SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.18 issue4The exocrine glands of swarming females and physogastric queens of Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar) (Isoptera, Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae)Growth and reproduction of Leptinaria unilamellata (d'Orbigny) (Mollusca, Subulinidae) in laboratory conditions author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand




Related links


Revista Brasileira de Zoologia

Print version ISSN 0101-8175

Rev. Bras. Zool. vol.18 no.4 Curitiba Dec. 2001 

Notes on the last instar larva and pupa of Hemiargus hanno (Stoll) (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Polyommatinae)1



Marcelo DuarteI,II; Gisele Luziane de AlmeidaI,III; Mirna Martins CasagrandeI,II; Olaf H.H. MielkeI,II

IDepartamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Parana. Caixa Postal 19020, 81531-990 Curitiba, Parana, Brasil. E-mail:
IIFellowship from CNPq
IIIFellowship from CAPES




Larvae of Hemiargus hanno (Stoll, 1790) (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Polyommatinae) are for the first time reported to be attended under field conditions by ants of the formicine genus Brachymyrmex Mayr, 1868 (Myrmelachistini). Structural features of the last instar larva and pupa of H. hanno are described and illustrated with the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Key words: Lycaenidae, Polyommatinae, Hemiargus, Brachymyrmex, immature stages, scanning electron microscopy, morphology, myrmecophily.




Full text available only in PDF format.



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. We would like to thank Carlos Roberto F. Brandão for the identification of the ants, Daura R. Eiras-Stofella, Matilde Machado and Vera Regina F. Pionteke for helping with the SEM techniques, and Astrid Caldas, Gabriel A. R. Melo, Luciane Marinoni and Robert K. Robbins for comments and suggestions to the manuscript.



Bálint, Z. & K. Johnson. 1995. Neotropical polyommatine diversity and affinities. I. Relationships of the higher taxa (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Acta zool. hung. 41(3):211-235.         [ Links ]

Ballmer, G.R. & G.F. Pratt. 1988. A survey of the last instar larvae of the Lycaenidae of California. Jour. Res. Lepid. 27(1):1-81.         [ Links ]

______ . 1989. Instar number and larval development in Lycaena phlaeas hypophlaeas (Boisduval) (Lycaenidae). Jour. Lepid. Soc. 43(1):59-65.         [ Links ]

Bonatto, S.R. & C.J.B. Carvalho. 1996. Análise morfológica das formas imaturas de Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Toxotarsinae). Revta bras. Zool. 13(3):707-726.         [ Links ]

Brown Jr., K.S. 1992. Borboletas da Serrado Japi: diversidade, hábitats, recursos alimentares e variação temporal, p. 142-187. In: L.P.C. Morellato (ed). Historia natural da Serra do Japi: ecologia e preservação de urna área florestal no Sudeste do Brasil. Campinas, São Paulo, Editora da UNICAMP/FAPESP, 321p.         [ Links ]

Burns, J.M. & F.M. Johnson. 1971. Esterase polymorphism in the butterfly Hemiargus isola stability in a variable environment. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 68(1):34-37.         [ Links ]

Cottrell, C. B. 1984. Aphytophagy in butterflies: its relationship to myrmecophily. Zool. Jour. Linnean Soc. 79:1-57.         [ Links ]

D'Almeida, R.F. 1933. Les chenilles des genres Hemiargus et Leptotes (Lép. Lycaenidae). Lambillionea 33(11):230-236.         [ Links ]

Downey, J.C. & C.A. Allyn. 1979. Morphology and biology of the immature stages of Leptotes cassius theonus (Lucas) (Lepid.: Lycaenidae). Bull. Allyn Mus. 55:1-27.         [ Links ]

Duarte, M.; M.M. Casagrande & O.H.H. Mielke. 2001. Morfologia externa do adulto de Hemiargus hanno (Stoll) (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Polyommatinae, Polyommatini). I. Cabeça. Revta bras. Zool. 18(1):225-238.         [ Links ]

Eliot, J.N. 1973. The higher classification of the Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera): a tentative arrangement. Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Ent. 28(6):371-505.         [ Links ]

Endo, K.; Y. Maruyama & K. Sasaki. 1985. Environmental factors controlling seasonal morph determination in the small copper butterfly, Lycaena phlaeas daimia Seitz. Jour. Insect Physiol. 31(7):525-532.         [ Links ]

