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Journal of Physical Education

On-line version ISSN 2448-2455

J. Phys. Educ. vol.27  Maringá  2016  Epub Mar 20, 2017

http://dx.doi.org/10.4025/jphyseduc.v27i1.2754 

Original Article

THE “PROGRAMA SEGUNDO TEMPO” IN BRAZILIAN MUNICIPALITIES: OUTCOME INDICATORS IN MACROSYSTEM

O PROGRAMA SEGUNDO TEMPO EM MUNICÍPIOS BRASILEIROS: INDICADORES DE RESULTADO NO MACROSSISTEMA

Riller Silva Reverdito1  3 

Larissa Rafaela Galatti2 

Leilane Alves de Lima3 

Paula Simarelli Nicolau3 

Alcides José Scaglia2 

Roberto Rodrigues Paes3 

1State University of Mato Grosso, Cáceres-MT, Brazil.

2University of Campinas, Limeira-SP, Brazil.

3University of Campinas, Campinas-SP, Brazil.


ABSTRACT

The “Segundo Tempo” Program (PST) is the largest social program aimed at the youth participation in sport currently in Brazil. However, we still know little about the scope of its objectives, particularly in relation to the macro-system. The aim of this study is to analyze the scope of the PST in relation to the democratization of access to sport practice and culture. This is an exploratory study in PST context. Secondary data from public access and official agencies managed was used. It was taken as macro-indicator the Human Development Index of Municipalities (HDIM), number of agreements and the estimated population of municipalities that have maintained agreements with the Ministry of Sports for the PST from 2003 to 2013. We conclude that the municipalities with the best social indicators and structure for sport practice have more access to the PST, and can keep it longer.

Keywords: Evaluation; “Segundo Tempo” Program; Sport Pedagogy.

RESUMO

O Programa Segundo Tempo (PST) é o mais amplo programa social orientado para a participação de crianças, adolescentes e jovens no esporte atualmente no Brasil. No entanto, ainda sabemos pouco sobre o alcance dos seus objetivos, especialmente em relação ao macrossistema. Objetivo desse estudo é analisar o alcance do PST em relação à democratização do acesso à prática e à cultura de esporte. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório realizado no contexto do PST. Foram utilizados dados secundários, de acesso público e administrado por órgãos oficiais. Foi tomado como indicador do macrossistema o Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano dos Municípios (IDHM), número de convênios e a população estimada de municípios que mantiveram convênios com o Ministério do Esporte para o PST entre 2003-2013. Concluímos que os municípios com os melhores indicadores sociais e estrutura para o esporte conseguiram ter mais acesso ao PST, além de conseguir manter por mais tempo.

Palavras-chave: Avaliação; Programa “Segundo Tempo”; Pedagogia do Esporte.

Introduction

Sport, one of the most important sociocultural phenomena of the 21st century, is constantly increasingly in people lives and occupy a prominent position on the agenda of institutions all over the world. The United Nations Development Programme1 presents principles and guidelines for the development of sport as a tool to the achievement of the development goals of the millenium; and may be considered an example of this prominent position it occupies in programs with a focus on human development. Within the dimension of human development, the positive scope of participation in sport has been documented in programs and activities, especially those aimed at young people, in different parts of the world2-9.

The positive scope of sport participation in human development has been highlighted in the physical, social and psychological aspects throughout the course of life5,10-15. Thus, in the ecology of human development15,16, participation in sport has been considered a significant activity, which reaches the different dimensions of ecological assets that are critical to the positive development of youths. However, the direction of the effects of participation in sport, whether they are positive or negative, is influenced by the context, which makes the task to observe its scope in the development process complex and challenging. The absence of context variables in the processes of evaluation has been one of the main complaints, and it has similarly fueled controversies surrounding the results of programs focused on the participation in sport.

The context, from the perspective of Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Framework for Human Development16, is defined as a nested system, organized in four levels, which influence each other. The microsystem corresponds to the immediate level in which the individual is insered (school, home environment). The mesosystem corresponds to the relationship between two contexts in which the individual participates directly, such as school-home. The exosystem consists of contexts in which the individual does not participate directly, but acts over it, for example, the parents' job. The macrosystem corresponds to the broader level of the context, reaching public policies, political system, religion, among others, which act over the individual12. Due to it being a nested system16, the forces that act over participation in sport reach the different levels of the context11 from the school environment (microsystem) to the dimensions of the macrosystem (political, economic, religious, cultural), influencing and being influenced in a constant process of changes within the system.

