SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.22 issue5Chemical constituents of Lecythis pisonis and cytotoxic activityGenus Lantana: chemical aspects and biological activities author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand




Related links


Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia

Print version ISSN 0102-695X

Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.22 no.5 Curitiba Sept./Oct. 2012  Epub Apr 03, 2012 

A review on phytochemical, ethnomedical and pharmacological studies on genus Sophora, Fabaceae



Panthati Murali Krishna*,I; Rao KNVI; Sandhya SI; David BanjiII

IDepartment of Pharmacognosy, Nalanda College of Pharmacy, India
IIDepartment of Pharmacology, Nalanda College of Pharmacy, India




Sophora is a genus of the Fabaceae family, contains about 52 species, nineteen varieties, and seven forms that are widely distributed in Asia, Oceanica, and the Pacific islands, in the family Fabaceae of herbaceous (Sophora flavescens Aiton) to trees (Sophora japonica L.). More than fifteen species in this genus have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicines. In the last decades the use of this genus in traditional Chinese drugs has led to rapid increase in the information available on active components and reported to posses various pharmacological/therapeutic properties. The paper reviews the ethnopharmacology, the biological activities and the correlated chemical compounds of genus Sophora, Fabaceae. More than 300 compounds has been isolated, among them major are quinolizidine alkaloids particularly matrine and oxymatrine and flavonoids particularly prenylated and isoprenylated flavonoids. Modern pharmacological studies and clinical studies demonstrated that these chemical constituens possess wide reaching pharmacological actions like anti oxidant, anticancer, anti-asthamatic, anti-neoplastic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antidote, anti pyretic, cardiotonic, antinflammatory, diuretic and in the treatment of skin diseases like eczema, colitis and psoriasis.

Keywords: flavonoids, Sophora, sophoroflavonone G, sophoramine, matrine and oxymatrine alkaloids




Sophora is a genus of the Fabaceae family, contains about 52 species, nineteen varieties, and seven forms that are widely distributed in Asia, Oceanica, and the Pacific islands, in the family Fabaceae of herbaceous (Sophora flavescens Aiton) to trees (Sophora japonica L.); its two sub genera are Sophora (ultimately dehiscent fruits and incomplete mesocarp) and Styphnolobium (fleshy indehiscent fruit and complete mesocarp). Sophora sub genus is further divided into three sections, Disamaea, Pseudosophora, and Sophora, while the sub genus Styphnolobium is divided into four sections; Raphanocarpus, Arizoniate, Agastianus and Stypnolobium (Tsoong & Ma, 1981a, b). More than fifteen species in this genus have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicines. In the last decades the use of this genus in traditional Chinese drugs has led to rapid increase in the information available on active components and reported to posses various pharmacological/therapeutic properties, in particular Sophora alkaloids have been found to be their chief active chemical constituents including matrine, oxymatrine, sophocarpine, sophoramine, sophoridine and others (Liu et al., 2003; Zhang et al., 2008; Hu et al., 1996a,b,c; Lin et al., 1997); along with flavonoids, iso flavonoids isoprenylated flavonoids (Xing et al., 2008), isoflavonones, flavones, flavonols and their glycosides, coumarochromones (Tang et al., 2002), saponins, triterpene glycosides, phospholipids, polysaccharides, oligostilbenes and fatty acids (Bach & Brashler, 1975). A number of quinoline alkaloids, prenylated flavonoids and oligostilbenes, were used as chemotaxonomic markers (Izaddoost, 1975). Several phytochemical researches, in-vivo and in-vitro experiments and clinical practices have demonstrated that Sophora constitutes many phyto-constituents possessing wide-reaching pharmacological actions, including anti-oxidant, anticancer, anti-asthamatic, anti-neoplastic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antidote, anti-pyretic, cardiotonic, antinflammatory, diuretic and in the treatment of skin diseases like eczema, colpitis and psoriasis. In this review we tried to present and assess traditional importance and reported phytochemical constituents along with reported pharmacological actions of some of the species of Sophora.


Materials and Methods

The pharmacological activities of compounds isolated and identified from genus Sophora along with their ethnopharmacological uses were searched through many online data bases. An extensive bibliographic search was undertaken to identify works on these medicinal plants published in periodicals, data banks, and rare or current texts stored in public and private libraries during the period between 1970 and 2011, including sources such as Sci-verse/Science direct, Food & Drugs Administration (USA), Pubmed and similar sources. Additionally, we consulted published monographs, thesis, and proceedings of scientific congresses, websites, and technical research publications. The references were consulted for details of the experimental models used for testing the extracts.



The plants of this genus distribution range from the temperate to the tropic areas in the world (Iinuma et al., 1993) (Chart 1).



Ethnopharmacological use

Traditionally Sophora species were widely used in the treatment of many diseases and ailments. Sophora plants, such as the roots of S. flavescens (Chinese name "Kushen"), the roots of S. tonkinensis (Chinese name "Shandougen") and the seeds of S. alopecuroides (Chinese name "Kudouzi") were commonly used in traditional Chinese medicines for the treatment of eczema, colitis, acute pharyngolaryngeal infection, sore throat, acute dysentery and gastrointestinal haemorrhage (Saito, et al., 1990; Rahman et al., 2000). The principal bioactive constituents of these traditional medicines are the quinolizidine alkaloids, which have been shown to exhibit sedative, depressant, analgesic, hypothermic, anti-tumor, antipyretic, and cardiotonic activities (Kinghorn et al., 1984).

