Abstract in English:The social structure of humpback whales in their tropical wintering grounds is very fluid. To date, no information has been published for cases in which two whales were both satellite-tagged while in association. Here, we report the movements of four humpback whale pairs tagged together off the coast of Brazil. Fieldwork and satellite tagging of humpback whales was conducted between 2003 and 2008 along the eastern coast of Brazil, between 20°S and 8°S. Movement was monitored while whales were still in their breeding ground. A switching state space model was applied to the filtered data of each humpback whale to standardize telemetry data and allow direct comparison of each individual track. GIS was used to plot model-predicted locations and to visually compare animal movements. The results confirm the short-lived nature of associations between breeding humpback whales, and shows that individuals differ widely in their movements.
Abstract in English:Micrablepharus maximiliani (Reinhardt & Luetken, 1861) is a microteiid lizard widely distributed in the open areas of South America. Little is known about its ecology and reproductive biology. Here, we analyzed aspects of the natural history of a population of M. maximiliani from a Cerrado area in the state of Piauí, northeastern Brazil. Our results suggest that the reproductive activity of M. maximiliani might be seasonal in the Cerrado, since reproductive females were observed only in the dry season, whereas reproductive males were present in both seasons. Vitellogenic follicles and oviductal eggs were found simultaneously in one female, suggesting that females may produce more than one clutch per season. Sexual dimorphism was observed in body shape, and individuals were mainly restricted to a typical savanna physiognomy. The diet consisted of small arthropods, including spiders, crickets and cockroaches as the most important items.
Abstract in English:The stomach contents of the eyespot skate, Atlantoraja cyclophora (Regan, 1903), were examined with the goal to provide information about the diet of the species. Samples were collected off the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, near Ilha Grande, between January 2006 and August 2007, at a depth of about 60 m. The diet was analyzed by sex, maturity stages and quarterly to verify differences in the importance of food items. The latter were analyzed by: frequency of occurrence, percentage of weight and in the Alimentary Index. The trophic niche width was determined to assess the degree of specialization in the diet. Additionally, the degree of dietary overlap between males and females; juveniles and adults and periods of the year were defined. A total of 59 individuals of A. cyclophora were captured. Females and adults were more abundant. The quarters with the highest concentrations of individuals were in the summer of the Southern Hemisphere: Jan-Feb-Mar 06 and Jan-Feb-Mar 07. Prey items were classed into five main groups: Crustacea, Teleosts, Elasmobranchs, Polychaeta, and Nematoda. The most important groups in the diet of the eyespot skate were Crustacea and Teleosts. The crab Achelous spinicarpus (Stimpson, 1871) was the most important item. The value of the niche width was small, indicating that a few food items are important. The comparison of the diet between males and females and juveniles and adults indicates a significant overlap between the sexes and stages of maturity; and according to quarters, the importance of prey groups differed (crustaceans were more important in the quarters of the summer and teleost in Jul-Aug-Sep and Oct-Nov-Dec 06), indicating seasonal differences in diet composition. Three groups with similar diets were formed in the cluster analysis: (Jan-Feb-Mar 06 and 07); (Apr-May-Jun 06 and Jul-Aug-Sep 07); (Jul-Aug-Sep 06 and Oct-Nov-Dec 06).
Abstract in English:The largest area of preserved Atlantic forest is located in the southern portion of Brazil. The region of Paranapiacaba is depicted in Brazilian zoological studies as one of the first and most intensely sampled areas of the state of São Paulo.We provide a concise list of reptiles and amphibians from the Paranapiacaba Municipal Park. It represents the first comprehensive survey of the group in the area. We recorded 136 species of reptiles and amphibians from field surveys, museum collections and the literature. The anuran diversity of Paranapiacaba is greater than that of Estação Ecológica de Boracéia, which has been considered the most distinctive areas in São Paulo in terms of amphibian diversity. The rich history of herpetological research in the region, including the occurrence of the two most threatened species in Brazil, converts the area to an important conservation landmark for the Brazilian herpetofauna.
Abstract in English:Despite a recent increase of information on leaf litter frog communities from Atlantic rainforests, few studies have analyzed the relationship between environmental parameters and community structure of these animals. We analyzed the effects of some environmental factors on a leaf litter frog community at an Atlantic Rainforest area in southeastern Brazil. Data collection lasted ten consecutive days in January 2010, at elevations ranging between 300 and 520 m above sea level. We established 50 quadrats of 5 x 5 m on the forest floor, totaling 1,250 m² of sampled area, and recorded the mean leaf-litter depth and the number of trees within the plot, as well as altitude. We found 307 individuals belonging to ten frog species within the plots. The overall density of leaf-litter frogs estimated from the plots was 24.6 ind/100m², with Euparkerella brasiliensis (Parker, 1926), Ischnocnema guentheri (Steindachner, 1864), Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853) and Haddadus binotatus (Spix, 1824) presenting the highest estimated densities. Among the environmental variables analyzed, only altitude influenced the parameters of anuran community. Our results indicate that the study area has a very high density of forest floor leaf litter frogs at altitudes of 300-500 m. Future estimates of litter frog density might benefit from taking the local altitudinal variation into consideration. Neglecting such variation might result in underestimated/overestimated values if they are extrapolated to the whole area.
