Moderate Continuous Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Cardiomyocyte Contractility in Β1 Adrenergic Receptor Knockout Mice

Aurora Corrêa Rodrigues Antônio José Natali Daise Nunes Queiroz da Cunha Alexandre Jayme Lopes Dantas Costa Anselmo Gomes de Moura Miguel Araújo Carneiro-Júnior Leonardo Bonato Félix Patrícia Chakur Brum Thales Nicolau Prímola-Gomes About the authors

Abstract

Background:

The lack of cardiac β1-adrenergic receptors (β1-AR) negatively affects the regulation of both cardiac inotropy and lusitropy, leading, in the long term, to heart failure (HF). Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (MCAE) is recommended as an adjunctive therapy for patients with HF.

Objective:

We tested the effects of MCAE on the contractile properties of left ventricular (LV) myocytes from β1 adrenergic receptor knockout (β1ARKO) mice.

Methods:

Four- to five-month-old male wild type (WT) and β1ARKO mice were divided into groups: WT control (WTc) and trained (WTt); and β1ARKO control (β1ARKOc) and trained (β1ARKOt). Animals from trained groups were submitted to a MCAE regimen (60 min/day; 60% of maximal speed, 5 days/week) on a treadmill, for 8 weeks. P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant in all comparisons.

Results:

The β1ARKO and exercised mice exhibited a higher (p < 0.05) running capacity than WT and sedentary ones, respectively. The β1ARKO mice showed higher body (BW), heart (HW) and left ventricle (LVW) weights, as well as the HW/BW and LVW/BW than WT mice. However, the MCAE did not affect these parameters. Left ventricular myocytes from β1ARKO mice showed increased (p < 0.05) amplitude and velocities of contraction and relaxation than those from WT. In addition, MCAE increased (p < 0.05) amplitude and velocities of contraction and relaxation in β1ARKO mice.

Conclusion:

MCAE improves myocyte contractility in the left ventricle of β1ARKO mice. This is evidence to support the therapeutic value of this type of exercise training in the treatment of heart diseases involving β1-AR desensitization or reduction.

Keywords:
Heart Failure; Exercise; Myocardial Contraction; Myocytes, Cardiac; Adrenergic beta 1 Receptor Antagonists; Mice

Resumo

Fundamento:

A falta de receptores β1-adrenérgicos (β1-AR) cardíacos afeta negativamente a regulação de inotropismo e lusitropismo cardíacos, levando, no longo prazo, a insuficiência cardíaca (IC). Recomenda-se exercício aeróbico contínuo de intensidade moderada (EACM) como adjuvante no tratamento de pacientes com IC.

Objetivo:

Testar os efeitos do EACM nas propriedades contráteis de miócitos do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) de camundongos com nocaute para o receptor β1-adrenérgico (β1ARKO).

Método:

Camundongos machos com 4 a 5 meses de idade, wild-type (WT) e β1ARKO foram divididos em grupos: WT controle (WTc) e treinado (WTt); e β1ARKO controle (β1ARKOc) e treinado (β1ARKOt). Os grupos treinados foram submetidos a regime de EACM (60 min/dia; 60% da velocidade máxima, 5 dias/semana) em esteira rolante, por 8 semanas. Adotou-se P ≤ 0,05 como nível de significância em todas as comparações.

Resultados:

Os animais β1ARKO (β1ARKOc + β1ARKOt) correram uma distância maior do que os animais WT (WTc + WTt) (p < 0,05). Os camundongos β1ARKO apresentaram maiores pesos corporal (PC), do coração (PCo) e do ventrículo esquerdo (PVE), assim como PCo/PC e PVE/PC do que os camundongos WT. Entretanto, o EACM não afetou tais parâmetros. Os miócitos do VE de camundongos β1ARKO apresentaram maiores (p < 0,05) amplitude e velocidades de contração e relaxamento do que os dos camundongos WT. Além disso, o EACM aumentou (p < 0,05) a amplitude e as velocidades de contração e relaxamento nos camundongos β1ARKO.