In relation to the macrosystem, studies by Graham, Shneider and Dickerson17, Beenackers et al.18, Souza, Castro e Vialich19, Holt et al.7 show the disposition of environmental resources, the perception of security and income as significant predictors for participation in sport. In addition to these aspects, other factors are documented, such as political20,21 and religious/cultural22 systems, sociodemographic12, sports organizations23. The conclusions of these studies suggest that there is little information at the macrosystem level on programs for participation in sport, and highlight the importance of these information for decision making that is management and/or pedagogy related.

The problem is that macrosystem indicators are not always observed in the process of evaluation of programs and actions of participation in sport9,24 and, when observed, due to methodological limitations of data quality and the range of indicators over the effects of participation in sport, the indicators render fragile conclusions. However, they appear in the objectives of the programs, and are sometimes overestimated in the expected results, in order to justify their social relevance and to get more resources or to perform the maintenance of the program and actions, in addition to being used as a reference to guide and sustain investments4,25. In this case, at the macrosystem level, the positive development of participation in sport is more based on the widespread belief in the power of transformation of sports than in evidences of their scope, mainly for it neglecting sociostructural factors26-29, especially when dealing with government programs.

In Brazil, Programa Segundo Tempo (PST) is the biggest government initiative concerning sport and leisure30,31, which prioritizes areas of social vulnerability and is focused on the democratization of access to the practice and culture of sports. The program, within the scope of the macrosystem, has as priority serving youths who are exposed to situations of social risk, and the universalization of sport, as a tool for enhancing educational elements30,32. However, there are no information concerning the scope of these goals within the dimension of the macrosystem. Among the studies published about the PST, four studies were found that focused on evaluating the objectives of the PST within the dimension of public policies20,21,33.

The study by Sousa et al.30 had as objective evaluating and providing a system for the monitoring of Programa Segundo Tempo, from a set of indicators developed and validated by experts. Based on the calculation of the representative sample, 1.961 individuals were interviewed, among beneficiaries and managers, who answered questions about different dimensions of the PST. Due to it being a cross-sectional study, and since the data used had as source the perception of the beneficiaries and managers of the program, the results made it possible to make a diagnosis of the program. The proposed evaluation focus targeted the immediate context and did not observe other levels of the context that could be influencing the program. This is evident in the study, since there was no description of the municipalities participating in the study.

Santos20,21 observed and analyzed the relationship between political parties and coalitions and the institutional environment, both in relation to the diffusion of the PST. In the first study, the author indicates that there is a relationship between political parties (government coalitions) and adherence to the program. However, he emphasizes that there is low adhesion of the prefectures in relation to the total number of municipalities, and that the relative difference presented between coalitions and parties (government and opposition) is not sufficient to determine adherence to the PST. In the second study, based on the data from the profile of brazilian municipalities from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) for the institutional environment (municipal secretariat of sports, Sports Municipal Council, Children Municipal Council and sport policies described in the Organic Law of Municipalities), the author concludes that the model adopted was not trustable for explaining the diffusion of the PST.

Santos, Starepravo and Souza33, in another study, investigated the distribution of the PST in the Northeast, over the first 10 years of implementation, establishing a profile of municipalities that failed to gain access to the program, using as indicators: the Human Development Index of the Municipality (HDIM), fiscal capacity, administrative structure and the environment. The authors concluded that the PST is not able to reach, much less equitably, the municipalities with the most vulnerable regions.

Although studies by Sousa et al.30 and Santos20 provide relevant information, these studies failed to provide conclusions that are able to determine the scope of the PST, in what concerns democratization of access to the practice and culture of sport. The study by Santos, Starepravo and Souza33, despite having analyzed a single region, suggests that the PST, the macrosystem of the sports and leisure policy considered, is not achieving its main goal, which is to assist children, adolescents and young people in situation of vulnerability and social risk.

As objectives and expected results are defined, the challenge that governance process of any program has to face is to assess whether the objectives are being achieved, and, similarly, to know whether what needed to be assessed was indeed being assessed. But for this it is essential that the information is reliable and that it can subsidize the decision making process, since identifying factors that may be limiting the scope of the program is fundamental. Coalter27, Camiré28 and Whitley, Hayden e Gould9, while investigating programs of participation in sport for development in different parts of the world, indicate that assessment is one of the main limitations in the field of research.