S. subprostrata is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant. Its roots are used as an antipyretic, antidote, analgesic, it has been reported to have antitumour activity (Chen & Jiang, 1994), the roots of S. subprostrate have been used as a Korean traditional medicine for the treatment of fever, inflammation, peptic ulcer, cancer and reported that antitumour activity is to be the result of cytotoxicity of its alkaloids (Sakamoto et al., 1992; Zheng et al., 1997).

Sophora flavescens (Chinese name "Kushen") were used traditionally for asthma, sores, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, allergy and inflammation antiulcerative effects and is used for the treatment of diarrhoea, gastrointestinal haemorrhage and eczema (Ahn, 1998; Kang et al., 1998). So far, more than twenty alkaloids and fifty flavonoids have been isolated and identified (Miao & Zhang, 2001; Zhao & Sun, 2005). The dried roots of Sophora flavescens have various effects like anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation, anti-bacterial, apoptosis modulator properties and anti-tumor activities (Piao et al., 2006; Cheng, et al., 2006; Kuroyanagi et al., 1999; Ko et al., 2000; Zhang & Huang, 2004; Sun et al., 2007).

The seeds of Sophora alopecuroides (Chinese name "kudouzi") were used as traditional Chinese medicine as an antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agent and is widely distributed in northwest China (Guan et al., 2009).

S. japonica L. is widely cultivated in China, whose flavones from its buds and fruits have been used as haemostatic agent in traditional Chinese medicine (Ishida et al., 1989; Tang et al., 2001). The seeds of this plants contains phytoconstituents viz., triterpenes, phospholipids, alkaloids, amino acids, polysaccharides and fatty acids (Grishkovets & Gorbacheva, 1995; Mukhamedova & Glushenkova, 1997); Pharmacological and clinical practices revealed that it has anti tumor, anti-fertility and anticancer activities.

S. vicifolia is a bush that grows widely throughout south west china its roots were in use as a Chinese drug Bai-Ci-Hua to treat fever, cystitis, haematuria, edema etc. (Xiao, 1993b). In the Yunnan province of China, many minority races, such as Bai, Yi, Miao etc., have the tradition of eating flower. It is said that eating flower in springtime could eliminate the 'toxin' which had been accumulated in the human body during the previous season. Conventionally, after being dipped in boil water quickly, then soaked and cleaned in water for about 24 h, the flower of S. viciifolia is used as a health-giving food, and is cooked with egg, meat, and chicken for the remedy of night sweat, heart stroke, oedema (Gao, 2006). Previous research focused on the analysis of the chemical constituents of the seeds and branches of S. viciifolia. Alkaloids and flavonoids isolated from this species showed some bioactivities, such as antiinflammatory, antianaphylaxis, immunological function, antioxidant activity etc. (Wen & Mao, 2006).

Sophora tonkinensis (Shan-Dou-Gan) was also used in traditionl Chinese medicine, the roots of this species have been used as the Chinese drug Shan-Dou-Gen to treat fever, throat inflammation, haemorrhoids, and tumours (The Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 1994; Xiao 1993a). Phytochemical investigations have revealed that the plant accumulated isoprenyl-substituted flavonoids and lupin alkaloids as its main constituents (Ding & Chen, 2006, 2007). Pharmacological studies showed that the isoprenylated flavanones isolated from this species could inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis on various cell lines from human solid tumors and in human leukemia U937 cells (Kajimoto et al., 2002).

Sophora moorcroftiana is an endemic shrub species in Tibet, China, and is mainly distributed in the wide valleys and the middle reaches of several main tributaries of Yalu Tsangbo River (Nianchu and Lhasa Rivers). Its seeds have been used for a long time in Chinese folk medicine. The decoction of the seeds were used in Chinese folk medicine for dephlogistication, detoxication, emetic, infectious diseases and verminosis (Xingming et al., 2004). Sophora subprostrata is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, distributed chiefly in South China. Its roots were used in traditional Chinese medicine as an antipyretic, antidote and analgesic (Chen & Jiang, 1994). It has been known to contain flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, phenols and lignins. The antitumor activity of S. subprostrata crude preparation has been reported and theorized to be the result of cytotoxicity of its alkaloids (Sakamoto et al., 1992; Zheng et al., 1997).



The genus Sophora is rich in alkaloids and flavonoids. Alkaloids constituted the majority of compounds like quinolizidine alkaloids, lupine alkaloids particularly matrine, oxy matrine, sophocarpine, sophoramine and sophoridine and others (Liu et al., 2003; Zhang et al., 2008; Hu et al., 1996abc; Lin et al., 1997) along with flavonoids, isoflavonones, flavonol triglycosides, isoprenylated flavonoids, isoflavonones, saponins, triterpene glycosides, phospholipids, polysaccharides, oligostilbenes (Ohyama et al., 1995), fatty acids (Bach & Brashler 1975), and a number of other compounds representing a wide spectrum of secondary metabolite classes have been isolated and identified from the genus Sophora. The most phytochemically characterized compounds of this genus are flavonoids and alkaloids and the most prominent compounds are prenylated flavonoids and quinolizidine alkaloids. These phytoconstituents displayed many in vitro and in vivo bioactivities. These have been confirmed to possess anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and other activities.


