Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The island rule suggests that, when mainland animals are isolated on islands, large animals tend to become smaller, while small animals tend to become larger. A small frog in eastern Brazil, Phyllodytes luteolus (Wied-Neuwied, 1824), is widely distributed in association with bromeliads. At the end of the last glaciation, parts of the mainland became islands due to rising sea levels, thereby isolating frog populations on these islands. If the island rule holds, we predicted that frogs on islands would tend to be larger than frogs on the mainland. We compared sizes (weight and length) of 30 randomly selected male frogs from the mainland with 30 from an island in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. We also sampled population density on the island and mainland because concurrent with changing sizes, depending on the causal relationship, density may also change. As predicted, island frogs tended to be larger (both in snout-vent length and weight) and were much more abundant. While not specifically addressed in this study, the absence of predators and interspecific competitors may explain both of these trends.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Efficiently obtaining high-quality data on animal populations and communities is paramount for ecological and conservation studies. In many instances these data come from live-trapping, the success of which depends on various factors, such as the interaction between the trap's mechanisms and the morphological or ecological characteristics of the animals, and weather conditions that can affect both trap efficiency and animal behavior. Integrative approaches that address the simultaneous effects of these factors on capture-recapture success are rare. Here we contribute to close this knowledge gap by focusing on a large capture-recapture dataset from three 2-ha grids monitored for approximately two years (totaling 55.000 traps-night) in the Morro Grande Forest Reserve, São Paulo, Brazil. The dataset contains data on 3608 captures of 1273 individuals from 24 species of Atlantic forest small mammals. We evaluated if mortality rates and the capture-recapture success of small mammals varied between two types of trap (Sherman and pitfall), and if the capture success of each type varied with age and sex of individuals, and with weather conditions. Our findings highlight that trap efficiency depends not only on the quantities considered (species, individuals or recaptures), but also on animal characteristics and weather conditions. Large pitfall traps should be used whenever the focus is on biodiversity and community parameters, since they captured more individuals and species. Studies focusing on demographic parameters require the combined use of pitfall and Sherman traps. While pitfall traps captured a larger number of individuals and a higher proportion of juveniles, Sherman traps provided higher recapture rates for most species.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Soil invertebrates are studied by a number of methods. Here we used zoological methods (soil sampling, pitfall trapping, litter sifting, and hand collecting) to sample centipede communities in four floodplain forests (Czech Republic, Europe) and compared the efficiency of these methods. Heat-extraction from soil samples was the most effective, followed by pitfall trapping. The centipedes found by us can be divided into five ecological groups: 1) larger, abundant lithobiomorphs, 2) larger, scarcer lithobiomorphs, 3) smaller, soil lithobiomorphs, 4) abundant geophilomorphs, and 5) scarcer geophilomorphs.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Determining the significance of biotic and abiotic factors in the structuring of fish assemblages in freshwater environments is an important question in ecology, particularly in view of environmental changes caused by man. In this paper we sought to identify the factors responsible for the composition and abundance of fish species collected with gill nets in six locations near ports in forest clearance areas opened up for oil and natural gas exploration (Petrobras Pedro Moura Base) in the Urucu River, during drought and flood cycles. In all, 923 individuals from 23 families and 82 species were collected, totalling a biomass of 182,244 g. The most abundant species during the flood season were Bryconops alburnoides (Kner, 1858) and Dianema urostriatum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1912); in the drought season, the predominant species were Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (Cuvier, 1829) and Serrasalmus rhombeus (Linnaeus, 1766). The species with the greatest biomass during the flood season were Pellona castelnaeana (Valenciennes, 1847), S. rhombeus and Pellona flavipinis (Valenciennes, 1847). During the drought season, the predominant species was O. bicirrhosum. When both periods were analysed together, electrical conductivity, water transparency and dissolved oxygen were the most important factors. The species Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes, 1840), O. bicirrhosum, Chaetobranchus flavenscens Heckel, 1840, Geophagus proximus (Castelnau, 1855) were strongly related to high values of conductivity, pH and water current velocity during the drought season, as well as Serrasalmus altispinis Merckx, Jégu & Santos, 2000, Triportheus albus Cope, 1872, Triportheus angulatus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829) and Brycon melanopterus (Cope, 1872) that were associated with less depth and width in the drought season whereas P. castelnaeana, D. urostriatum, Rhytiodus argenteofuscus Kner, 1858 and Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) were mainly associated with high transparency and dissolved oxygen during the flood season.