Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In 2022, Salvador and co-authors published an up-to-date list of gastropod species recorded from Brazilian caves. That list included 18 species (15 land and three freshwater species) that were considered by the authors to be restricted to caves (troglobitic). In this contribution we argue that only six of the species listed by them as truly troglobites can be classified in that category. We disagree with some characteristics listed by Salvador and co-authors to diagnose the species they classify as cave-restricted and argue that those species do not have truly troglomorphic traits (characteristic of subterranean habitats). Since the Brazilian legislation considers the degree of association with caves as a decisive attribute to preserve them, it is important to clarify the characteristics are sufficient and necessary for a species to be classified as cave-dependent.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The giant river prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man, 1879), is a species of great commercial importance. It is farmed under different conditions that translate to a great range of light environments, which impact their behavior and productivity. We present the first study employing both visual modeling and beha vioral data to evaluate the ontogenetic changes in color preferences of juveniles and adults of M. rosenbergii. We offered ten shelters of different colors to juveniles and adults and registered their preferences. Our results show that shelter preference changed with ontogeny: juveniles chose shelters based on chromaticity (preference for blue), while adults based their decisions on brightness (preference for dark grey). This preference adults show for dark colors is probably associated with light avoidance behavior. We recommend providing blue shelters for juveniles and dark shelters for adults.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Tamandua Gray, 1825 contains two species of anteaters: Tamandua mexicana (Saussure, 1860), which occurs in southern Mexico, throughout Central America and south to the west of the Andes in South America, and Tamandua tetradactyla (Linnaeus, 1758), widely distributed in South America, from Venezuela to northern Argentina, as well as Trinidad and Tobago. Historically, different coloration patterns have been attributed to the coat of Tamandua, with T. mexicana typically showing a partial or complete dark “vest” on the dorsal portion of the body, whereas T. tetradactyla can show a complete, partial, or absent vest and a coat varying from golden, pale yellow and pale gray to brown or black. These different coat colors are sometimes treated as inherent characteristics of subspecies of Tamandua. Here, we review color variation in Tamandua and describe six chromatic disorders for the genus: albinism, leucism, “brown” variation, melanism (partial and total), xanthochromism (partial and total) and, for the first time for anteaters, erythrism. In addition, we detail the morphological expression and geographic distribution of these anomalies in populations of Tamandua from Central and South America.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Brazil is home to many mountain ranges which harbor diverse avifauna. However, studies on the altitudinal distribution of Brazilian birds are still few and many have never been published, hampering both the dissemination of basic information and conservation actions. Here we present a critical review of ornithological studies undertaken in Brazilian mountain ranges, and propose a classification of geographic scope, altitudinal gradient, and methodology. Since 1922, 184 ornithological studies included altitude in some way in Brazil, encompassing a variety of research topics and species. About a quarter of these studies were never published in peer-reviewed journals, and 39% do not provide basic data on elevation nor link the bird species with sampling plots, thus limiting their applicability. The majority of studies are concentrated (83%) in southern and southeastern Brazil, especially in the Serra do Mar range, and so most data are associated with the Atlantic Forest. Gaps remain in other regions, such as Amazonia (Pantepui region). Most studies either did not sample the entire elevation gradient, were not standardized, lacked explicit hypothesis, or did not account for a seasonal sampling embracing the four seasons of the year, so interpretation of the observed patterns remains difficult. With this compilation, we organize the available information and point to future altitudinal research on birds, in addition to highlighting the importance of preserving habitats along altitudinal gradients in the mountainous regions in Brazil.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Birds’ seasonal altitudinal movements in Brazil are poorly understood. The main source of information and has fostered interest since the 1980s. However, most of the available information is anecdotal, sources are repeatedly cited, and the information provided is quite superficial and speculative. Through bibliographic searches, we found 107 studies, 83 (77%) of which we consider valid, and only 63 (59%) were peer-reviewed. Most studies were carried out in southern and southeastern Brazil. Only 11 studies explicitly addressed seasonal altitudinal movements. Surprisingly, none of the studies simultaneously comprised a full year of study, standardized sampling methods, and encompassed the entire altitudinal range through which the birds might have moved. As a consequence, the quality of the data is questionable, and the expression “altitudinal migration” is unlikely to be accurate and has never been unequivocally demonstrated for birds in Brazil. Mention of “altitudinal migration” was found for 68 bird species, but these must be more clearly defined and appropriately tested.