Flavonoids and their derivatives are important constituents of genus Sophora. Over 150 flavonoids were isolated viz., flavonol, flavone, chalcone, flavanone, isoflavones, isoflavonones, prenylated flavonoids, lavandulyl flavanones and flavonol glycoside, have been found from different species of Sophora (Chart 2). The sugar moieties of the glycosides are usually glucose, rhamnose, xylose or their corresponding mono- or di-acetyl sugars. Quercetin and quercetin-3-rutinoside (rutin) from S. japonica and isoflavone (genistein) from S. tonkinensis is having wide range of antioxidant activity. (Cai et al., 2004; 2006). Lavandulyl flavanones and isoflavonoids from S. flavescens is found to have inhibitory activity on SGLT (Na+-glucose cotransporter), which has the role in the reabsorption of glucose in the kidneys (Sato et al., 2007). Lavandulyl flavanone is also found to inhibit BACE1 which has the crucial role in the development of Alzeimer's disease (Hwang et al., 2008). Kurarinone isolated from S. flavescens inhibited MCP-1 induced chemotaxis (Lee et al., 2005). Prenylated flavonoids exhibited wide variety of pharmacological activities which include antioxidant, apoptogenic and antiulcer effects (Ko et al., 2000).


About forty alkaloids mainly quinolizidine type are isolated from the genus Sophora which includes matrine and oxymatrine which has variety of pharmacological effects (Kinghorn et al., 1984). These are reported to exhibit sedative, inotropic, antipyretic, anti tumor, antihepatitis B virus (Zhou et al., 2008a,b; Ma et al., 2008; Zhang et al., 2006; Ding et al., 2006) (Chart 3).

Matrine acts as kappa opioid receptor agonist and shown to have antinociceptve activity ( Higashiyama et al., 2005).


Polysaccharides are isolated from the roots of S. subprostrata (Chart 4), particularly heteroxylon, and several water extractable amylopectins and pectins. Starch is another reserved polysaccharide of its roots, along with arabinogalactans attached to small amount of rhamnogalacturonan core which has immunopharmacological and antioxidant properties (Dong et al., 1998). galactomann was isolated from seeds of S. japonica (Bourbon et al., 2010).

Fatty acids

Fatty acids from the seeds of Sophora flavescens are reported, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids which is dragging the attention of researchers due to their pharmacological properties. More than 31 compounds are isolated from the lipids of the species mainly palmitic, linoleic, oleic and steric acids (Olennikov et al., 2009).


Pharmacological potentials


Root extract of S. flavescens shown anti proliferative effect on cultured HaCaT cells (Tse et al., 2006). Traditionally, Chinese herbal medicine has been extensively used to treat psoriasis and produced promising clinical results. However, its underlying mechanisms of action have not been systematically investigated. Treatment with ethanolic extract of seeds of Sophora moorcroftiana at a dose of 800 mg/kg/d has a marked inhibiting effect on S180 sarcoma development in mice in-vivo (Xingming et al., 2009a). Ethanolic extracts from S. moorcroftiana seeds significantly inhibited the proliferation of human stomach cancer cells and its activity was in dose- as well as time-dependent manner (Xingming et al., 2009b); Root extract of Sophora japonica inhibit the proliferation Hep G2 cells (Bassem et al., 2009).

Induction of apoptosis

A mannaose binding lectin from S. flavescens shows a strong cytotoxic effect against HeLa cells and induced apoptosis in time and dose dependent manner and it typically has caspase-dependent mechanism (Liu et al., 2008). Sophoranone, extracted from Sophora flavescens induces apoptosis in human leukemia u937 cells Via formation of reactive oxygen species and opening of Mitochondrial permeability transition pores (Kajimoto et al., 2002).

Antioxidant effects

In recent years, there is a tremendous interest in the possible role of nutrition in prevention of disease. In this context, antioxidants especially derived from natural sources such as Chinese medicinal plants, Indian medicinal plants and herbal drugs derived from them require special attention. Antioxidants neutralize the toxic and 'volatile' free radicals. Antioxidants have many potential applications, especially in relation to human health, both in terms of prevention of disease and therapy. Cellular damage induced by oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of a large number (>100) of human diseases as well as the process of ageing.

Anti-HBV and anti-entroviruses activity was reported (Ding & Chen 2006; Gao et al., 2006); It also suppressed the proliferation of hl-60 cells (Ding & Chen 2007); The roots of S. tonkinensis contain alkaloids that possess broad biological activities, for example-(-) 14-β-hydroxyoxymatrine, (+)-sophoranol and (-)-cytisine showed anti-HBV activity (Ding et al., 2006).