Thus, within the scope of public policies for sport, the PST being the main sports and recreation government initiative for youths, the objective of this article is to analyze the scope of the PST in relation to democratization of access to the practice and culture of sports, as well to the profile of the brazilian municipalities and its Human Development Index (HDIM). Our main hypothesis is that, within the scope of the macrosystem, the PST is not achieving the goal of democratizing the access to the practice and culture of sports. The secondary hypothesis is that the municipalities with better Human Development Index can maintain the program for longer.

Materials and Methods

This is an exploratory study, guided by the Ecological Framework for Human Development16, with the objective of verifying and analyzing the scope of the PST in relation to the process of democratization of access to the practice and culture of sports within the context of the PST, while public policy for sport and recreation (macrosystem). The macrosystem encompasses the context's last level (micro-, meso-, exo- and macro-), and is defined as a set of ideologies, systems of values and beliefs, forms of government, public policies (culture and subculture) which, in form and content, influence and determine standards and specific ecological environments of each group. The data used are from secondary sources, administered by agencies of the federal authority (IBGE and Ministry of Sport) and non-governmental organization (Atlas of Human Development in Brazil Platform), which are available for public consultation. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the School of Medical Sciences of Unicamp (CAAE: 34480114.1.0000.5404), and an authorization issued by the Ministry of Sport (ME) was also obtained.

The“Programa Segundo Tempo” (PST)

The PST is a program of the Ministry of Sport, that is administered by the National Secretariat of Sport, Leisure Education and Social Inclusion (SNELIS), with the aim of(30:23):

“democratizing the access to the practice and culture of sports in order to promote the integral development of children, adolescents and young people, who live primarily in areas of social vulnerability and that are regularly enrolled in public schools, as a factor of formation of citizenship and improvement in the quality of life”.

While public policy, the PST arose from the continuity of the programs “Esporte na Escola” (Sport at School) and “Esporte Solidário” (Solidarity Sport), in 2003, serving children, adolescents and young people during after-school hours, prioritizing those in situation of vulnerability and social risk (violence, poverty, truancy). The adhesion to the PST is done through call for proposals and formalization of agreements between the Ministry of Sport and government entities or bodies (direct or indirect) and private non-profit entities.

Criteria, indicators and data analysis

From the total of agreements with the Ministry of Sport between 2003 and 2013, those which were formalized and administered by municipal prefectures (n = 498) were identified, except for the Federal District. From the identification of the agreements, the following data were systematized: location (by region and state), total of agreements per prefecture, time of agreement (validity and execution), situation of the agreement (active and inactive) and number of beneficiaries.

From the identification of the agreements, the Human Development Index of the Municipalities (HDIM) was verified and adopted as an indicator of the macrosystem for the monitoring of the achievement of the objectives of the PST. The HDIM34 is an adaptation of the global Human Development Index (HDI) to the Brazilian reality, performed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Institute for Applied Economic Research (IPEA) and the João Pinheiro Foundation, calculated with basis on the information from the Demographic Census of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE).

The HDIM was adopted as an indicator of the macrosystem due to its calculation considering three dimensions: longevity (long and healthy life), education (access to knowledge) and per capita income (standard of living), using data from official sources with open access, thus allowing other studies and analyses. The HDIM varies between 0 and 1 and is ordered in the following development ranges: very low (0.000 - 0.499), low (0.500 - 0.599), medium (0.600 - 0.699), high (0.700 - 0.799) and very high (0.800 - 1.000). Data analysis was performed using the SPSS statistical bank 20.0 version, for descriptive statistics of the measures (frequency, mean, standard deviation and percentage).

Results

From the total of agreements (n = 720) signed in the period from 2003 to 2013, between prefectures (n = 498) and the Ministry of Sport, that are either terminated or currently in effect, the highest concentration of agreements of the PST is in the Southeast (40.1%), followed by the Northeast, South, North and Center-West regions (Table 1). The states with the highest concentration of prefectures under agreements are, respectively, São Paulo (n = 95), Minas Gerais (n = 81), Bahia (n = 51), Paraná (n = 51) and Rio Grande do Sul (n = 34). From the states of the federation, only Acre does not appear among those which had municipalities under agreements with the PST. The South and Southeast regions proportionally concentrate the highest number of agreements (61.6%).