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to estimate the parameters of length-weight relationship, sex ratio, and diet of three freshwater fish species that inhabit streams in the Pomba River basin (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Fishes were sampled with seine nets (2.0 × 1.20 m, 2 mm mesh size) and dip nets (0.46 × 0.33 m, 2 mm mesh size) from October to December 2018. Measurements were taken for total length (TL - 0.1 cm precision) and total weight (TW - 0.01 g precision). Growth model parameters were estimated. This study provides new length-weight relationship data for Deuterodon intermedius (Eigenmann, 1908), Australoheros paraibae Ottoni & Costa, 2008, and Hypostomus punctatus Valenciennes, 1840. All of them ingested a wide variety of food items, including plant material like algae, animal material such as terrestrial and aquatic insects, and undefined matter such as detritus or mud. The three species showed a higher number of females. Our study provides basic information for functional diversity studies, as well as for future investigations associated with the evaluation of anthropic impacts, either occasional or chronic, on the fish assemblage structure of the Pomba River basin.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Eptesicus Rafinesque, 1820 is widely distributed in the Old and New World (26 species), and Histiotus Gervais, 1856 is a South American endemic (11 species). Molecular phylogenies have recovered Eptesicus (sensu lato) as polyphyletic, with New World Eptesicus and the sister genus Histiotus in a paraphyletic American clade sister to Old World Eptesicus. Based on these phylogenetic reconstructions, authors have treated Histiotus as either a subgenus of Eptesicus or restricted Eptesicus to the New World species, treating Histiotus as a full genus, and using the name Cnephaeus Kaup, 1829 at the generic rank to comprise Old World Eptesicus. Based on recently published molecular studies, and on novel qualitative and quantitative morphological comparisons of representatives of Histiotus and New and Old World Eptesicus, we provide evidence for restricting the name Eptesicus to the species E. fuscus (Palisot de Beauvois, 1796) and E. guadeloupensis Genoways & Baker, 1975, allocating the remaining New World species under a new genus, keeping Histiotus as a full genus, and raising Cnephaeus to generic rank to comprise all Old World taxa currently under Eptesicus. This arrangement resolves the paraphyly of New World Eptesicus, and promotes taxonomic stability for Histiotus, which is a well-established genus of easily recognizable Neotropical bats and treated separate from Eptesicus by most authorities.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We describe a gland in the arthrodial membrane of the coxa-trochanter articulation in the fourth pair of legs in the Neotropical harvester Mischonyx squalidus Bertkau, 1880. Externally the glandular area has a rough appearance with pores on its surface, with folds of the arthrodial membrane. Internally, its secretory cells have spherical secretory vesicles, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and ducts that exit from the cells and cross the arthrodial membrane. Histochemical tests indicate the presence of proteins and neutral glycoproteins. The function of the gland might be to produce lubricating products that allow better movement of the coxa-trochanter region.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Lontra longicaudis Olfers, 1818 is a semi-aquatic carnivore widely distributed in the Neotropical region. Understanding their diet contributes to an indirect understanding of their ecology and the composition of the local fauna. To this end, we analyzed 109 fecal samples and identified 238 morphological structures; these samples were collected between May 2006 and September 2007 from the Santa Lúcia Biological Station (SLBS) in southeastern Brazil. The area is intersected by the Timbuí River, which arrives at the site after crossing the urban perimeter of the city of Santa Teresa in the state of Espírito Santo. We found a predominance of fish in the otters’ diets (82%), mainly cichlids (50%), which are fish with sedentary habits and low mobility levels. The crustacean Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 was the third most consumed taxon; this occurred mainly during the rainy season, corresponding to the crustacean’s reproductive period, when it is more vulnerable to predation. Otters exhibited a seasonal variation in their prey selectivity. Furthermore, they displayed opportunistic foraging behavior, as the most preyed fish were those with both low mobility and a high frequency in the environment, followed by fish with high mobility and high frequency, and then those with low mobility and low frequency. We concluded that the feeding habits of the otters in the SLBS are in line with the optimal foraging theory since prey selection was optimized through the balance between net energy gained and the energy costs of foraging.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Migratory fishes have high ecological, social, and commercial value, and are strongly affected by river regulation. This study aimed to understand how migratory fishes use the longitudinal gradient, in an upstream to downstream direction of two free-flowing rivers and two reservoirs in a cascade within the Upper Grande River Basin, Brazil. The numeric abundance, biomass, richness, presence of fingerlings and juveniles, and the macroscopic gonadal maturation stage of migratory fishes were ascertained and evaluated bimonthly for two years. Recruitment in migratory fishes seems to rely completely on the free-flowing rivers upstream and their floodplains. Transition areas do not seem to have a significant role in recruitment. Therefore, we highlight the importance of maintaining the free flow of rivers and the integrity of their floodplains.