Abstract in English:In temperate zones, insectivorous bats use some types of habitat more frequently than others, and are more active in the warmest periods of the year. We assessed the spatial and seasonal activity patterns of bats in open areas of the southernmost region of Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that bat activity differs among habitat types, among seasons, and is influenced by weather variables. We monitored four 1,500-m transects monthly, from April 2009 to March 2010. Transects corresponded to the five habitat types that predominate in the region. In each sampling session, we detected and counted bat passes with an ultrasound detector (Pettersson D230) and measured climatic variables at the transects. We recorded 1,183 bat passes, and observed the highest activity at the edge of a eucalyptus stand (0.64 bat passes/min) and along an irrigation channel (0.54 bat passes/min). The second highest activity values (0.31 and 0.20 bat passes/min, respectively) were obtained at the edge of a riparian forest and at the margin of a wetland. The grasslands were used significantly less (0.05 bat passes/min). Bat activity was significantly lower in the winter (0.21 bat passes/min) and showed similar values in the autumn (0.33 bat passes/min), spring (0.26 bat passes/min), and summer (0.29 bat passes/min). Bat activity was correlated with temperature, but it was not correlated with wind speed and relative humidity of the air. Our data suggest that, in the study area, insectivorous bats are active throughout the year, and use mostly forest and watercourses areas. These habitat types should be considered prioritary for the conservation of bats in the southernmost region of Brazil.
Abstract in English:The morphological traits of the female reproductive system of Diaphorina citri were examined in detail. Diaphorina citri has telotrophic ovaries with ovarioles organized as a "bouquet", displaying a rudimentary terminal filament and a syncytial tropharium. The vitellarium carries a single growing oocyte at each maturation cycle, which is connected with the tropharium by a nutritive cord. Morpho-functional changes occur during oocyte development, mainly during mid to late vitellogenesis. Morphological events such as the patency of the follicular cells and the intense traffic of vesicles through para- or intracellular processes, suggest a possible route for endosymbiont invasion of D. citri reproductive tissues. Similar events have been demonstrated to be involved in the process of ovariole invasion by endosymbionts in other sternorrhynchans that share reproductive traits with psyllids.
Abstract in English:We describe three new species collected from the Reserva Ducke (02°55'-03°01'S, 59°53'-59°59'W), near Manaus, state of Amazonas: one new species was included in Blaberidae (Epilamprinae): Epilampra manauara sp. nov: , which is similar to E. sagitta Rocha e Silva & Aguiar, 1978. It differs from that species in the generally darker coloration and the internal genitalia, which has the right phallomere hooked, developed, wide medially and distended apically, bearing an apical spine-like structure and a median sclerite with a larger prepucium, rounded and with apex more sclerotized and with better-defined apical crests. Two new species were included in Ectobiidae (Blattellinae): Chromatonotus amazoninus sp. nov: , which is similar to Chromatonotus caruaruensis Lopes & Khouri, 2009 in the parallel brown marks on the pronotum, but differs in the shape of the subgenital plate, the median sclerite with a more-sclerotized tip, left phallomere with angulate apex (90 degrees) and apex curved, right phallomere with basal stem more slender and with apical arms dilated; and Dasyblatta spiculata sp. nov: , which has an asymmetrical genital plate and the median sclerite shaped as a spine apically, differing from other species of the genus. The specimens were collected in the evening, in leaf litter, from fallen logs, or on branches and foliage. The male genitalia are illustrated and the material studied is deposited in the collection of the Department of Entomology of the Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ).
Abstract in English:The Caatinga-endemic nectar-feeding bat, Xeronycteris vieirai Gregorin & Ditchfield, 2005 was described based on four specimens. Since then, only two additional specimens have been reported in the literature. Examination of a new specimen that closely agrees with the original description but presents two additional upper premolars, led us to review the type series of this taxon. Our analysis provided support to the recognition of the new specimen as a X. vieirai with supernumerary teeth and revealed new diagnostic characters that can help in the field identification of this species. Xeronycteris vieirai presents tricolored dorsal fur, entirely naked forearm, connection of the base of the spear of the noseleaf with the upper limit of the horseshoe with a marked ridge, and chin with simple dermal pads and a relatively slight cleft. Additional new characters described here include anterior zygomatic arches reduced and not extending laterally and upward with respect to upper toothrow, basioccipital pits deep and separated by a high and thin bone septum, and mandible with a pronounced ridge at anterior symphysis. We propose an emended diagnosis based on morphological characters and provide a rectification on the original notation related to the holotype.
Abstract in English:We describe the external morphology of the tadpole of Proceratophrys izecksohni Dias, Amaro, Carvalho-e-Silva & Rodrigues, 2013, its internal oral features, and chondrocranial anatomy, based on specimens collected at the type locality. The tadpole has short and oval body, spiracle with inner wall fused to the body, and oral formula 2/3(1). The oral cavity of P. izecksohni is typical of stream-dwelling tadpoles, with several papillae and pustulations. The chondrocranium is longer than wide and the suprarostral corpora are free ventromedially. The palatoquadrate has a well developed processus pseudopterygoideus. We also compare the tadpole of P. izecksohni with tadpoles those of other species of the genus, emphasizing the usage of larval morphology to assist in the systematic of the genus.
Abstract in English:We studied material in collections from coastal intertidal and subtidal tropical waters of the Brazilian states of Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Bahia, and Espírito Santo. We identified seven species of Eudistoma, of which two are new to science. Eudistoma alvearium sp. nov: colonies have fecal pellets around each zooid and zooids are 6-8 mm long with seven straight and parallel pyloric tubules; the larval trunk is 0.6 mm long with three adhesive papillae and ten ampullae. Eudistoma versicolor sp. nov: colonies are cushion-shaped, variable in color (blue, purple, brown, light green, gray or white) and zooids have six straight and parallel pyloric tubules; the larval trunk is 0.8 mm long with three adhesive papillae and six ampules. Three species - E. carolinense Van Name, 1945, E. recifense Millar, 1977, and E. vannamei Millar, 1977 - are known from northeastern Brazil. The identification of two additional species will require confirmation. We also propose a synonymy for E. carolinense with E. repens Millar, 1977, also previously described in Brazil.