Resumo em Inglês:Difficulties in quantifying behavioral events can cause loss of information about cetacean behavior, especially behaviors whose functions are still debated. The lack of knowledge is greater for South American species such as Sotalia guianensis (Van Benédén, 1864). Our objective was to contextualize the behavioral events inside behavioral states using a Permutational Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). Three events occurred in the Feeding, Socio-Sexual and Travelling states (Porpoising, Side flop, Tail out dive), and five events occurred in the Feeding and Travelling states (Back flop, Horizontal jump, Lobtail, Spy-hop, Partial flop ahead). Three events (Belly exposure, Club, and Heading) occurred exclusively in the Socio-sexual state. Partial Back flop and Head flop occurred exclusively in the Feeding state. For the events that occurred in multiple states, we observed that some events occurred more frequently in one of the states (p < 0.001), such as Lobtail, Tail out dive horizontal Jump, Partial flop ahead and Side flop. Our multivariate analysis, which separated Socio-sexual behavior from Feeding and Travelling, showed that the abundance of behavioral events differs between states. This differentiation indicates that some events are associated with specific behavioral states. Almost 40% of the events observed were exclusively performed in one state, which indicates a high specialization for some events. Proper discrimination and contextualization of behavioral events may be efficient tools to better understand dolphin behaviors. Similar studies in other habitats and with other species, will help build a broader scenario to aid our understanding of the functions of dolphin behavioral events.
Resumo em Inglês:Imantodes cenchoa (Linnaeus, 1758) is distributed from the east coast of Mexico to Argentina. In Brazil, it occurs in the north, central-west and northeast regions. We present information on the reproductive biology and diet of I. cenchoa from analysis of 314 specimens deposited in the Herpetological Collection of the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (MPEG). Imantodes cenchoa displays sexual dimorphism in the snout-vent length, where sexually mature females are larger than mature males (t = 4.02, p < 0.01; N males = 150, N females = 71), head length (f1.218 = 98.29, p < 0.01; N males = 150, N females = 71), and head width (f1.218 = 112.77, p < 0.01, N males = 150; N females = 71). Bi-sexual maturity is observed, with males becoming sexually mature earlier than females. Females with eggs were recorded from November to January (rainy season) and from April to July (dry season), suggesting two reproductive peaks throughout the year, with recruitment occurring mainly during the rainy season, when there is a greater supply of food. Imantodes cenchoa is a nocturnal active forager, capturing prey that are asleep on the vegetation. In 32.80% of the analyzed specimens, food contents were present, of which 84.11% were lizards of the genera Norops (69.16%, N = 74) and Gonatodes (14.95%, N = 16). The other 15.89% of the contents were made up of items in an advanced state of digestion, preventing their identification. Some specimens had more than one food item in their digestive tract, accounting for 107 prey items in total. There was no ontogenetic variation in the diet of I. cenchoa, and the predominant direction of prey ingestion was antero-posterior (71.96%). Larger snakes tended to feed on larger prey, although these did not exclude small prey from their diet.
Resumo em Inglês:Freshwater crabs are important elements in the aquatic biota of brooks, rivers, lakes and ponds, from both ecological and the socio-economic aspects. Trichodactylidae comprises 51 endemic species from the Neotropical region. Among all the species of this family, Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 has the widest geographic distribution throughout Brazil. Despite that, there are few published contributions on the biology of this species. The present study investigated the following aspects of T. fluviatilis: relative growth, mean size at onset of morphometric maturity, sexual dimorphism, laterality and heterochely. Specimens were collected monthly from September 2010 through August 2011, from the Velha Eugênia Brook, municipality of Santa Teresinha, State of Bahia. Carapace width (CW), carapace length (CL), major cheliped length (MaCL) and minor cheliped length (MiCL), major cheliped height (MaCH) and minor cheliped height (MiCH), and width of the fifth abdominal segment (5AB) were measured to evaluate the presence of sexual dimorphism; the major difference between the sexes was in the CW vs. 5AB ratio. Heterochely was observed in males and females,with the right cheliped larger than the left in 89% of males and 81% of females. Crab size at the onset of morphometric maturity (= puberty molt) was estimated based on the ratio between CL, cheliped dimensions, 5AB and CW (independent variable). Females were larger than males when they reached morphometric maturity in all studied relations. We recommend the use of chelipeds and abdominal width relationships to estimate the size at the morphometric maturity in males and females, respectively.
