Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The Aptian-Albian paleoichthyofauna in Brazil and Africa is quite diverse, yet their geographic patterns still require accounts. This work consists of a panbiogeographical analysis of paleoichthyofauna from Aptian-Albian through track analysis. Geographic coordinates were obtained and converted into paleocoordinates. Individual Tracks (ITs) and Generalized Tracks (GTs) were built with the aid of ArcView GIS v3.2 program using Trazos2004 extension. As a result, four GTs and tree Biogeographic Nodes (A, B and C) had been identified. GTs 1 and 2 shows two different faunas. GT3 indicates similarity between Brazil and Africa paleoichthyofauna suggesting the break-up of Gondwana as the event that separated it. GT4 represents a probable local seaway produced by transgressions. In the Node A a unique fauna was found indicating the presence of a third biota with its own characteristics. Node B is associated with the break-up of the supercontinent Gondwana. Node C was related to fauna exchange promoted by marine ingression and epicontinental seas that occurred during Aptian-Albian. We concluded that there is a relationship between the distributional patterns of biota and events such as the break-up of Gondwana, the formation of Atlantic Ocean and eustatic movements that affected South America and Africa.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Down-core changes in sedimentary facies, elemental geochemistry, pollen, spore, δ13C, δ15N and radiocarbon records from a filled lake, named R4, of the Serra Sul dos Carajás were used to study the relationship between the paleomorphological and paleoecological processes and their significance for Holocene paleoclimatology of the southeast Amazonia. The sediment deposition of the R4 lake started around 9500 cal yr BP. Increase of detrital components from 9500 to 7000 cal yr BP suggests high weathering of surrounding catchment rocks and soils, and deposition into the lake basin under mudflows. At that time, montane savanna and forest formation were already established suggesting predominance of wet climate. However, from 7000 to 3000 cal yr BP, a decline of detrital input occurred. Also, forest formation and pteridophytes were declined, while palms and macrophytes were remained relatively stable, indicating that water levels of the lake is likely dropped allowing the development of plants adapted to subaerial condition under drier climate conditions. After 3000 cal yr BP, eutrophication and low accommodation space lead to high lake productivity and the final stage of the lake filling respectively, and forest formation may has acquired its current structure, which suggests return of wetter climate conditions.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A new saurolophine hadrosaurid, Laiyangosaurus youngi gen. et sp. nov. is described and phylogenetically analyzed based on several cranial elements from the Jingangkou Formation, Wangshi Group, Upper Cretaceous of Laiyang, Shandong, China. Laiyangosaurus youngi differs from other members of the saurolophine clade on the basis of a number of autapomorphies, including a prominent and narrow ridge on the lateral side of the nasal which forms the posterodorsal and posterior margin of the circumnasal depression, a primary ridge that runs along most of the maxillary tooth row that is slightly deflected posteriorly, a retroarticular process of the surangular that is dorsolateroposteriorlly recurved, and orbital margins that are wider than the infratemporal margins of the jugal. This new taxon can be further distinguished by a number of unique combination of characters, including dorsal margin of nasal is flat, absence supracranial crest, a relatively shallow and rostrodorsally directed caudal margin of the lacrimal process of the jugal, and one or more foramina present on the rostral surface of the premaxilla. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that L. youngi comprises a monophyletic clade, which is known as Edmontosaurini.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In 1940, L.I. Price and A. Oliveira recovered four crocodyliform specimens from the Early Cretaceous Bahia Supergroup (Recôncavo-Tucano Basin). In the present work, we describe four different fossil specimens: an osteoderm, a fibula, a tibia, and some autopodial bones. No further identification besides Mesoeucrocodylia was made due to their fragmentary nature and the reduced number of recognized synapomorphies for more inclusive clades. With exception of the fibula, all other specimens have at least one particular feature, which with new specimens could represent new species. The new specimens described here increase the known diversity of Early Cretaceous crocodyliforms from Brazil. This work highlights the great fossiliferous potential of Recôncavo-Tucano Basin with regard to crocodyliform remains.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The Mylodontidae Scelidotheriinae (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Tardigrada) are a diversified clade of South American fossil ground sloths, with a wide geographic distribution, especially in high and middle latitudes. According to the last revision, the Quaternary diversity includes the genera Scelidotherium, Catonyx, and Valgipes. The clade Scelidotheriinae is well represented in the Pleistocene of the Tarija-Padcaya basin, and the first mention of these ground sloths correspond to the middle of the XIX Century. Since then, several species (i.e., Scelidotherium tarijensis, Scelidodon tarijensis, Scelidotherium capellini) have been reported as inhabiting the Tarija-Padcaya basin during the Pleistocene. Despite the abundance of fossil records of Scelidotheriinae in this area, no modern taxonomic revisions are available. In consequence, in this contribution a revision of the remains assigned to Scelidotheriinae from the Tarija-Padcaya basin is accomplished, and some biostratigraphic and geographic implications are discussed. Our results show that one single species (Catonyx tarijensis) can be recognized in the studied area, whereas a supposed smaller one (Scelidotherium patrium) actually corresponds to juvenile specimens of C. tarijensis.