Effects on hair growth

S. flavescens methanol-extract has promising hair growth promoting effect in addition the extract has shown regulatory role on the expression of growth factors and the inhibitory effect on type II 5 α-reductase, which has an important role in hair growth regulation (Roh et al., 2002). RT-PCR analysis showed that S. flavescens extract induced mRNA levels of growth factors such as IGF-1 and KGF in dermal papilla cells, suggesting that the effects of S. flavescens extract on hair growth may be mediated through the regulation of growth factors in dermal papilla cells.

Antimicrobial activity

Traditionally plant extracts such as roots of S. flavescens have been used for microbial infections which strongly reflecting that natural products are the major source of important antimicrobial agents. Prenylated flavonoids are chemical entities which have an isoprenyl, a geranyl, a 1,1-dimethylallyl, and/or lavandulyl moiety as part of flavonoid backbone structure which was isolated from Sophora species. Sophoraflavanone G isolated from S. exigua showed strong antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant Staphyllococcus aureus with 3.13-6.25 µg/mL of MIC (Sato et al., 1995); Kurarinone, sophoraflavanone G and kuraridin also showed strong antimicrobial activity against Staphyllococcus aureus and Streptococus mutans (Yamaki et al., 1990). Kuraridin, sophoraflavanone D and sophoraisoflavanone A has the anti microbial activity against fungi (C. albicans and S. cerevisiae), gram negative bacteria (E. coli and S. typhimurium) and gram positive bacteria S. epidermis and S. aureus) (Sohn et al., 2004).

Antiviral activity

Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs in the form of hot water extracts orally have been used as remedies against infectious viral diseases in china. Anagyrine, oxymatrine, and sophoranol isolated from S. flavescens have potent antiviral activity against respiratory syncital virus (RSV) with IC50 values of 10.4 µg/mL and SI (CC50/IC50) values of 24.0, 12.0, and 24.0 respectively (Ma et al., 2002). But it showed less significant activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2. Quinolizidine alkaloids from S. alopecuroides have very weak activity against HSV 1, coxsackie B2, measles, polio, semliki forest virus and vesicular stomatitis virus (Zheng et al., 1997).



Phytochemical and pharmacological studies of the compounds isolated from the genus Sophora have reached much interest in recent times but most of the species under this genus yet to be explored. So far the pharmacological studies have been performed in vitro and in vivo with animals, therefore clinical trials in humans are needed to prove their traditional phytotherapy. According to the literature most of the pharmacological activities of Sophora plants can be explained by the presence of alkaloids and flavonoids. The crude extracts mainly the roots of these plants possess bioactive constituents which has wide reaching pharmacological actions. The bioactive constituents of Sophora especially matrine, oxy matrine alkaloids along with flavonoids such as prenylated flavonoids, flavanones, flavonols, isoflavonones and isoflavonols from various species were isolated and characterized. In the view of their therapeutic efficacy the active ingredients might be developed into new drugs for the treatment of various diseases. So, their pharmacological and toxicity profiles should be further investigated with both in vitro and in vivo along with the clinical trials.



Ahn DK 1998. Illustrated Book of Korean Medicinal Herbs. Kyo-Hak Publisher: Seoul, p.199.         [ Links ]

Rahman AU, Choudhary MI, Parvez K, Ahmed A, Akhtar F, Nur-E-Alam M, Hassan NM 2000. Quinolizidine alkaloids from Sophora alopecuroides. J Nat Prod 63:190-192.         [ Links ]

Bach MK, Brashler JR 1975. Inhibition of IgE and compound 48/80-induced histamine release by lectins. Immunology 29:371-386.         [ Links ]

Bai SZ, He JH, Yang ZQ, Rao EC 1982. Studies on alkaloidal components of KuShen (Sophora flavescens Aiton) II. Isolation of oxymatrine and other alkaloids. Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs 13:8-9.         [ Links ]

Bassem SM, Fayad W, Khaled M, Hallouty SM, Manawaty M, Olofsson MH, Linder S 2010. Antiproliferation effects of Sophopra japonica. Ind J Exp Biol 48:258-264.         [ Links ]

Bourbon AI, Pinheiro AC, Ribeiro C, Miranda C, Maia JM, Teixeira JA, Vicente AA 2010. Characterization of galactomannans extracted from seeds of Gleditsia triacanthos and Sophora japonica through shear and extensional rheology: Comparison with guar gum and locust bean gum. Food Hydrocolloid 24:184-192.         [ Links ]

Cai YZ, Luo Q, Sun M, Corke H 2004. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer. Life Sci 74:2157-2184.         [ Links ]

Cai YZ, Sun M, Xing J, Luo Q, Corke H 2006. Stucture-radical scavenging activity relationships of phenolic compounds from traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Life Sci 75:2872-2888.         [ Links ]

Chen Y, Jiang PC 1994. A brief survey on studies of the Sophora subprostrata. Guangxi Medicine 16:499-501.         [ Links ]

Cheng H, Xia B, Zhang L, Zhou F, Zhang YX, Ye M, Hu ZG, Li J, Wang ZL, Li C, Guo QS 2006. Matrine improves 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice. Pharmacol Res 53:202-208.         [ Links ]

Ding PL, Chen DF 2006. Isoprenylated flavonoids from the roots and rhizomes of Sophora tonkinensis. Helv Chim Acta 89:103-110.         [ Links ]