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Pseudochthonius lubuenosp. nov., a new obligatory cave-dwelling pseudoscorpion species is described from Gruna da Altina cave, the fifth species of the genus in the region of Serra do Ramalho karst area, southwestern Bahia, Brazil. This genus occurs in South and Central America, sub-Saharan central Africa, and in the Arabian Peninsula. The new species can be identified by the following combination of characters: eyes or eyespots absent, coxa I with two and coxa II with 4-5 coxal spines, without microdenticles on the fixed pedipalpal finger, rallum with five blades, ratio ist-est/ist-esb = 1.9. With this new description, the genus now includes 15 species from Brazil: P. biseriatus Mahnert, 2001, P. brasiliensis Beier, 1970, P. diamachi Prado & Ferreira, 2023, P. gracilimanus Mahnert, 2001, P. heterodentatus Hoff, 1946, P. homodentatus Chamberlin, 1929, P. koinopoliteia Prado & Ferreira, 2023, P. lubueno sp. nov., P. orthodactylus Muchmore, 1970, P. olegario Schimons ky, 2022, P. pali Prado & Ferreira, 2023, P. ramalho Assis, Schimonsky & Bichuette, 2021, P. ricardoi Mahnert, 2001, P. strinatii Beier, 1969 and P. tuxeni Mahnert, 1979. The new species shows troglomorphic characteristics such as the depigmentation of the carapace and the absence of eyes. In addition, illustrations, diagnoses, an identification key for cave-dwelling species of the genus, and distribution maps for all Brazilian species of Pseudochthonius are provided.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Congeneric species have similarities in phenotypic and ecological traits. The sympatry of congeneric species constitutes an opportunity for studies on coexistence. Two bird species of Mimidae, the native Tropical mockingbird, Mimus gilvus Oberholser, 1919, and the restinga invader Chalk-browed mockingbird, Mimus saturninus (Lichtenstein, 1823), currently occur in sympatry across the sandy-coastal ecosystem (restinga) of Espírito Santo state, Southeastern Brazil. We studied the spatial distribution of Tropical mockingbird and Chalk-browed mockingbird to understand the degree of competition across a preserved and urban gradient. We sampled 1,451 sampling units across a preserved and urban landscape in a coastal area of southeastern Brazil. The best-fitting model for abundance (Punctual Abundance Index) included urbanization index, distance from the coast, and distance from the closest protected area, which explained 63% and 97% of the abundance of Tropical mockingbird and Chalk-browed mockingbird, respectively. The species exhibited a segregated spatial pattern at small scale, indicating that both species are avoiding one another. Chalk-browed mockingbird showed ecological plasticity in modified environments, whereas Tropical mockingbird was more sensitive to urbanization. We suggested that the coexistence of these species is associated with resource partitioning. Monitoring Tropical mockingbird populations may be a proxy for the assessment of habitat quality and restoration success in the highly threatened restinga ecosystem.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Brazil is the country with the most diverse tarantula (Theraphosidae) fauna, having 215 described species. Vitalius Lucas, Silva Júnior & Bertani, 1993 is one of the most diverse and common genera in Southern, Southeastern and Central-West regions of Brazil with ten described species. Individuals of Vitalius species are large and widespread in areas of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. A single species is known to occur in areas of Cerrado vegetation. Herein, two new species are described from areas of restinga, coastal areas typically with low vegetation and sandy soil, in the coast of the states of Rio de Janeiro (Vitalius restinga sp. nov.), Bahia and Sergipe (Vitalius sapiranga sp. nov.). Males and females of these two new species have a much longer than wide sternum. Males have a short apical keel in the male palpal bulb. The two species can be distinguished by embolus width, slender in V. restinga sp. nov. and thicker in V. sapiranga sp. nov. Females can be distinguished by the spermathecae shape, slender in V. restinga sp. nov. and broader in V. sapiranga sp. nov. These are the first known theraphosids endemic to Brazilian Atlantic Coast restingas. Biological data indicate V. sapiranga sp. nov. and maybe V. restinga sp. nov. commonly use bromeliads as retreats. It is herein hypothesized they are sister species occupying similar habitats in Brazilian coast, but separated by ca. 1,000 kilometers.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The sharpshooter genus Cavichiana Mejdalani et al., 2014 included so far only two species of about 6-8 mm in length: C. bromelicola Mejdalani et al., 2014 (type species) and C. alpina Quintas et al., 2020. Both are bromeliad specialists from southeastern and southern Brazil. Here a third species, C. caelivittata sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on males and females from the Serra dos Órgãos massif in state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. The new bromeliad specialist can be readily distinguished from the previously known species by the dorsum with a pair of broad whitish-blue stripes, each one extending from antennal ledge over lateroposterior area of crown, lateral portion of pronotum, basal portion of clavus, and forming an elongate arc on corium up to outer margin of first apical cell; the aedeagus bears a dorsoapical digitiform lobe directed posterad. A key to the three species, based on the coloration and morphology of the aedeagus, is provided. In addition, the distribution of C. bromelicola is discussed; it is suggested that the trade of bromeliads as ornamental plants is causing the spread of this species to various urban and suburban areas of southeastern Brazil.