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We compared the morphology of the erythrocytes of five anurans, two toad species - Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842) and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799) and three frog species - Fejervarya limnocharis (Gravenhorst, 1829), Microhyla ornata (Duméril & Bibron, 1841), and Rana zhenhaiensis (Ye, Fei & Matsui, 1995). We then reconstructed the ancestral state of erythrocyte size (ES) and nuclear size (NS) in amphibians based on a molecular tree. Nine morphological traits of erythrocytes were all significantly different among the five species. The results of principal component analysis showed that the first component (49.1% of variance explained) had a high positive loading for erythrocyte length, nuclear length, NS and ratio of erythrocyte length/erythrocyte width; the second axis (28.5% of variance explained) mainly represented erythrocyte width and ES. Phylogenetic generalized least squares analysis showed that the relationship between NS and ES was not affected by phylogenetic relationships although there was a significant linear relationship between these two variables. These results suggested that (1) the nine morphological traits of erythrocytes in the five anuran species were species-specific; (2) in amphibians, larger erythrocytes generally had larger nuclei.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT There are two species of Neotropical Round-eared bats, Tonatia bidens Spix, 1823 and Tonatia saurophila Koopman & Williams, 1951, which present highly similar morphological characteristics that can lead to errors of identification. Specimens originally identified as T. bidens have recently been reclassified as T. saurophila, and the only karyotype documented previously for these species was 2n = 16, FN = 20. In the present study, specimens of Tonatia collected in the municipality of Barra do Garças, in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, were analyzed morphologically, using conventional cytogenetic techniques (C-banding, Ag-NOR, and CMA3), and through sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. In the specimens morphologically identified as T. bidens, the diploid number (2n) was 26, and the fundamental number (FN), 38, while in T. saurophila, 2n = 16 and FN = 20, which is the karyotype also described previously for T. bidens. The dendograms obtained with sequences of the COI marker resulted in the formation of two distinct groups between T. bidens and T. saurophila, consistent with the two species, with a high sequence divergence value (14.22%). Distinct clades were also observed between T. bidens and the other phyllostomines analyzed in this study, with T. bidens also close to Phyllostomus hastatus (14.18% of sequence divergence).
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The macroscopic anatomy and the microscopic and ultrastructural features of the Harderian gland (HG), lacrimal gland (LG) and superficial gland of the third eyelid (SGTE) of the adult European bison are described. In addition, morphometric studies were conducted and were followed by statistical analysis of the results. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, methyl green-pyronin Y, periodic acid-Schiff, Alcian blue pH 2.5, aldehyde fuchsin and Hale's dialysed iron. Analysis of the staining showed that the HG has a multilobular tubuloalveolar structure with mixed secretion. The LG and the SGTE have a multilobar tubuloacinar structure with serous secretion in the LG and mucoserous in the SGTE. The TEM study demonstrates that the secretory cells of the HG, LG and SGTE have similar ultrastructural appearance, with two types of secretory vesicles in the cytoplasm of all studied glands. The histochemical staining methods and the TEM study revealed the secretory activity in the HG, LG and SGTE ducts. The structural studies can be important for establishing relations between morphological structure and functions of these glands. It can have clinical implications especially when taking into consideration the protective mechanisms of the eye.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to examine the ovaries and the oviduct of juvenile females of the broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris (Daudin, 1802), using light microscopy, histochemical and immunocytochemical techniques. The ovarian cortex was observed to contain groups of germinative cells and abundant previtellogenic follicles at different stages of development. In previtellogenic follicles, the oocyte was surrounded by a single cuboidal layer of granulosa cells, supported by the theca layer. The theca was formed by a concentric layer containing collage nous fibers, predominantly type I, and several smooth muscle fibers. The inner perivitelline layer appeared as a narrow basophilic region between the oocyte and the granulosa. The ovarian medullary region of loose connective tissue contained blood and lymphatic vessels, as well as