Regarding municipalities, 24.3% (n = 121) of the agreements are in municipalities where the estimate population is of 100,001 and 500,000 inhabitants. The distribution curve (M = 4.04±1.78) shows that municipalities with a population estimated at over 20000 inhabitants are those which have the highest number of agreements. The number of agreements signed per prefecture in the referred period (2003-2013) was on average of 1.45±0.840, in which 71.3% (n = 355) of the prefectures performed only one agreement and 28.2% more than two agreements.

The HDIM of the municipalities under agreements, according to the classification by the Atlas of Human Development in Brazil (HDIM, 2010), is in the range of medium human development (0.697,28±0.66). Taking as reference the median (0.710) and standard deviation (0.66), the range of human development could be accepted as high (0.700 - 0.799). When grouped by HDIM range, 53.0% (n = 264) of the municipalities are in the range of development considered to be high level.

Table 1 Total number of agreements between the Ministry of Sport and Municipal Government per region, except for the Federal District (2003 - 2013). 

Source: The authors.

The municipalities with better HDIM had the highest number of agreements (High HDIM: n = 264, 53.0%; Very High HDIM: n = 18, 3.6%). The municipalities with low and medium HDIM, respectively correspond to only 11.2% (n = 56) and 32.1% (n = 160) of the total agreements. These values are observed also in relation to the number of agreements with prefectures per region and the HDIM level (Table 3 and Table 4). Of the Brazilian regions, Northeast and North were those that had the highest number of municipalities with the lower levels of HDIM. However, still in these regions, the prevalence was of municipalities with the higher levels of HDIM, considering that the highest number of agreements relates to municipalities of medium HDIM in the region (Table 2). The municipalities with higher population density and better HDIM range were the ones that had the highest number of agreements.

Regarding time per agreement, the average length of the agreements was 22±8.76 months. When adding up and grouping all the agreements per municipalities (Table 1), the highest number of agreements lasted from 11 to 20 months (n = 143, 28.7%). The distribution curve (M = 3.55±1.39) shows that the duration of the agreements was from 21 to 30 months. When analyzing HDIM and the time of the agreements of the municipalities, those with better HDIM range managed to maintain the agreement for longer (Graph 2). The time of agreement correspond to three stages; implementation, execution and accountability (evaluation). When considering the execution period only, the duration of the agreements was from 11 to 20 months (M = 16.33±8.64 months) , corresponding to 72.5% (n = 145) of the agreements.

Table 2 Classification of estimated population and Human Development Index of municipalities under agreement 

Source: The authors.

Table 3 Regions and HDIM level of municipalities under agreements 

Source: The authors.

Table 4 HDIM level and time of agreements 

Source: The author

Discussion

Among the various aspects surrounding the management of a social program, it is essential to ensure an evaluation process capable of reaching its multiple ecological levels24 that is theoretical and methodologically reliable27,36. So, the evaluation process may support the evidence of its goals achievement and the decisions that will be taken from its results. When the evaluation process is fragile or negligent in any of its dimensions, the achievement of the goals of the program can be compromised, what triggers negative effects over other levels of the system. In this sense, this study analyzed the scope of the PST in relation to democratization of access to the practice and culture of sports, primarily to serve populations in situations of social vulnerability, based on the profile of the municipalities, time of agreement and HDIM.

Regarding the democratization of access to the practice and culture of sports, the greatest concentration of agreements between municipalities and the PST occurs in regions with the best organizational structure for sports, the best human development indicators34 and estimated population of over 20000 inhabitants35. From the point of view of public goods distribution, the access to the program has not been happening in an equitable manner, because municipalities with the best indicators were those that had more access to the PST. The greatest concentration of municipalities in Brazil is in the range of human development considered to be medium and low34, which may further accentuate the distances of the regions with greater social vulnerability.

This aspect is reinforced by the size of the population of the Brazilian municipalities35 and the municipalities that had access to the PST. The majority of Brazilian municipalities (n = 3,852) have population lower than 20000 inhabitants (69.0%). However, the municipalities that had more access to the program are in the range above 20000 inhabitants. Santos, Starepravo and Souza Neto33 confirm this situation when analyzing the number and profile of the municipalities from the Northeast region which had no access to the PST. These factors may be related to the lack of bureaucratic structure for adhesion and monitoring of the program, in addition to the unavailability of human and technical resources to implement public policies for sport.