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Measuring cardiorespiratory variables can be challenging in developing animals, especially when they use bimodal gas exchange to maintain metabolic activity. In tadpoles, gas exchange may occur through the integument and gills when breathing in the water and through the lungs when breathing air, with varying contributions of each respiratory structure during development. The interaction between aquatic and air breathing results in a complex physiological response that may affect the cardiac cycle. Measuring the heart rate (fH) together with aquatic and aerial gas exchange in anurans during their development can be challenging, since it may involve handling small animals and/or a certain degree of invasiveness (i.e., surgery to implant electrodes). Here, we evaluated concomitantly aquatic and aerial gas exchange, lung ventilation, and fH in three stages of development of the bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802). We built a novel, noninvasive, closed respirometry system capable of measuring fH, aerial and aquatic gas exchange simultaneously in animals of different sizes. Our integrative analysis revealed a decrease in the heart rate and an increase in oxygen consumption during the developmental stages of the bullfrog, but there was no adjustment of heart rate after or during air breathing. Moreover, tadpoles in metamorphosis showed higher oxygen consumption in air than in water, while aquatic breathing was responsible for releasing CO2. Our results are consistent with those found in the literature, yet our study represents the first non-invasive investigation to evaluate bimodal gas exchange and heart rate simultaneously. Moreover, our setup holds potential for further advancements that would allow for controlled water and air composition. This tool could greatly facilitate the investigation of how cardiorespiratory physiology responds to varying environmental conditions.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The true identity of the “Chauve-Souris Onzieme ou Chauve-Souris Cannelle” of Azara (1801) and the “LXXXII Murcielago Acanelado” of Azara (1802) has never been clarified. Though it has historically been associated with the Red Myotis, Myotis ruber (É. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1806), there are clear inconsistencies with that species. Unusual features of the description such as the position of the attachment of the wing membrane to the limbs confirm that the species described by Azara belongs to the Myotis simus Thomas, 1901 group. Two members of that group occur in Paraguay, from where Azara described his specimen: Myotis cf. simus and the recently described Myotis midastacus Moratelli & Wilson, 2014. Measurements and collection locality slightly favour its identity as the former, but it is not possible to conclusively state which of these species Azara had in his possession.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Artibeus amplus Handley, 1987 is a little-known bat species endemic to northern South America. There are confirmed records of the species for Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, and Suriname. In this study, we report the occurrence of A. amplus in Brazil based on the collection of two specimens captured in the municipalities of Cantá and Caracaraí in the state of Roraima. We also found a museum specimen from the state of Amazonas. The specimens were identified based on morphology and mitochondrial Cytochrome b gene analysis. After this contribution, the number of bat species in Brazil is 182. Surveys in other areas in the north of the country, such as the state of Pará, in addition to a comprehensive review of museum specimens, is needed to investigate the distribution of the species in areas where it has not been found yet.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The Medical Malacology Collection (Fiocruz-CMM) was inaugurated in 1993 and is located at the René Rachou Institute in Fiocruz (Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil). The collection has about 16,000 limnic mollusks of medical and veterinary importance. Information about each specimen is stored in an electronic Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and is available on the Centro de Referência em Informação Ambiental (CRIA) webpage. A QR Code system was implemented for convenience: it can be printed in reduced format with flexible representation on different surfaces and has a low cost of implantation. A script in PHP language was developed to load the spreadsheet in XLS format using an open-license library, PHP-ExcelReader. A PHP script was created to read and process this spreadsheet line by line and generate individual HTML pages, which were formatted with the Bootstrap tool. Then, the PHP QR code was used to create the images of the QR codes corresponding to each specimen. The QR codes were printed and affixed to the lids of the bottles containing each specimen. Using a device with a camera and internet access, the QR code redirects to the file with the information for each mollusk. The use of QR codes at Fiocruz-CMM facilitates the organization of the collection and allows quick and easy access to information about each specimen.