Euryhaliotrema johni, Euryhaliotrema lutiani, Euryhaliotrema lutjani, and Euryhaliotrema nanaoense comb. nov. The diagnosis of Euryhaliotrema was emended to include species having tandem or slightly overlapping gonads, a pretesticular germarium, a globose haptor with morphologically similar anchors and hooks, a coiled or meandering male copulatory organ, a dextral vaginal pore, and hooks with upright acute thumbs and slender shanks comprised of one subunit. A bulbous base of the MCO and presence of an accessory piece in the copulatory complex were no longer considered features defining the genus. As a result, Euryhaliotrematoides and Aliatrema were placed in subjective synonymy with Euryhaliotrema, and the following transfers were proposed: Euryhaliotrema annulocirrus comb. nov., Euryhaliotrema aspistis comb. nov., Euryhaliotrema berenguelae comb. nov., Euryhaliotrema cribbi comb. nov., Euryhaliotrema grandis comb. nov., Euryhaliotrema mehen comb. nov., Euryhaliotrema microphallus comb. nov., Euryhaliotrema pirulum comb. nov., and Euryhaliotrema triangulovagina comb. nov. In addition, the following new combinations were proposed based on the revised diagnosis of the genus: Euryhaliotrema anguiformis comb. nov., Euryhaliotrema eukurodai comb. nov., Euryhaliotrema kurodai comb. nov., Euryhaliotrema monoporosum comb. nov., and Euryhaliotrema nanaoense comb. nov. The dactylogyrids, Protancyrocephalus rangusi (from a lutjanid host) and Daitreosoma chaetodontis (from a chaetodontid host), were considered species inquirendae. Haliotrematoides tukerhamatus comb. nov. is considered the senior subjective synonym of Haliotrematoides nagabinae. New host records for some previously described species of Euryhaliotrema from lutjanid and chaetodontid hosts were reported.
Abstract in English:We analyzed the feeding habits, microhabitat use, and daily activity period of the anuran species Cycloramphus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1864), endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome. The only previous studies on this species focused on the systematics and new altitudinal records. This study was conducted in a large forest remnant located in the municipalities of Guapimirim and Cachoeiras de Macacu. We captured frogs through visual encounter surveys and recorded the frequency of microhabitat types used by them, and the time of capture. Diet was analyzed in terms of number, volume and frequency of occurrence of items. Individuals of C. brasiliensis occurred in association with fast-moving rocky portions of clear freshwater rivers, indicating a rheophilic habit, and were active mainly at night. Such as most anuran species, the diet of Cycloramphus brasiliensis was mainly based on arthropods, and included Blattodea, Formicidae, and Coleoptera as most important prey items.