numerous lacunae, being covered by a simple squamous epithelium, supported by a thin layer of connective tissue. The oviduct of C. latirostris showed five histologically distinct regions: infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina. The infundibulum was composed of an irregularly folded mucosa covered by a simple columnar epithelium with the presence of ciliated cells, weakly reactive to PAS staining. In the magnum, the mucosa was highly folded, and pseudostratified columnar epithelium contains mucous cells, which reacted positively to PAS staining. The isthmus was lining by an epithelium of ciliated and non-ciliated secretory cells, but no gland was visualized in mucosa. In the uterus, the folded mucosa was composed of a simple epithelium of high cylindrical cells and the lamina propria, which was predominantly formed by strongly birefringent fibers, but yellow-green weakly birefringent fibers were also present. The epithelium of the vagina contained intensely ciliated and non-ciliated cells, both of which were positive to PAS staining and no gland was observed in this region. Although the ovary and the oviduct showed some morphological particularities, they are similar to other crocodilians.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Paraulacizes munda (Fowler, 1899) has been considered a junior synonym of P. confusa (Signoret, 1855). These two species were described from Mexico. Here it is shown that P. munda can be distinguished from P. confusa by the color and size of the body. Hence, the former is revalidated from synonymy of the latter. Descriptions and illustrations of the male and female genitalia of P. munda, which are necessary for an accurate identification of leafhopper species in general, are provided for the first time. Paraulacizes munda can be distinguished from the other 11 species currently included in Paraulacizes by the following combination of features: ground color of anterior dorsum yellow or pale yellow; dorsal processes of male pygofer strongly inflated apically; style with apex transversely truncate, not projected inward; atrial processes of aedeagus, in lateral view, not distinctly curved apically; female sternite VII with small median lobe on posterior margin and pair of dark brown marks posteromedially. This is the first detailed description of the first and second ovipositor valvulae of a Paraulacizes species. The female genitalia of Paraulacizes are compared with those of the related genera Aulacizes Amyot & Serville, 1843 and Proconosama Young, 1968.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Four new sympatric species of Cosmetus Perty, 1833 are described from "Reserva Natural Privada Burbayar, Provinciar Panamá, Panamá" (male holotypes deposited in MIUP). Cosmetus balboa sp. nov. can be distinguished by the combinations of following features: smooth ocularium, larger distal tubercle on pedipalpal femur, coxa I with large ventral tubercle directed upwards, coxa IV with one large dorsoproximal tubercle, two geminate (from base) dorsoapical tubercles with blunt apex. Cosmetus burbayar sp. nov., can be distinguished from other species of the genus by the irregular and discontinuous shape of its yellow spot, extending from lateral anterior to posterior margins and invading prosoma, areas I-III and free tergites. Cosmetus pollera sp. nov. can be distinguished from congeners by two small yellow and two large pairs of spots on prosoma and two other spots on posterior margin of dorsal scutum. Cosmetus tamboritos sp. nov. is distinguished from other species of the genus by the following combinations of characters: having two retrolateral apical tubercles on bulla, one being double size of other; coxa IV lacks patches of a cluster of four tubercles on dorsolateral proximal region and two pointed tubercles fused at their apices; and femur IV with bifid retrolateral apical tubercle. The penis of Cosmetus arietinus (Mello-Leitão, 1940) and C. variolosus Mello-Leitão, 1942 are described for the first time. A table with the main diagnostic features of Cosmetus species is given. We suggest that the spine of area III, sexually dimorphic chelicerae and posterior legs, and pigmentation of dorsal scutum are good diagnosti c features at species level.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Sulcana cunicula sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on four specimens from municipality of São José dos Pinhais, state of Paraná, Brazil. This species can be distinguished from others in the genus by the following characters: (1) head produced, slightly shorter than median length of pronotum; (2) aedeagus bearing a pair of acute ventral processes at mid-length of shaft and extended dorsally. A new record to Sulcana brevis DeLong & Freytag and a key to the three species of the genus are also presented.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Perilestes eustaquioi sp. nov. (holotype male deposited in ABMM collection) from the state of Bahia (municipality of Una), northeastern Brazil, is described and illustrated based on one male specimen. It differs from the other species of the genus mainly by the larger size of the anteclypeus in relations to the postclypeus. Together with P. fragilis Hagen in Selys, 1862 from the state of Sergipe and P. solutus Williamson & Williamson, 1924 from the state of Ceará, these are the first records of Perilestidae from northeastern Brazil.