Ding PL, Chen DF 2007. Three cyclized isoprenylated flavonoids from the roots and rhizomes of Sophora tonkinensis. Helv Chim Acta 90:2236-2244.         [ Links ]

Ding PL, Liao ZX, Huang H, Zhou P, Chena DF 2006. (+)-12a-Hydroxysophocarpine, a new quinolizidine alkaloid and related anti-HBV alkaloids from Sophora flavescens. Bio org Med Chem Lett 16:1231-1235.         [ Links ]

Dong Q, Ding SW, Fang JN 1998. Studies on xyloglucan from Sophora subprostrata. Chinese J Biochem Mol Biol 14:746-750.         [ Links ]

Dong Q, Ding SW, Yang X, Fang JN 1999. Structural features of a heteroxylan from Sophora subprostrata roots. Phytochemistry 50:81-84.         [ Links ]

Dong Q, Yao J, Fang JN 2003. Structural characterization of the water-extractable polysaccharides from Sophora subprostrata roots. Carbohyd Polym 54:13-19.         [ Links ]

Gao KP 2006. Zhongguo shiliao bencao. Beijing, China: Chemical Industry Press. p. 400.         [ Links ]

Grishkovets VI, Gorbacheva LA 1995. Triterpene glycosides of Sophora japonica seeds. Chem Nat Comp 31:596-599.         [ Links ]

Guan Y, Ma CH, Huang XY, Li ZX, Huang CG 2009. Components of Sophora alopecuroides seeds. Chem Nat Comp 45:545-546.         [ Links ]

Higashiyama K, Takeuchi Y, Yamauchi T, Imai S, Kamei J, Yajima Y, Narita M, Suzuki T 2005. Implication of the descending dynorphinergic neuron projecting to the spinal cord in the (+)-matrine- and (+)-allomatrine-induced antinociceptive effects. Biol Pharm Bull 28:845-848.         [ Links ]

Hu ZL, Zhang JP, Qian DH, Lin W, Xie WF, Zhang XR, Chen WZ 1996a. Effects of matrine on mouse splenocyte proliferation and release of interleukin- 1 and -6 from peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao 17:259-261.         [ Links ]

Hu ZL, Zhang JP, Wan MB, Yu XB, Lin W, Qian DH 1996b. Effect of matrine on mouse hepatitis and tumour necrosis factor production induced by Propionibacterium acnes/lipopolysaccharides. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao 31:662-665.         [ Links ]

Hu ZL, Zhang JP, Yu XB, Lin W, Qian DH, Wan MB 1996c. Effect of matrine on lipopolysaccharides/D-galactosamine-induced hepatitis and tumour necrosis factor release from macrophages in vitro. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao 17:351-353.         [ Links ]

Hwang EM, Ryu YB, Kim HY, Kim DG, Hong SG, Lee JH, Long MJC, Jeong SH, Park JY, Park KH 2008. BACE1 inhibitory effects of lavandulyl flavanones from Sophora flavescens. Bioorg Med Chem 16:6669-6674.         [ Links ]

Iinuma M, Ohyama M, Kawasaka Y, Tanaka Y 1995a. Flavonoid compounds in roots of Sophora tetraptera. Phytochemistry 39:667-672.         [ Links ]

Iinuma M, Ohyama M, Tanaka T 1995b. Flavonoids in roots of Sophora prostrate. Phytochem 38:539-543.         [ Links ]

Iinuma M, Ohyama M, Tanaka T 1995c. Six Flavonostilbenes and a flavanone in roots of Sophora alopecuroides. Phytochemistry 38:519-525.         [ Links ]

Iinuma M, Ohyama M, Tanaka T. Shirataki Y, Burandt CL 1995d. Isoflavonoids in roots of Sophora secundiflora, Phytochemistry 39:907-910.         [ Links ]

Iinuma M, Ohyama M, Tanaka T, Mizuno M, Hong SK 1991. An isoflavanone from roots of Echinosophora koreensis. Phytochemistry 30:3153-3154.         [ Links ]

Iinuma M, Ohyama M, Tanaka T, Mizuno M, Hong SK 1992a. Three 2',4',6'-trioxy- genated flavanones in roots of Echinosophora koreensis. Phytochemistry 31:665-669.         [ Links ]

Iinuma M, Ohyama M, Tanaka T, Mizuno M, Hong SK 1992b. Three 2',4',6'-trioxy- genated flavanones in roots of Echinosophora koreensis. Phytochem 31(8):2855-2858.         [ Links ]

Iinuma M, Ohyama M, Tanaka T, Mizuno M, Hong SK 1993. Five flavonoid compounds from Echinosophora koreensis. Photochemistry 33:1241-1245.         [ Links ]

Ishida H, Umino T, Tsuji K, Kosuge T 1989. Studies on the anti hemorrhagic substances in herbs classified as hemostatics in Chinese medicine X. On hemostatic activities of the parched herbs for hemostatics. Yakugaku Zasshi 109:179-183.         [ Links ]

Izaddoost M 1975. Alkaloid chemotaxonomy of the genus Sophora. Phytochemistry 14:203-204.         [ Links ]