Abstract in English:Abstract We describe a dentary of a new titanosaur sauropod, Baalsaurus mansillai, gen. et sp. nov. from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia, Argentina. The material comes from the Portezuelo Formation, Neuquén Group. Titanosaur sauropods lower jaws are scarce and only nine taxa with dentaries have been described. There are two types of morphology in titanosaur dentaries; “L” shaped or “U” shaped based on the shape, without a phylogenetic issue. In this paper; we recognize a new taxa, Baalsaurus mansillai, represented by an “L” shaped dentary with three apomorphic characters that are not present in other taxa: dentary alveoli with 10 teeth in the anterior ramus, a ventrally and anteriorly inclined symphysis and a wide ventral Meckelian groove surrounded by a thin lamina that forms a keel on the ventral border of the dentary.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Protodidelphidae was a group of marsupials that lived in Gondwana from the early to middle Eocene. Among South American faunas, the Itaboraí Basin calls attention by the presence of four genera and six species. Herein is described Bergqvistherium primigenia gen. et sp. nov., a new protodidelphid from the Itaboraí Basin - lower Eocene. This taxon differs from other protodidelphids in the smaller size, developed entocristid, less brachyo-bunoid adaptations, and entoconid more mesial than the hypoconid. These characters are recovered as plesiomorphies of the Protodidelphidae, supporting Bergqvistherium as an early-divergent lineage of this group. The Protodidelphidae fauna of the Itaboraí Basin is represented by less specialized “basal” taxa, such as Bergqvistherium and Periprotodidelphis; and more specialized apical taxa, such as Guggenheimia, Protodidelphis, and Carolocoutoia. This result indicates that the diversification of apical protodidelphids probably was a result of a relatively short-time event, occurring during the early Eocene. This evolutionary event can be directly correlated to the increase in the temperatures and the extension of tropical forests resulted by the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum during the Itaboraiense time span. The study supported a Late Cretaceous origin for the Protodidelphidae, which agrees with molecular studies for the Didelphimorphia.
Abstract in English:Abstract Abstract: This study presents the oldest record of Acanthocephala parasite eggs in coprolites preliminary assigned to Crocodyliformes, recovered in the region of Santo Anastácio Municipality, Southwestern São Paulo State. For this, a paleoparasitological investigation was carried out on 53 mineralized coprolites (complete or fragmented), with round shape or cylindrical shape of rounded or pointed ends, 0.2 - 3.9 cm in length x 0.1 - 2.4 cm in diameter, 3.7 grams in weight, and absence of food remains. Individual samples of the surface and internal portions of each coprolite were extracted by electric drill, dissociated with Cloridic Acid 10% solution, washed with Distilled Water, and filtered in granulometric screen Mesh / Tyler 325. After laboratory processing, the sediments retained on the granulometric screen was studied with Glycerin under optical microscopy, and the presence of four Acanthocephala eggs could be observed in sample of only one of these ichnofossils. All specimens were well preserved and showed 72.5 - 85 µm in length x 27.5 - 50 µm in width, elliptical shape, three concentric and thick shells, and embryos in their interior. This study inaugurates investigations and knowledge about Paleoparasitology in Crocodyliformes coprolites from the Bauru Group, Upper Cretaceous from the Paraná Basin.
