SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.4 issue4Stress effects on food handler attention in a public hospital in Recife-PE, BrazilDid you rule out neurosyphilis? author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand

Journal

Article

  • text new page (beta)
  • English (pdf)
  • Article in xml format
  • How to cite this article
  • SciELO Analytics
  • Curriculum ScienTI
  • Automatic translation

Indicators

Related links

Share


Dementia & Neuropsychologia

Print version ISSN 1980-5764

Dement. neuropsychol. vol.4 no.4 São Paulo Oct./Dec. 2010

https://doi.org/10.1590/S1980-57642010DN40400013 

Original Articles

Morphometric brain changes during aging: Results from a Brazilian necropsy sample

Alterações morfométricas encefálicas durante o envelhecimento: análise de uma amostra brasileira de casos necropsiados.

Renata Eloah de Lucena Ferretti 1   2   3  

Wilson Jacob-Filho 1   2   4  

Lea Tenenholz Grinberg 1   4   5  

Renata Elaine Paraízo Leite 1   2  

José Marcelo Farfel 1   2  

Claudia Kimie Suemoto 1   2  

Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva 4   6  

Sérgio Rosemberg 4   6  

Carlos Augusto Pasqualucci 1   4   6  

Ricardo Nitrini 1   7  

1Brazilian Brain Bank of the Aging Brain Study Group - Laboratory of Medical Investigations 22 (LIM 22) Brazil.

2Division of Geriatrics, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo SP, Brazil.

3University of ABC Brazil.

4Department of Pathology, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo SP, Brazil.

5Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco USA.

6São Paulo Autopsy Service Brazil;

7Department of Neurology, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo SP, Brazil.


Abstract

The present study aimed to establish the morphometric brain changes during aging in a necropsy series from Brazil and determine whether sexual dimorphisms interfere in these changes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the São Paulo Autopsy Service in Brazil where, after informed consent, data was gathered from next of kin interview with reference to clinical status prior to death. Brain weight, volume and density measurements were taken and then adjusted for head circumference. Descriptive statistics and tests of hypothesis and correlations were applied, considering a p-value of 0.05. Results: 414 subjects, mostly men (60.4%), with a mean age of 67.1 years, were included. The mean brain weight of the sample was 1219.2g±140.9 and mean volume was 1217mL±152.3. The mean brain density of the sample was 1.0g/mL±0.09. Values differed between males and females in terms of weight and volume. Brain weight decreased during aging by about 45g per decade (r= -0.300; p<0.01) and volume by about 43mL (r= -0.278; p<0.00). Mean density of the sample was 1.0 g/mL in both genders. Conclusions: Brain weight and volume (with or without corrections) decreased during aging, and these reductions were more pronounced in women. Density remained unchanged for both genders. Further studies are needed to investigate factors associated to these reductions.

Key words: aging; brain/anatomy; cephalometry

Resumo

O presente estudo buscou identificar quais as alterações morfométricas encefálicas durante o envelhecimento, em uma série de casos necropsiados do Brasil, segundo gênero. Métodos: Um estudo, em corte transversal, foi realizado no Serviço de Verificação de Óbitos de São Paulo onde, após consentimento informado, os dados foram coletados por meio de uma entrevista clínica com familiares em relação ao período anterior à morte. A massa e o volume encefálicos, assim como a densidade encefálica foram aferidas e ajustadas para o perímetro cefálico. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva e testes de hipóteses foram aplicados, considerando um p-valor de 0,05. Resultados: Amostra composta por 414 indivíduos, em sua maioria do gênero masculino (60,4%) com idade média de 67,1 anos. A massa media encefálica da amostra foi de 1219,2g±140,9 e o volume médio da amostra foi de 1217 mL±152,3. A densidade media foi de 1,0 g/mL±0,09. Os resultados diferiram entre homens e mulheres, em relação a massa e ao volume. A massa encefálica diminui durante o envelhecimento em aproximadamente 45g por década (r= -0,300; p<0,00) e o volume reduz aproximadamente 43 mL (r= -0,278; p<0,00). A densidade media foi de 1,0 g/mL, em ambos os gêneros. Conclusões: Massa e volume encefálicos (com e sem correção) diminuem durante o envelhecimento, sendo a redução mais pronunciada nas mulheres. A densidade global mantém-se estável em ambos os gêneros. Outros estudos são necessários para investigar os fatores associados às reduções.

Palavras-chave: envelhecimento; encéfalo/anatomia; cefalometria

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text available only in PDF format.

References

Lemaître H, Crivello F, Grassiot B, et al. Age- and sex - related effects on the neuroanatomy of healthy elderly. NeuroImage 2005;26: 900-911. [ Links ]

Coffey CE, Wilkinson WE, Parashos IA, et al. Quantitative cerebral anatomy of the aging human brain: a cross-sectional study using magnetic resonance imaging. Neurology 1992;42:527-536. [ Links ]

DeCarli C, Massaro J, Harvey D, et al. Measures of brain morphology and infarction in the framingham heart study: establishing what is normal. Neurobiol Aging 2005;26:491-510. [ Links ]

Grinberg LT, Ferretti REL, Farfel JM, et al. Brain bank of the Brazilian ageing brain study group: a milestone reached and more than 1,600 collected brains. Cell Tissue Bank 2006;7: 1573-6814. [ Links ]

Brasil. Conselho Nacional de Saúde. Resolução no 196 de 10 de outubro de 1996. Diretrizes e normas regulamentadoras de pesquisas envolvendo seres humanos. In: Diário Oficial da República Federativa do Brasil, Brasília, 1996. [ Links ]