Kajimoto S, Takanashi N, Kajimoto T, Xu M, Cao J, Masuda Y, Aiuchi T, Nakajo S, Ida Y, Nakaya K 2002. Sophoranone, extracted from a traditional Chinese medicine Shan dou gen, induces apoptosis in human leukemia u937 cells Via formation of reactive oxygen species and opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores. Int J Cancer 99:879-890.         [ Links ]

Kang CM, Shin MK, Lee KS, An DS 1998. Encyclopedia of Chinese Herbs. Seoul: Jung Dam Publisher, p.340-347.         [ Links ]

Kang SS, Kim JS, Son KH, Chang HW, Kim HP 2000. A new prenylated flavanone from the roots of Sophora flavescens, Fitoterapia 71:511-515.         [ Links ]

Kashiwada Y, Nonaka GI, Nishioka I, Yamagishi T 1988. Galloyl and hydroxyl cinnamoylglucoses from Rhubarb. Phytochemistry 27:1473-1477.         [ Links ]

Kim DW, Chi YS, Son KH, Chang HW, Kim JS, Kim HP 2002. Effect of sophoraflavanone G, a prenylated flavonoids from Sophora flavescens, on cyclooxygenase-2 and in vivo inflammatory response. Arch Pharm Res 25:329-335.         [ Links ]

Kinghorn AD, Balandrin MF, Pelletier SW (Eds.) 1984. Alkaloids. Chemical and Biological Perspectives vol. 2, p. 105.         [ Links ]

Ko WG, Kang TH, Kim NY, Lee SJ, Kim YC, Ko GI, Ryn SY, Lee BH 2000. Lavandulyl flavonoids: a new class of in vitro apoptogenic agents from Sophora flavescens. Toxicol in Vitro 14:429-433.         [ Links ]

Kuroyanagi M, Arakawa T, Hirayama Y, Hayashi T 1999. Antibacterial and antiandrogen flavonoids from Sophora flavescens. J Nat Prod 62:1595-1599.         [ Links ]

Lee SW, Lee HS, Nam JY, Kwon OE, Baek AH, Chang JS, Rho MC, Kim YK 2005. Kurarinone isolated from Sophora flavescens Ait., inhibited MCP-1-induced chemotaxis. J Ethnopharmacol 97:515-519.         [ Links ]

Li XN, Lu ZQ, Qin S, Yan HX, Yang M, Guan SH, Liu X, Hua HM, Wu LJ, Guo DA 2008. Tonkinensines A and B, two novel alkaloids from Sophora tonkinensis. Tetrahedron Lett 49:3797-3801.         [ Links ]

Lin W, Zhang JP, Hu ZL, Qian DH 1997. Inhibitory effect of matrine on lipopolysacchride induced tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 production from rat Kupffer cells. Yao Xue Xue Bao 32:93-96.         [ Links ]

Liu M, Liu XY, Cheng JF 2003. Advance in the pharmacological research on matrine. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 28:801-804.         [ Links ]

Liu Q, Liu M, Mabry TJ, Dixon RA 1994. Flavonol glycosides from Cephalocereus senilis. Phytochemistry 36:229-231.         [ Links ]

Liu XJ, Cao MA, LI WH, Shen CH, Yan SQ, Yan CS 2010. Alkaloids from Sophora falvescens Aiton. Fitoterapia 81:524-527        [ Links ]

Liu Z, Liu B, Zhang ZT, Zhou TT, Bian HJ, Min MW, Liu YH, Chen J, Bao JK 2008. A mannose-binding lectin from Sophora flavescens induces apoptosis in HeLa cells, Phytomedicine 1:867-875.         [ Links ]

Lo YH, Lin RD, Lin YP, Liu YL, Lee MH 2009. Active constituents from Sophora japonica exhibiting cellular tyrosinase inhibition in human epidermal melanocytes. J Ethnopharmacol 124:625-629.         [ Links ]

Ma SC, Du J, But PPH, Deng XL, Zhang WN, Ooi VEC, Xu HX, Lee SHS Lee SF 2002. Antiviral Chinese medicinal herbs against respiratory syncytial virus. J Ethnopharmacol 79:205-211.         [ Links ]

Ma LD, Wen SH, Zhan Y, He YJ, Liu XS, Jiang JK 2008. Anticancer effects of the Chinese medicine matrine on murine hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Planta Med 74:245-251.         [ Links ]

Miao KL, Zhang JZ 2001. Research progress on the chemical compounds and pharmacology of Sophora flavescens. Nat Prod Res Dev 13:69-73.         [ Links ]

Movsumov IS, Garaev EA., Isaev MI 2006. Alkaloids from Sophora alopecuroides growing in Azerbaijan 1. Sophocarpine, Chem Nat Comp 42:210-218.         [ Links ]

Mukhamedova KS, Glushenkova AI 1997. Phospholipids of ripe Sophora japonica seeds. Chem Nat Comp 33:445-448.         [ Links ]

Ohyama M, Tanaka T, Yokoyama J, IInuma M 1995. Occurrence of prenylated flavonoids and oligostilbenes and its significance for chemotaxonomy of genus Sophora (Leguminosae). Biochem Syst Ecol 23:669-677.         [ Links ]