Abstract in English:Abstract Abstract: This study defines the neostratotype of the Lower-Middle Albian Itapecuru Formation in the Parnaíba Basin, Northeast Brazil. In this sedimentary succession along the right bank of the Itapecuru River near the Itapecuru-Mirim City, Maranhão State, three lithofacies associations are recognized. The first is silty claystone with some very fine sand, micaceous, reddish color, thin laminated, showing a tabular aspect, interpreted as floodplain fines in a distal position. The second is clayey siltstone, reddish color, with ripple cross-lamination, very thin cross-laminated wacke lenses, grading to thin parallel lamination, in apparently tabular layers, interpreted as crevasse splay and distributive channels deposits in successive avulsion events. The third is fine quartz wacke, reddish to grayish color, showing grouped trough cross bedding, interpreted as channel filling deposits. These facies associations correspond to part of a fluvial depositional system, with predominantly fine-grained rocks, and small lakes in the floodplain, in an oxidizing environment and marked by seasonality. These field data, reinforced by grain size and petrographic analyses showed that, contrary to previous descriptions, the Itapecuru Formation consists mainly of mudrocks. This research also shows that the medium to coarse sandstones and conglomerates, previously included in the Itapecuru Formation, belong to the underlying Grajaú Formation.
Abstract in English:Abstract Abstract: Anatomically preserved conifer-like leaves from the Middle Jurassic La Matilde Formation at the Barda Blanca locality in the Gran Bajo de San Julián area, southern Patagonia are described here. Leaves are assigned to conifers based on the following foliar features: thick-walled epidermal cells, a sclerenchymatic hypodermis, resin canals and transfusion tracheids associated with the vascular bundle. General mesophyll anatomy and inferred foliar morphology suggest a similarity to large, broad, linear-lanceolate, multi-veined conifer-like leaves. The general foliar habit indicates an affinity with the large, multi-veined leaves of the Araucariaceae; especially with those exhibited by the species of the Araucaria sections, Araucaria and Bunya. Anatomically, the permineralized leaves exhibit xeromorphic foliar features, including thick-walled epidermal cells, an isobilateral mesophyll with well-developed palisade cells and mechanical tissue. The general leaf anatomy shown by the Patagonian specimens along with sedimentological data may suggest that during the deposition of the La Matilde Formation at the Barda Blanca locality, the parent plant was well adapted to the environmental conditions, which probably consisted of a high light intensity with an adequate quantity of water in the soil, which increased the maximum leaf conductance of CO2.
Abstract in English:Abstract: We describe the first occurrence of biogenic traces made by mammals within an iron formation cave located in the Serra da Ferrugem Ridge, in Southeastern Brazil. These bioerosions are tooth traces produced in boulders, walls and floor within the cave. The traces occur as sets of two or more grooves, which are highly variable in size. The grooves were compared to tooth traces artificially produced by imprinting the incisors of different mammal species collected in the cave region on soft clay. Among those, the following taxa are potential tracemakers: Akodon sp., Oligoryzomys sp., Necromys lasiurus, Rhipidomys mastacalis, Oecomys gr. concolor, Trinomys moojeni, and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. The age of the traces is unknown; therefore, any discussion on its fossil nature is circumstantial. Regardless of its relevance to paleontology, the presence of ichnological features should be considered as an additional cave value, according to the current Brazilian legislation regarding cave protection.
Abstract in English:Abstract: The non-dinosaurian dinosauriform silesaurids are the closest relatives of crown-group dinosaurs and are thus, important for understanding the origins of that group. Here, we describe the limb bone histology of the Late Triassic silesaurid Sacisaurus agudoensis from the Candelária Sequence of the Santa Maria Supersequence, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The sampled bones comprise eight femora and one fibula from different individuals. The microscopic analysis of all elements reveals uninterrupted fibrolamellar bone tissue indicating rapid growth. A transition to slower growing peripheral parallel-fibered bone tissue in some individuals indicates a decrease in growth rate, suggesting ontogenetic variation within the sample. The osteohistology of Sacisaurus agudoensis is similar to that of other silesaurids and supports previous hypotheses that rapid growth was attained early in the dinosauromorph lineage. However, silesaurids lack the complex vascular arrangements seen in saurischian dinosaurs. Instead, they exhibit predominantly longitudinally-oriented primary osteons with few or no anastomoses, similar to those of some small early ornithischian dinosaurs. This simpler vascular pattern is common to all silesaurids studied to date and indicates relatively slower growth rates compared to most Dinosauria.