Resumo em Inglês:The aim of this study was to assess the ecomorphological patterns and diet of four Characiformes fish species in a poorly physically structured tropical reservoir. We tested the hypothesis that body shape and diet are associated, because environmental pressure acts on the phenotype, selecting traits according to the available resources. Ten ecomorphological attributes of 45 individuals of each species - Astyanax cf. bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Astyanax parahybae Eigenmann, 1908, Oligosarcus hepsetus (Cuvier, 1829), and Metynnis maculatus (Kner, 1858) - , collected between February and November 2003, were analyzed, and the patterns were assessed using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Diet similarity among fish species was assessed using cluster analysis on feeding index. The first two axes from PCA explained 61.73% of the total variance, with the first axis being positively correlated with the compression index and relative height, whereas the second axis was positively correlated with the pectoral fin aspect. Two well-defined trophic groups, one herbivorous/specialist (M. maculatus) and the other formed by two omnivorous/generalist (A. cf. bimaculatus, A. parahybae) and one insectivorous-piscivorous (O. hepsetus) were revealed by the cluster analysis. Astyanax. cf. bimaculatus and A. parahybae differed. The first has comparatively greater relative height, relative length of the caudal peduncle and lower caudal peduncle compression index. However, we did not detect a close correspondence between diet and body shape in the reservoir, and inferred that the ecomorphological hypothesis of a close relationship between body shape and diet in altered systems could be not effective.
Resumo em Inglês:The aim of this study was to compare the influence of different haul distances of a codend beach seine on the catchability of fish in a surf zone. Two different surf zone sites (A and B) at the Cassino Beach (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) were sampled at three different distances, parallel to the beach (30, 60, and 90 m). Starting 40 m from the beach line, diagonal distances of approximately 50, 70, and 100 m were swept. The total CPUE and CPUA haul distances are compatible with a declining trend in catch rates with increased haul distance at both sites. However, statistically significant differences were observed only for the short distance CPUA (50 m) in relation to the other haul distances at one of the sites sampled. Two fish size groups were observed (TL < 40 and > 40 mm), but only small individuals (< 40 mm) captured in the shorter haul distance at site B showed significant differences in CPUA. This result indicates that size structure for hauls at different distances was equal and that smaller individuals determined the pattern of fish abundance. The net performance indicates that a short haul (< 50 m) is the best strategy to reduce net avoidance and fish escape when using this type of sampling gear.
Resumo em Inglês:In the present study, we assessed the ecomorphology of two species of Astyanax in streams with different substrates found in the Rio São Francisco Basin. The dominant substrate of each stream was defined as either "fine" (0 to 2 mm), "gravel" (2 to 250 mm), "rock" (> 250 mm), or "leaf bank". We analyzed a total of 22 ecomorphological attributes of Astyanax intermedius Eigenmann, 1908 (127 individuals) and Astyanax rivularis (Lütken, 1875) (238 individuals) adults. We detected significant ecomorphological differences between the populations of A. rivularis and A. intermedius from habitats with different types of substrates. However, the two species did not show the same morphological differences depending on the type of substrate. These results confirmed the hypothesis that individuals from environments with different characteristics may have different ecomorphological patterns. Knowing that morphology is associated with habitat use and available resources, the loss of a resource or a modification in the environment may directly affect the permanence of a species, leading to a loss of morphologic diversity.
Resumo em Inglês:Males of sexually dimorphic anthribid species display structural modifications that suggest sexual selection. Polyphenism, which is expressed through morphological and behavioral novelties, is an important component of the evolutionary process of these beetles. In this study, we endeavored to ascertain the presence of variations in selected monomorphic traits, polyphenism in males, and variation in structures associated with sexual dimorphism and allometric patterns in two species: Systaltocerus platyrhynus Labram & Imhoff, 1840 and Hypselotropis prasinata (Fahraeus, 1839). To that end, we used Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Canonical Variate analysis (CVA) to statistically analyze 26 measurements of 91 specimens. The PCA discriminated three groups (females, major, and minor males) for S. platyrhinus, but only two groups (males and females) for H. prasinata. The same groups discriminated by the PCA for Systaltocerus were confirmed by the CVA analysis, indicating a highly significant variation separating the three groups. We also analyzed positive allometry with respect to prothorax length - independent variable by Reduced Major Axis (RMA). The allometric pattern indicated by most of the linear measurements was strong and corroborates a possible relationship between male polyphenism and the reproductive behavior of major and minor males. We believe that these patterns, in species that show both sexual dimorphism and male polyphenism, are associated with the behavior of defending the female during oviposition, performed by major males.