Ohyama M, Ichise M, Tanaka T, Iinuma M, Charles I, Burandt J 1996. Davidiol D, first naturally occurring resveratrol pentamer isolated from Sophora davidii. Tetrahedron Lett 37:5155-5158.         [ Links ]

Olennikov DN, Tankhaeva LM, Sandanov DV 2009. Fatty acids from seeds of Sophora flavescens and Styphnolobium japonicum. Chem Nat Comp 45:225-226.         [ Links ]

Paniwnyk L, Beaufoy E, Lorimer JP Mason TJ 2001. The extraction rutin from flower buds of Sophora japonica. Ultrason Sonochem 8:299-301.         [ Links ]

Park JA, Kim HJ, Jin C, Lee KT Lee YS 2003. A new pterocarpan, (-)-maackiain sulfate, from the roots of Sophora subprostrata. Arch Pharm Res 26:1009-1013.         [ Links ]

Piao XL, Piao XS, Kim SW, Park JH Cai SQ 2006. Identification and characterization of antioxidants from Sophora flavescens. Biol Pharm Bull 29:1911-1915.         [ Links ]

Qi Y, Sun A, Liu R, Meng Z, Xie H 2007. Isolation and purification of flavonoid and isoflavonoid compounds from the pericarp of Sophora japonica L. by adsorption chromatography on 12% cross-linked agarose gel media. J Chromatogr 1140:219-224.         [ Links ]

Roh SS, Kim CD, Lee MH, Hwang SL, Rang MJ Yoon YK 2002. The hair growth promoting effect of Sophora flavescens extract and its molecular regulation. J Dermatological Sci 30:43-49.         [ Links ]

Saito K, Arai N, Sekine T, Ohmiya S, Kubo H, Otomasu H, Murakoshi I 1990. Phytoconstituents of S. tonkinensis. Planta Med 56:487-490         [ Links ]

Sakamoto S, Kuroyanagi M, Ueno A 1992. Triterpenoid saponins from Sophora subprostrata. Phytochemistry 31:1339-1342.         [ Links ]

Sato M, Tsuchiya H, Takase I, Kureshiro H, Tanigaki S and Iinuma M 1995. Antibacterial activity of flavanone isolated from Sophora exigua against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its combination with antibiotics. Phytother Res 9:509-512.         [ Links ]

Sato S, Takeo J, Aoyama C, Kawahara H 2007. Na+-Glucose cotransporter (SGLT) inhibitory flavonoids from the roots of Sophora flavescents. Bioorg Med Chem 15:3445-3449.         [ Links ]

Shirataki Y, Yoshida S, Sugita Y, Yokoe I, Komatsu M, Ohyama M, Tanaka T, Iinuma M 1997. Isoflavanones in roots of Sophora secundiflora. Phytochemistry 44:710-718.         [ Links ]

Shirataki Y, Matsuoka S, Komatsu M, Ohyama M, Tanaka T, Iinuma M 1999. Four isoflavanones from roots of Sophora tetraptera. Phytochemistry 50:695-701.         [ Links ]

Sohn HY, Son KH, Kwon CS, Kwon GS, Kang SS 2004. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of 18 prenylated flavonoids isolated from medicinal plants: Morus alba L., Morus mongolica Schneider, Broussnetia papyrifera (L.) Vent Sophora flavescens Ait and Echinosophora koreensis Nakai. Phytomedicine 11:666-672.         [ Links ]

Sun M, Han J, Duan J, Cui Y, Wang T, Zhang W, Liu W, Hong J, Yao M, Xiong S, Yan X 2007. Novel antitumor activities of Kushen flavonoids in vitro and in vivo. Phytother Res 21:269-277.         [ Links ]

Tanaka T, Iinuma M, Asai F, Ohyama M, Burandt B 1997. Flavonoids from the root and stem of Sophora tomentosa, Phytochemistry 46:1431-1437.         [ Links ]

Tanaka T, Ito T, Iinuma M, Ohyama M, Ichise M, Tateishi Y 2000. Stilbene oligomers in roots of Sophora davidii. Phytochem 53:1009-1014.         [ Links ]

Tanaka T, Ohyama M, Iinuma M, Shirataki Y, Komatsu M, Burandt C 1998. Isoflavonoids from Sophora secundiflora, S. arizonica and S. gypsophila. Phytochem 48:1187-1193.         [ Links ]

Tang YP, Lou FC, Wang JH, Zhuang SF 2001. Four new isoflavone triglycosides freom Sophora japonica. J Nat Prod 64:1107-1110.         [ Links ]

Tang YP, Hu J, Wang JH, Lou FC 2002. A new coumaronochromone from Sophora japonica. J Asian Nat Prod Res 4:1-5        [ Links ]

Terashina S, Shimizu M, Horie S, Morita N 1991. Studies on aldose reductase inhibitors from natural products IV. Constituents and aldose reductase inhibitory effect of Chrysanthemum morifolium, Bixa orellana and Ipomoea batatas. Chem Pharm Bull 39:3346-3347.         [ Links ]

The Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 1994. Beijing, China: The Chemical Industry Press 1:p.65.         [ Links ]