Abstract in English:Abstract: Tapejaridae is a clade of toothless pterosaurs typically characterized by a large nasoantorbital fenestra and a premaxillary crest that extends from the anterior to the posterior part of the skull. Sinopterus dongi was the first reported Chinese tapejarid. Another genus “Huaxiapterus” was described, but it was later on determined that “Huaxiapterus” is in fact an invalid name. Here, we report on a new juvenile specimen of Sinopterus atavismus from the Jiufotang Formation of western Liaoning, China, and revise the diagnosis of this species. Sinopterus atavismus does not present a square-like crest. Moreover the feature that groove in the ventral part of the second or third phalanx of manual digit IV is not diagnostic of the species. In the new material, the skull preserves a pointed process in the middle part of the dorsal margin of the premaxillary crest, which is different from other Chinese tapejarids. Considering the new specimen is known from a large skeleton that differed from the holotype, this difference may be related to ontogeny, as the premaxillary crest of the holotype is short and does not extend as long as that of the new specimen.
Abstract in English:Abstract: In the last two decades, the number of phylogenetically informative anatomical characters recognized in the appendicular skeleton of titanosaurian sauropod dinosaurs has increased dramatically with the discovery of new and comparatively complete specimens. Here we provide an overview of the appendicular skeletal morphology of South American titanosaurs and discuss its significance for phylogenetic reconstruction. The appendicular skeletal diversity of South American titanosaurs is substantially greater than was initially appreciated. Moreover, some regions of the appendicular skeleton, such as the pes, exhibit remarkable variability in form. Multiple synapomorphies of Titanosauria and the less inclusive clades Lithostrotia and Saltasauridae consist of characters of the girdles and limbs. Although the phylogenetic definitions of titanosaurian clades such as Saltasaurinae and Lognkosauria are stable, the taxonomic content of these clades has varied in recent analyses depending on the phylogenetic topology recovered. Within Titanosauria, the results of four recent, largely independent analyses support the existence of a derived titanosaurian lineage distinct from the ‘Saltasaurinae line,’ which is herein termed Colossosauria. At present, this clade is mainly comprised by taxa within Lognkosauria and Rinconsauria, and is useful in discussions of titanosaurian lower-level relationships.
Abstract in English:Abstract: The morphology and structure of megaspores assigned to Lagenoisporites magnus from the Toregua Formation, Retama Group, mid-upper Tournaisian of Bolivia were studied. The analysis was performed with light, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Megaspores were laterally compressed and presented a spherical body with a proximal gula, of the hologula type. Gula had verrucae ornamentation and the spore body presented complex processes consisting of a bulbous base and an internally partitioned projection with sharp apex. In addition to this main ornamentation, perforations were present throughout the spore surface. Megaspores showed well marked curvaturae perfectae due to the abrupt transition existing between the gula ornamentation and the spore body processes. These megaspores were assigned to heterosporous arborescent lycopsids of the Lepidocarpaceae family, as in section view, exospore structure presented a three-dimensional network of fused elements. Likewise, due to a similarity found between sporoderm and Isoetes L. structure, it is evident that megaspores structure has remained intact inside the heterosporous lycopsids. Therefore; the L. magnus structure not only would confirm its affinity with the Lycophyta fossils but also with the living ones.
Abstract in English:Abstract: Discoveries in Carnian-aged rocks are establishing a rich and diverse dinosaurian fauna at the so-called ‘dawn of the age of dinosaurs’ in the Late Triassic of Western Gondwana. Accordingly, Brazilian strata from the Candelária Sequence have contributed extensively to this trend. Here, we present a new dinosaurian specimen (CAPPA/UFSM 0200) from this geological unit. The material was collected at a fossiliferous site that had no previous record of dinosaurs. Our specimen comprises a single ilium, which we describe in detail. Its anatomy is consistent with Carnian sauropodomorph dinosaurs, but differs from coeval specimens by several features, although we do not discard the possibility of these features being the result of intraspecific variation. In part of our phylogenetic investigation, CAPPA/UFSM 0200 was recovered within Saturnaliinae, a group comprised of Carnian sauropodomorphs from South America. However, based on examination of better-sampled coeval taxa, a character (a strong rugosity in the ilium) supporting this less inclusive position might be related to intraspecific variation and so, should be carefully considered. This study increases the distribution of dinosaur remains in fossiliferous units from southern Brazil and adds to the discussion regarding intraspecific variation and its implications in the phylogeny of early dinosaurs.