Resumo em Inglês:In this study the Brazilian Amazonian species of Acanthoscurria Ausserer, 1871 are redescribed: A. geniculata (C.L. Koch, 1841), A. tarda Pocock, 1903, A. juruenicola Mello-Leitão, 1923, A. theraphosoides (Doleschall, 1871). Acanthoscurria simoensi Vol, 2000 and A. insubtilis Simon, 1892, previously known from French Guyana and Bolivia, respectively, are recorded for Brazil by the first time. The females of these two species are described for the first time and a new species, A. belterrensis sp. nov., is described from Belterra, Pará, Brazil. In addition, four synonymies are established: A. transamazonica Piza, 1972 as junior synonym of A. geniculata; A. ferina Simon, 1892 and A. brocklehursti F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1896 of A. theraphosoides; and A. xinguensis Timotheo da Costa, 1960 of A. juruenicola. Acanthoscurria belterrensis sp. nov. resembles A. gomesiana Mello-Leitão, 1923 by the color pattern and structure of sexual organs. The male can be distinguished by the less curved embolus and the very projected prolateral superior and prolateral inferior keels, giving a triangular aspect to the basis of embolus, and the female seminal receptacles presenting a larger and narrower basis.
Resumo em Inglês:Two new Ruppeliana Young, 1977 species are described and illustrated based on specimens from the states of Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species are easily distinguished from other Ruppeliana Young, 1977 by their color pattern. Ruppeliana caelimaculata sp. nov. has red to dark red forewings with whitish-blue transverse maculae, and R. flavivirescens sp. nov. has brownish-red forewings with greenish-yellow longitudinal stripes. The female genitalia are for the first time described and illustrated in detail for species of the genus.
Resumo em Inglês:Richardiidae is represented by ca. 180 species in 33 genera. A new species of Hemixantha, now totaling 20 species, is described from the Amazon Region, state of Pará, Brazil, and from Teoponte, Bolivia. Hemixantha maculosa sp. nov., H. picta Hennig, 1937 and H. pulchripennis Hendel, 1911 are richardiids known to have an extensively banded wing pattern. Hemixantha maculosa sp. nov. represents the first record of Hemixantha from the state of Pará and this species can be distinguished from H. picta and H. pulchripennis by anepisternum and dorsal half of anepimeron bright yellow and vein R2+3 slightly sinuous. Besides the hyaline areas on the wing of H. maculosa are very distinct from these other species, as follows: (1) subtrapezoidal median area in cell cua1 extended anteriorly to vein M1, separated from hyaline area in cell dm; (2) two oblique areas from costal margin almost to or beyond vein R4+5, one proximal to and one distal to level of crossvein r-m; (3) a circular area on basal part of cell r4+5 and (4) a triangular area on basal region of cell m1. An identification key, diagnoses, description and redescriptions, and illustrations to the species of Hemixantha with an extensively banded wing pattern are provided.
Resumo em Inglês:We examined the diet of the Rosy-billed Pochard, Netta peposaca (Vieillot, 1816), (n = 59) during the autumn of 2010 in Santa Fe province, Argentina. Were analyzed a total of 59 ducks (n = 37 females and n = 22 males) to assess their gastrointestinal contents. The trophic spectrum was composed of 16 taxa (plant fraction: animal fraction 9 and 7). The contribution of each food category estimated using the IRI was: Echynochloa sp. (Poaceae) = 4301, Polygonum sp. (Polygonaceae) = 956, and unidentified graminoid species = 53 (females: Echynochloa sp. = 4313, Polygonum sp. = 1095 and males: Echynochloa sp. = 5522, Polygonum sp. = 814). No significant differences were found between females and males in diet composition (Fisher's test, p < 0.05). Moreover, the diversity index (H') was significantly (Mann-Whitney, p < 0.05) different between sexes. The Rosy-billed Pochard showed a predominantly phytophagous feeding habit in autumn. Likewise, this is the first contribution on the sexual differences in the feeding biology of the Rosy-billed Pochard.
Resumo em Inglês:The transportation of live fish is a routine procedure in aquaculture, and includes a series of stressful stimuli such as an increase in the stocking density of specimens per volume of water, and abrupt changes in water quality. This study evaluated the water quality and the stress levels on Pimelodus maculatus (Lacépède, 1803) fingerlings transported in plastic bags by a mechanical transportation simulator. Fish were stocked at densities 4 (22.88 g/L), 8 fish/L (45.76 g/L) and 12 fish/L (68.64 g/L) and the transportation simulation was performed for 4, 8 or 12 hours. A completely randomized experimental design applied to a 3 x 3 factorial model with three replicates was used. Water quality was evaluated by the analysis of the temperature, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total ammonia, unionized ammonia and nitrite at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Stress was assessed by determining tissue cortisol levels by radioimmunoassay, in the beginning and at the end of the study. The densities and the transportation times did not cause mortality, but higher density and times of transport influenced water quality indicators. The simulated transportation of P. maculatus showed that all P. maculatus fingerlings survived at the maximum density tested, 12 fish/L for 12 hours.