Tse WP, Che CT, Liu K, Lin ZX 2006. Evaluation of the anti-proliferative properties of selected psoriasis-treating Chinese medicines on cultured HaCaT cells. J Ethnopharmacol 108:133-141.         [ Links ]

Tsoong PC, Ma CY 1981a. A study on the genus Sophora Linn. Acta Phytotax Sinica 19:1-22.         [ Links ]

Tsoong PC, Ma CY 1981b. A study on the genus Sophora Linn. (Cont.). Acta Phytotaxon Sinica 19:143-167.         [ Links ]

Wang JH, Lou FC, Wang YL, Tang, YP 2003. A flavonol tetraglycoside from Sophora japonica seeds. Phytochemistry 63:463-465.         [ Links ]

Watanabe K, Kinjo J, Nohara T 1993. The new isoflavonol glycosides from Lupinus luteus and L polyphenyllus arboreus. Chem Pharm Bull 41:394-396.         [ Links ]

Wen M, Mao XJ 2006. Research progress on chemical composition, antiinflammatory and antiallergic activity of Sophora viciifolia. Yunnan J Trad Chinese Med Mat Med 27:63-64.         [ Links ]

Xiao PG 1993a. A pictorial encyclopaedia of Chinese medical herbs. Tokyo: Chuokoron-Sha: Jpn. 1. Ed, p. 82.         [ Links ]

Xiao PG 1993b. A pictorial encyclopaedia of Chinese medical herbs, Tokyo: Chuokoron-Sha: Jpn. 6 ed. p. 95.         [ Links ]

Xiao P, Kubo H, Komiya H, Higashiyama K, Yan YN, Li JS, Ohmiya S 1999. Lupin alkaloids from seeds of Sophora viciifolia. Phytochemistry 50:189-193.         [ Links ]

Xingming Ma, Li H, Yin S, Wang B 2004. Apoptosis in SGC- 7901 cells induced by alkaloids from Sophora moorcroftiana seeds. Chin Trad Patent Med 26:654-657.         [ Links ]

Xingming Ma, Luo Y, Yu H, Cui Y 2009a. Ethanolic extracts of Sophora moorcroftiana seeds induce apoptosis of human stomach cancer cell line SGC-7901 in vitro. African J Biotech 5:1669-1674.         [ Links ]

Xingming Ma, Yu H, Ying D, Luo Y, Weihua T 2009b. Anti tumor effects of ethanolic extracts from Sophora moorcroftiana seeds in mice. Iranian Redcrescent Med J 11:19-23.         [ Links ]

Xing NL, Sha N, Yan HX, Pang XY, Guan SH, Yang M, Hua HM, Wu LJ, Guo DA 2008. Isoprenylated flavonoids from the roots of Sophora tonkinensis. Phytochem Lett 1:163-167.         [ Links ]

Xu YL, Ma YB, Xong J 1999. Isoflavonoids of Iristectorrum. Acta Bot Yunnanica 21:125-130.         [ Links ]

Yagi A, Fukunaga M, Okuzako N, Mifuchi I, Kawamoto F 1989. Antifungal substances from Sophora flavescens. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 43:343-347.         [ Links ]

Yamaki M, Kashihara M, Takagi S 1990. Activity of Kushen compounds against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. Phytother Re. 4:235-236.         [ Links ]

Zhang MJ & Huang J 2004. Recent research progress of anti-tumor mechanism matrine. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 29:115-118.         [ Links ]

Zhang Y, Zhu H, Ye G, Huang C, Yang Y, Chen R, Yu Y, Cui X 2006. Antiviral effects of sophoridine against coxsackievirus B3 and its pharmacokinetics in rats. Life Sci 78:1998-2005.         [ Links ]

Zhang YF, Wang SZ, Li YY, Xiao ZY, Hu ZL, Zhang JP 2008. Sophocarpine and matrine inhibit the production of TNF and IL-6 in murine macrophages and prevent cachexia-related symptoms induced by colon 26 adenocarcinoma in mice. Int Immunopharmacol 8:1767-1772.         [ Links ]

Zhao HJ, Sun WJ 2005. Research progress on the flavonoids in Sophora flavescens Ait. and their pharmacology. J Chin Med Mat 28:247-251.         [ Links ]

Zheng ZH, Dong ZH, She J 1997. Modern studies on traditional Chinese medicine 1. Beijing: Xue Yuan Press. p. 547.         [ Links ]

Zhou J, Mei Y, Yi L 2008a. Research progress on pharmacology of the alkaloids in Sophora flavescens Ait. J Pediatr Pharm 14:61-64.         [ Links ]

Zhou Y, Shan H, Qiao G, Sui X, Lu Y, Yang B 2008b. Inotropic effects and mechanisms of matrine, a main alkaloid from Sophora flavescens Ait. Biol Pharm Bull 31:2057-2062.         [ Links ]



Received 9 Aug 2011
Accepted 22 Dec 2011



* Correspondence: Panthati Murali Krishna; Department of Pharmacognosy, Nalanda College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad main Road, Cherlapally, Nalgonda, Andhra Pradesh, India-508001. Tel.: +91 9573011137

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License