Piper bellidifolium, Piper durilignum, Piper acutilimbum and Piper consanguineum are bushes that occur in the Amazon and are morphologically similar. With the aim of analyzing the chemical profile of the volatile constituents of these species, essential oils from the leaves were obtained through steam distillation and analyzed using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The chemical analysis enabled the identification of 95 compounds representing 96.3 ± 0.6% of the P. bellidifolium oil, 95.5 ± 0.71% of the P. durilignum oil, 98.0 ± 1.0% of the P. acutilimbum oil and 96.1 ± 2.1% of the P. consanguineum oil. Although sesquiterpenes were the predominant chemical class in the oils of the four species, qualitative and quantitative differences were found in their chemical composition. The major constituents were (E)-nerolidol (20.3 ± 0.4%) in the P. bellidifolium oil, germacrene D (11.1 ± 0.3%) in the P. durilignum oil, and γ-eudesmol in both the P. consanguineum (18.6 ± 0.5%) and P. acutilimbum (7.5 ± 0.4%) oils. Despite their morphological similarity, a principal component analysis (PCA) of the GC-MS data clearly separated the four species according to the chemical profile of the essential oil extracted from their leaves.
Amazon biome; Piper ssp; (E)-Nerolidol; Germacrene D; γ-Eudesmol