Fiedler, K. 1991. Systematic, evolutionary, and ecological implications of myrmecophily within Lycaenidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Bonn. Zool. Monogr. 31:1-210.         [ Links ]

Fiedler, K. & B. Hölldobler. 1992. Ants and Polyommatus icarus immatures (Lycaenidae) - sex-related developmental benefits and costs of ant attendance. Oecologia 91:468-473.         [ Links ]

Fiedler, K. & C. Saam. 1994. Does ant-attendance influence development in 5 European Lycaenidae butterfly species? (Lepidoptera). Nota Lepid. 17 (1/2):5-24.         [ Links ]

______. 1995. Ant benefits from attending facultatively myrmecophilus Lycaenidae caterpillars: evidence from a survival study. Oecologia 104:316-322.         [ Links ]

Haskin, J.R. 1933. The life histories of Eurema demoditas, Lycaena theonus and L. hanno (Lepid.: Pieridae, Lycaenidae). Ent. News 44:153-156.         [ Links ]

Kitching, R.L. 1983. Myrmecophilous organs of the larvae and pupa of the lycaenid butterfly Jalmenus evagoras (Donovan). Jour. Nat. Hist. 17:471-481.         [ Links ]

Lawrence, D. & J.C. Downey. 1966. Morphology of the immature stages of Everes comyntas Godart (Lycaenidae). Jour. Res. Lepid. 5(2):61-96.         [ Links ]

Lewis, H.L. 1973. Butterflies of the world. London, Lionel Leventhal Limited, 312p.         [ Links ]

Nabokov, V. 1945. Notes on neotropical Plebejinae (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae). Psyche 52(1-2):1-61.         [ Links ]

Pierce, N.E. 1989. Butterfly-ant mutualisms, pp. 299-324. In: P.J. Grubb & J.B. Whittaker (eds). Toward a more exact ecology. Oxford, Blacwell.         [ Links ]

Robbins, R.K. 1991. Cost and evolution of a facultative mutualism between ants and lycaenid larvae (Lepidoptera). Oikos 62:363-369.         [ Links ]

Robbins, R.K. & A. Aiello. 1982. Foodplant and oviposition records for Panamanian Lycaenidae and Riodinidae. J. Lepid. Soc. 36(2):65-75.         [ Links ]

Sakai, T. & S. Masaki. 1965. Photoperiod as a factor causing seasonal forms in Lycaena phlaeas daimio Seitz. Kontyû 33(3):275-283.         [ Links ]

Scott, J.A. 1986. The butterflies of North America: A natural history and field guide. Stanford University, CA. 583p.         [ Links ]

Smith, D.S.; L. Miller & J.Y. Miller. 1994. The butterflies of the West Indies and South Florida. New York, Oxford Univ. Press Inc., 264p.         [ Links ]

Varga, A.E. 2000. Mariposas Argentinas. Guía práctica e ilustrada para la identificación de las principales mariposas diurnas y nocturnas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Método y técnicas para la cría, colección y preservación de mariposas. Buenos Aires, Edited by the author, 148p.         [ Links ]

Wagner, D. 1993. Species-specific effects of tending ants on the development of lycaenid butterfly larvae. Oecologia 96:276-281.         [ Links ]

______. 1995. Pupation site choice of a North American lycaenid butterfly: the benefits of entering ant nests. Ecol. Entomol. 20:384-392.         [ Links ]

Wagner, D. & L. Kurina. 1997. The influence of ants and water availability on oviposition behaviour and survivorship of a facultatively ant-tended herbivore. Ecol. Entomol. 22:352-360.         [ Links ]

Wagner, D. & C. Martínez-del-Rio. 1997. Experimental tests of the mechanism for ant-enhanced growth in an ant-tended lycaenid butterfly. Oecologia 112:424-429.         [ Links ]

Wright, D.M. 1983. Life history and morpholgy of the immature stages of the bog copper butterfly Lycaena epixanthe (Bsd. & Le C.) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Jour. Res. Lepid. 22(1):47-100.         [ Links ]



Recebido em 29.VI.2001; aceito em 19.X.2001.



1 Contribution number 1241 of the Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Parana. Partially supported by grants from FUNPAR/UFPR.

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License