Abstract in English:Abstract Abstract: The first pterosaur bone bed from Brazil was reported in 2014 at the outskirts of the town Cruzeiro do Oeste, Paraná State, in the Southern region of the country. Here named 'cemitério dos pterossauros' site, these outcrops were referred to the Goio-Erê Formation (Turonian-Campanian) of the Caiuá Group (Bauru Basin) and revealed the presence of hundreds of isolated or partially articulated elements of the tapejarine pterosaur Caiuajara and fewer amounts of a theropod dinosaur. Here we present a new tapejaromorph flying reptile from this site, Keresdrakon vilsoni gen. et sp. nov., which shows a unique blunt ridge on the dorsal surface of the posterior end of the dentary. Morphological and osteohistological features indicate that all recovered individuals represent late juveniles or sub-adults. This site shows the first direct evidence of sympatry in Pterosauria. The two distinct flying reptiles coexisted with a theropod dinosaur, providing a rare glimpse of a paleobiological community from a Cretaceous desert.
Abstract in English:Abstract: Riostegotherium yanei from the Itaboraí Basin, Brazil, is the oldest known Xenarthra. This paper aims to describe the internal morphology of the osteoderms of Riostegotherium yanei from the perspective of histology and micro-CT approaches, expanding the available data on cingulate osteoderm microstructure. Seven osteoderms of R. yanei were used for the internal microstructure description and eight of Dasypus novemcinctus for comparison. The osteoderms of Riostegotherium yanei lacks the diploë-like structure typical of glyptodonts but has a three-layered structure composed of two layers of non-Haversian compact bone enclosing a central layer of primary and secondary osteons. This internal organization is distinct from other Astegotheriini of comparable age, but similar to Dasypus. The 3D reconstruction of Riostegotherium yanei revealed two patterns of internal organization. Pattern 1 of movable osteoderm is composed of large remodeled areas at the base and a more compact bone at the tongue; in Pattern 2 (both movable and buckler), the internal cavities are much smaller, more numerous, and more interconnected to each other. In one buckler osteoderm, the cavities are organized somewhat radially with a compact central region (Pattern 1). Pattern 1 of both movable and buckler osteoderms resemble that of Dasypus.
Abstract in English:Abstract Fossil vertebrates from Antarctica are considerably rare, hampering our understanding of the evolutionary history of the biota from that continent. For several austral summers, the PALEOANTAR project has been carrying out fieldwork in the Antarctic Peninsula in search for fossils, particularly Cretaceous vertebrates. Among the specimens recovered so far are two bones referable to Pterosauria, more specifically to the Pterodacyloidea, the first volant reptiles from Antarctica to be fully described. MN 7800-V (part and counterpart) was recovered from a moraine at the Abernathy Flats (Santa Marta Formation, Lachman Crags Member, Santonian-Campanian) on James Ross Island. It is interpreted as the distal articulation of a first phalanx of the wing finger, representing an animal with an estimated wingspan between 3 and 4 m. The second specimen (MN 7801-V) comes from Vega Island (Snow Hill Island Formation, Maastrichtian) and is identified as a wing metacarpal IV of an animal with an estimated wingspan from 4 to 5 m. These occurrences show that pterodactyloids inhabited the Antarctic Peninsula at least during the Upper Cretaceous and demonstrate that large pterosaurs were widespread through all parts of the planet during that period.
Abstract in English:Abstract: Pterosaurs possess skeletal pneumatization, which can be assessed externally through the observation of pneumatic foramina. These foramina vary in position, shape, and number among taxa. Here we propose new characters referring to the position and number of pneumatic foramina present in cervical and dorsal vertebrae of pterosaurs. A cladistic analysis was performed after first-hand study of material in collections and using data from the literature in order to test these new characters for homology, and they were subsequently mapped in a strict consensus tree. The analysis resulted in nine equally parsimonious trees with 215 steps each. The strict consensus tree obtained does not present significant differences in relation to trees obtained in previous studies. The mapping performed identified that most pneumatic foramina evolved independently in several lineages, and only two of the eight added characters appeared once in the evolution of pterosaurs. In general, pneumatic foramina were more common in the Dsungaripteroidea, however, the flattened preservation of non-pterodactyloids and in the Archaeopterodactyloidea often precludes their visualization, and therefore the presence of vertebral pneumatization may be broaden with the discovery of new, better preserved specimens.