In addition to the number of agreements, the municipalities with better HDIM were also those which managed to keep the program for longer. When observing the number of municipalities that managed to have more than one agreement (28.2%), it is possible to affirm that there is institutional inability to ensure the continuity of the program. Time is a fundamental dimension to indicate quality, since it is associated with the sustainability and potential for transferring of share capital. Thus, the question is not only the access to the program20, but the need to overcome sociostructural factors27,28,37, which are generating discontinuity of the program, such as absence of a national sports system, the reliance on funding policies and assistance based on economic capital transferring. This does not mean that a funding and assistance policy is not important, but the problem is when economic capital is unable to turn into social capital, ensuring a social organization that is able to sustain the benefits of participation in sport. For Whitley, Hayden and Gould9 the development of a social program implies recognizing that it is inserted within a complex social system, reaching different levels of the context, and therefore that it needs to be connected with other community agencies that are able to establish criteria and observe local demands.

In relation to the macrosystem, this study, as well as the studies by Grahm, Shneider and Dickerson17, Beenackers et al.18, Souza, Castro and Vialich19, Holt et al.7, Whitley, Hayden and Gould9, reinforced the disposition of environmental resources as predictor for participation in sport, being able to potentiate or inhibit access to sport. In this direction, at the macrosystem level, it is not possible to say that the PST has not generated any effects, but the direction and the strength of the potential of participation in sport to generate positive effects on the development of the individuals participating in the program were limited. Other studies need to be conducted to observe the strength and dynamics of these effects at different levels of the context of participation in sport, especially about programs that seek to assist children, adolescents and young people.

Another aspect that needs to be better reported is the relation between institutional structure, based on a management system structured over political parties, and the access of the municipalities to the PST, since there is no national sports and leisure system indicating the obligations and responsibilities of the municipalities, states and federation while public policy. This aspect was not analyzed in this study, but has been reported in the studies by Sanders, Phillips and Vanreusel38 and Santos, Starepravo and Souza Neto33. As the PST is not part of a public policy, the continuity of the program is exposed to changes concerning political parties, and to the possible interest in the funding and assistance policy.

It is demonstrated here that the access and the institutional capacity that ensure the continuity of the PST are limiting factors for the goal of the program to be achieved. It is essential that managers and promoting agents of the program understand the factors that are leading to the discontinuation of the program. Then, it is essential that criteria and actions that are able to expand the possibility of continuity are established. One of the essential steps is to ensure community engagement in the program, both for the building of a sense of belonging and for the ability of self-management9,39 and formation of human resources. Thus, a network of support for the program is created and the relationship of dependancy on social policies is minimized.

From the perspective of human development, time is a fundamental variable in order to the effects generated by participation in sport may reach other domains, both of the individual and the community in which she/he is inserted40. Otherwise, if sport is used only as an alienating political-ideological remedy for every social problem, there will be distancing of a real social transformation and accentuation of the void in assistance. Thus, the evaluation of the results and impact of the programs should be a systematic action that is able to reach different dimensions of the context in which the young people are inserted.

Conclusion

The purpose of this study was to analyze the scope of the PST in relation to democratization of access to the practice and culture of sports, based on macrosystem indicators. From the macrosystem perspective, we concluded that the PST is not achieving the goal of democratizing access to the practice and culture of sports, since it is reaching the municipalities and regions that have the best human development indicators and structure for the access to the practice and culture of sports. In this logic, the care gap is accentuated, since those which already have access to public policies for sports and leisure are having even more of it, and for longer. This conclusion is also reinforced by the low capacity of the municipalities in keep the PST, which leads to the prevalence of a discontinuity process.

Understanding the context as a nested system, ranging from the micro to the macrosystem, which influence and are mutually influenced, it is necessary to look at the dynamics of sociostructural factors and understand how to minimize issues that may compromise the access to and the continuity of the PST40. Among these aspects, an evaluation system that is able to observe ecological indicators, that does not overlook the sociostructural factors and recognizes that the programs and actions are inserted within a complex social system, with different demands of institutional nature and of access to public goods, is necessary. In this sense, other studies need to be conducted to seek the understanding of the shape and the dynamics of the scope these indicators of the macrosystem, at other levels of the system.

Agradecimento:

National Scientific and Technological Development Council (ME / CNPq - Case No. 487547 / 2013-6).

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Received: March 12, 2016; Revised: May 27, 2016; Accepted: June 14, 2016

Mailing address: Riller Silva Reverdito. Address: State University of Mato Grosso, Faculty of Physical Education - University City, Street Santos Dumont, Bloco II, Cáceres, MT, Brazil. CEP: 78200-000. E-mail: rsreverdito@unemat.br

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