National Commission for the protection of human subjects of biomedical and behavioral research. The Belmont Report: ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of human subjects of research. Washington, 1978. [ Links ]

18th World Medical Assembly. Declaration of Helsinski. Ethical Principles for medical research involving human subjects. Helsinski, Finland, 1964. [ Links ]

Ferretti REL, Grinberg LT, Leite REP, et al. Banco de Encéfalos Humanos: uma ferramenta importante para o estudo do envelhecimento cerebral. Mundo Saúde 2009;33:89-98. [ Links ]

Jorm AF, Korten AE. Assessment of cognitive decline in the elderly by informant interview. Britsh J Psychiatry 1988; 152:209-213. [ Links ]

Jorm AF. Assessment of cognitive impairement and dementia using informant reports. Clin Psychology Rev 1996;16:51-75. [ Links ]

Isella V, Villa L, Russo A, et al. Discriminative and predictive power of an informant report in mild cognitive impairment. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2006;77:166-171. [ Links ]

Koss E, Patterson MB, Ownby R, et al. Memory evaluation in Alzheimer's disease: caregiver's appraisals and objective testing. Arch Neurol 1993;50:92-97. [ Links ]

McGlone J, Gupta S, Humphrey D, et al. Screening for early dementia using memory complaints from patients and relatives. Arch Neurol 1990;47:1189-1193. [ Links ]

Morales JM, Bermejo F, Romero M, et al. Screening of dementia in community dwelling elderly through informant report. Intern J Of Geriatric Psychiatry, 1997;12:808-816. [ Links ]

Rockwood K, Howard K, Thomas VS, et al. Retrospective diagnosis of dementia using an informant interview based on the brief cognitive rating scale. Int Psychogeriatr 1998;10:53 -60. [ Links ]

McCulla M, Coats M, Fleet NV, et al. Reliability of clinical nurse specialist in the staging of dementia. Arch Neurol 1989;46:1210-1211. [ Links ]

Cançado FAX and Horta ML. Envelhecimento Cerebral. In: Freitas EV, et AL. Tratado de Geriatria e Gerontologia. 2nd edition. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara-Koggan, 2006;Chap.19: 194-211 [ Links ]

Jerningan TL, Archibald SL, Fennema-Notestine C, et al. Effects of age on tissues and regions of the cerebrum and cerebellum. Neurobiol Aging , 2001;22:581-594. [ Links ]

Anderton BH. Aging of the brain. Mech Ageing Dev 2002; 123:811-817. [ Links ]

Sánchez R, Morales M, Cardozo J. Peso del encéfalo normal Del venezoelano adulto según sexo y edad. Invest Clin 1997;38:83-93. [ Links ]

Witelson SF, Beresh H, Kigar DL. Intelligence and brain size in 100 postmortem brains: sex, lateralization and age factors. Brain 2006;129:386-398. [ Links ]

Benedetti B, Charil A, Rovaris M, et al. Influence of aging on brain gray and white matter changes assessed by conventional, MT and DT MRI. Neurology 2006;66:535-539. [ Links ]

Carne RP, Vogrin S, Litewka L, et al. Carebral Cortex : an MRI-based study of volume an variance with age and sex. J Clin Neurosc 2006;13:60-72. [ Links ]

Drayer BP. Imaging of the ageing brain. Part I: normal findings. Radiology 1988;166:785-796. [ Links ]

Mrak RE, Griffin ST, Graham DI. J Neuropatol Exp Neurol 1997;56:1269-1275. [ Links ]

Kruggel F. MRI-based volumetry of head compartments: normative values of healthy adults. Neuroimage 2006;30:1-11. [ Links ]

Pittella JEH. Morfologia do envelhecimento normal do encéfalo. In: Tavares A. Compêndio de neuropsiquiatria geriátrica. Rio de Janeiro: Ed Guanabara-Koogan;2005;Chap. 3:25-42. [ Links ]

Beach TG, Sue LI, Walker DG, et al. The Sun Health Research Institute Brain Donation Program: description and experience, 1987-2007. Cell Tissue Bank 2008;9:229-245. [ Links ]

Miller AKH, Corsellis JAN. Evidence for a secular increase in human brain weight during the past century. Ann Hum Biol 1977;4:253-257. [ Links ]

Good CD, Johnsrude IS, Ashburner J, et al. A voxel-based morphometric study of aging in 465 normal adult human brains. Neuroimage 2001;14:21-36. [ Links ]

Biglar ED, Neely ES, Miller MJ, et al. Cerebral Volume loss, cognitive deficit and neuropsychological performance: comparative measures of brain atrophy: I-Dementia. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2004;10:442-452. [ Links ]

Bigler ED, Tate DF. Brain Volume, intracranial volume and dementia. Invest Radiol 2001;36:539-546. [ Links ]

Stern Y. The concept of cognitive reserve: a catalyst for research. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 2003;25:589-593. [ Links ]

Richards M, Deary IJ. A life course approach to cognitive reserve: a model for aging and development? Ann Neurol 2005;58:617-622. [ Links ]

Received: June 23, 2010; Accepted: September 05, 2010

Renata Eloah de Lucena Ferretti - BBBABSG-LIM 22 / Division of Geriatrics / Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo - Av. Dr. Arnaldo 455 / 1º andar / sala 1351 - 01246-903 São Paulo SP - Brazil. E-mail: reloah@usp.br

Disclosure: The authors report no conflicts of interest

Creative Commons License This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License