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Zoologia (Curitiba), Volume: 41, Published: 2024
  • Vertical stratification of Sphingidae moths (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea: Sphingidae) in the Tapajós National Forest, Pará, Brazil Research Article

    Valente, Danúbia Marcela Pereira; Teston, José Augusto

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study analyzed the vertical stratification of hawkmoths in an area of the Dense Ombrophylous Forest in the Amazon. The moths were captured through light traps with ultraviolet lamps F15 T12 LN installed in three strata (canopy, midstory, and understory) from 6 pm to 7 am, during the first quarter to new moon period, on three consecutive nights per month during May 2019 to February 2020, in the Tapajós National Forest located in the state of Pará, Brazil (02°51’23.3”S, 54°57’31.0”W). This study analyzed 33 species (S) and 775 specimens (N) of Sphingidae. The sphingofauna had a high concentration, mainly in the upper strata, with greater emphasis on richness (S = 28), abundance (N = 687), and Berger Parker dominance (BP = 0.72) found in the forest canopy. The canopy’s dominance stood out because the species Erinnyis ello (Linnaeus, 1758) was more abundant in this stratum (N = 492). PERMANOVA analysis indicated significant differences in all strata. Therefore, our study provided important information about the vertical distribution of moths, showing that their richness, abundance, and species composition are distinct between strata.
  • Length-weight and length-length relationships of 10 fish species from headwater streams of the lower Iguassu River basin, Brazil Research Article

    Genovai, Natalia; Maciel, Anderson Luís; Piana, Pitágoras Augusto; Gubiani, Éder André

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Length-weight (LWR) and length-length (LLR) relationships are widely used in management programs and monitoring of fish stocks. We estimated the LWR and LLR of 10 fish species sampled from nine streams of the lower reach of the Iguassu River Basin, Paraná, Brazil. All LWR fits were significant, with b values ranging from 2.37 to 3.62 and an average value of 3.07. Most species showed isometric growth. Significant differences in the LWR between sexes were observed only for Phalloceros harpagos Lucinda, 2008 in the Três Barras stream. All LLR fits were significant, with b values ranging from 0.98 to 1.25 and an average value of 1.15. Significant differences between sexes for the LLR were observed for Rhamdia voulezi Haseman, 1911 in the Arroio Passo Liso stream. First records of the LWR for four species - Ancistrus mullerae Bifi, Pavanelli & Zawadzki, 2009, Bryconamericus pyahu Azpelicueta, Casciotta & Almirón, 2003, Cambeva stawiarski (Miranda Ribeiro, 1968), and Cambeva taroba (Wosiacki & Garavello, 2004) - and the LLR for six species - A. mullerae, B. pyahu, C. davisi, C. stawiarski, C. taroba, and P. harpagos - and a new record of maximum standard length for two species - C. taroba and B. pyahu - are presented.
  • A questionnaire survey of the Brazilian dipterological research Community Research Article

    Haseyama, Kirstern L.F.; Shimabukuro, Paloma H.F.; Kirst, Frederico D.; Falaschi, Rafaela L.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT In this study, we conducted a survey of researchers studying flies in Brazil, with the aim of acquiring up-to-date information about them, across multiple aspects, i.e., demographics, opinions, needs, and the main challenges they face. We developed an online questionnaire and collected the responses between September and November 2019; 126 responses were received. Most of them held a Ph.D. and identified themselves as males. Nearly all respondents worked exclusively in public institutions, and most were financially reliant on scholarships provided by public agencies. All of them studied at least one of the 81 dipteran families known to occur in Brazil, with most respondents working on families that included taxa of public health importance. Additionally, most work conducted by these researchers was rooted in systematics/taxonomy. A specific portion of the respondents (i.e., students) felt less integrated into the research community and found it challenging to publish high-impact research. However, some concerns were shared across all respondent subgroups, such as the need for increased funding and a more seamless integration within the research community. Academic professionals highlighted limited funding and inadequate infrastructure as barriers to research. Nevertheless, some subgroups expressed concerns about their career prospects. Although there may be limitations in the sampling process underpinning this study, our survey provides valuable insights into the demographic characteristics of Brazilian dipterist community, thus facilitating the development of policy strategies.
  • Insecticide resistance of Stegomyia aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population from Paranaguá a port city in southern Brazil Research Article

    Schuartz, Valeria; Palacio-Cortés, Angela M.; Grassi, Marco T.; Acero-Sandoval, Mario A.; Navarro-Silva, Mario A.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) vectors arboviruses of public health concern in urban areas of tropical countries, so it is necessary to reduce its population. Among the control methods used, chemically synthesized molecules have been widely employed, nonetheless, the over usage of the same mechanism of action can result in the resistance selection. Considering the influence of insect resistance with the success of chemical control of vectors, this study aims to assess the susceptibility to organophosphorus of a population of S. aegypti from Paranaguá (Paraná, Brazil), after intense use of malathion during a dengue outbreak. World Health Organization susceptibility tests and expression of Acetylcholinesterase ace-1, cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP6N12, and α-esterases CCEae3A genes were evaluated. The mortality rate of wild females (66.5%) indicated their resistance status, furthermore, a new discriminant concentration was detected in this population (3.41%). Exclusively CYP6N12 gene was overexpressed in malathion-resistant females indicating its possible contribution to the transformation of this insecticide. Constant monitoring of insecticide resistance of current and past molecules, mainly in port areas where there is a large flow of species, is crucial for effective use of insecticide in vector control programs.
  • Intragonadal evaluation of sexual steroid hormones during three reproductive events in two species of Peromyscus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) Research Article

    Salame-Méndez, Arturo; Mancera-Jaime, Gustavo; Castro-Campillo, Alondra; Ávila-Valle, Zamira; Ramírez-Pulido, José

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The ovary of sexually mature females involves oogenetic process for follicular development, ovulation, and luteinization (gametogenic function), which in turn relate to stages of the estrous cycle (EC), as well as the production and biotransformation (steroidogenic function) of sexual steroid hormones (SSH) during EC, pregnancy, and lactation. Depending on their concentrations, SSH play different functions to elicit such reproductive events, but little is known about this in free-living wild species. Here we used ELISA to assess intraovarian concentrations of progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol, during EC, pregnancy, and lactation in wild adult females of Peromyscus melanotis J.A. Allen & Chapman, 1897 and Peromyscus difficilis (J.A. Allen, 1891), immediately after their capture. Results of intraspecific ANOVA showed statistical differences between concentrations of different SSH in the same reproductive stage or event and between the stages or events for each SSH, according to the steroidogenic Δ 4 pathway. Although ANOVA analyses showed no interspecific differences of the same SSH in the same event, except for more testosterone in P. melanotis during heat, profiles of production curves suggest intraspecific peculiarities and interspecific differences that need to be further investigated. Our results contribute to physiological-endocrine evidence during the four stages of EC and first and second part of pregnancy in species of Peromyscus, and are the first documentation for overall lactation in wild rodents.
  • Description of three new species of Protoancylodiscoides (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) and biogeography of those parasitizing Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Siluriformes: Claroteidae) in Sanaga and Dibamba rivers, Cameroon Research Article

    Bassock Bayiha, Etienne D.; Mbondo, Jonathan A.; Bahanak, Dieu Ne Dort; Bilong Bilong, Charles F.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacépède) specimens were sampled in the Sanaga River and in the Dibamba River. Three new species, Protoancylodiscoides edeaensis sp. nov., P. yombai sp. nov. from both rivers, and P. dibambaensis sp. nov. from the Dibamba River alone, are described. Protoancylodiscoides edeaensis sp. nov., close to P. mansourensis El-Naggar, 1987 and P. chrysichthes Paperna, 1969 by the morphology of the haptor sclerotised parts, differs from these species by the penis length and the morphology of the vagina. Protoancylodiscoides yombai sp. nov. is close to P. edeaensis sp. nov., P. mansourensis, and P. chrysichthes by the morphology of some sclerotised parts of the haptor (ventral bar, ventral anchors, dorsal onchium and hooks). However, it differs from these species by the morphology of the vagina, of the outer root of the dorsal anchor, and the size of some sclerotised parts (dorsal anchor total length, dorsal bar length, ventral anchor length, and penis length). Protoancylodiscoides dibambaensis sp. nov. is close to P. ivoiriensis Bouah, N’Douba & Pariselle, 2021 by the lack of the onchium and the morphology of some sclerotised parts of the haptor. However, it differs from this species by the morphology of the dorsal bar, penis length, dorsal bar length, and of the ventral anchor total length. This study on monogeneans raises the question of ichthyofauna exchange between adjacent streams; it also reveals a longitudinal gradient of Protoancylodiscoides species richness in the Sanaga River.
  • Can the type and placement of traps influence the capturability of marsupials according to their body weight? A case study with Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus agilis in central Brazil Short Communication

    Claro, Hermes W. Parreira; Bernardes-Dias, Ana Claudia; Alves, Carolina; Hannibal, Wellington

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Body weight and vertical stratum utilization are important functional characteristics of species. Several studies have explored the capture success of different traps. These studies, however, did not explore how trappability is influenced by body weight. Here, we investigated the relationship between the weight of marsupial species caught in traps with trap type (wire cage and Sherman) and trap placement (ground and understory). For this we used data from Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840 (n = 127; 75-958 g) and Gracilinanus agilis (Burmeister, 1854) (n = 327; 8.5-46 g) captured in semideciduous forest fragments in central Brazil. The results show that heaviest individuals of D. albiventris (391.01 ± 197.57 g) were captured more often by wire cage traps, regardless of trap placement. In contrast, G. agilis was trapped at similar rates regardless of weight, trap type or trap placement. We conclude that wire cage traps are more efficient at catching large marsupials weighing more than 300 g on average. Furthermore, the size of the individuals captured is not influenced by where the trap is placed (ground or understory). These findings contribute to a better understanding of the natural history and trappability of Neotropical marsupials.
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