Conclusão:

O EACM melhora a contratilidade do miócito do VE de camundongos β1ARKO. Tal achado confirma o valor terapêutico desse tipo de treinamento físico para o tratamento de doenças cardíacas envolvendo dessensibilização ou redução de β1-AR.

Palavras-chave:
Insuficiência Cardíaca; Exercício; Contração Miocárdica; Miócitos Cardíacos; Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1; Camundongos

Introduction

Chronic sympathetic hyperactivity resulting from altered autonomic nervous system balance is common in many cardiovascular disease states, ending up in heart failure (HF), and is related to a higher incidence of morbidity and mortality.11 Barretto AC, Santos AC, Munhoz R, Rondon MU, Franco FG, Trombetta IC, et al. Increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity predicts mortality in heart failure patients. Int J Cardiol. 2009;135(3):302-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2008.03.056.
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Such hyperactivity is paralleled by a decrease in b-adrenergic receptors (b-AR) density and desensitization of the remaining b-AR, thus leading to a reduced cardiac contractile response to b-AR activation.33 Bristow MR, Ginsburg R, Minobe W, Cubicciotti RS, Sageman WS, Lurie K, et al. Decreased catecholamine sensitivity and beta-adrenergic-receptor density in failing human hearts. N Engl J Med. 1982;307(4):205-11. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198207223070401.
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In this framework, β1-AR, predominant in the heart, is selectively reduced, resulting in a modified ratio of β1 to β2 subtypes,44 Wallukat G. The beta-adrenergic receptors. Herz. 2002;27(7):683-90. doi: 10.1007/s00059-002-2434-z.
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and β2-AR are markedly coupled to inhibitory G protein. Consequently, inasmuch as the β1-AR phosphorylates several Ca2+ regulatory proteins involved in cardiomyocyte excitation-contraction coupling,55 Xiang Y, Kobilka BK. Myocyte adrenoceptor signaling pathways. Science. 2003;300(5625):1530-2. doi: 10.1126/science.1079206.
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6 Bers DM. Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. Nature. 2002;415(6868):198-205. doi: 10.1038/415198a.
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-77 Kubalova Z, Terentyev D, Viatchenko-Karpinski S, Nishijima Y, Gyorke I, Terentyeva R, et al. Abnormal intrastore calcium signaling in chronic heart failure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102(39):14104-9. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0504298102.
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cardiac chronotropism, inotropism and lusitropism are impaired under adrenergic stimulation.88 Rolim NP, Medeiros A, Rosa KT, Mattos KC, Irigoyen MC, Krieger EM, et al. Exercise training improves the net balance of cardiac Ca2+ handling protein expression in heart failure. Physiol Genomics. 2007;29(3):246-52. doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00188.2006.
https://doi.org/10.1152/physiolgenomics....

Exercise training in cardiac rehabilitation is very important in several cardiovascular diseases, including chronic HF.99 Gielen S, Laughlin MH, O'Conner C, Duncker DJ. Exercise training in patients with heart disease: review of beneficial effects and clinical recommendations. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2015;57(4):347-55. doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2014.10.001.
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Continuous moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (MCAE) is, at present, the best-established form of exercise for this population because of its efficacy and safety.1010 O'Connor CM, Whellan DJ, Lee KL, Keteyian SJ, Cooper LS, Ellis SJ, et al. Efficacy and safety of exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure: HF-ACTION randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2009;301(14):1439-50. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.454.
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For example, aerobic exercise training recovers the resting autonomic balance in HF patients by reducing the resting sympathetic nerve activity,1111 Roveda F, Middlekauff HR, Rondon MU, Reis SF, Souza M, Nastari L, et al. The effects of exercise training on sympathetic neural activation in advanced heart failure: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42(5):854-60. PMID: 12957432. and restoring the parasympathetic tone to the heart.1212 Ichige MH, Santos CR, Jordao CP, Ceroni A, Negrao CE, Michelini LC. Exercise training preserves vagal preganglionic neurones and restores parasympathetic tonus in heart failure. J Physiol. 2016;594(21):6241-54. doi: 10.1113/JP272730.
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,1313 Negrao CE, Middlekauff HR, Gomes-Santos IL, Antunes-Correa LM. Effects of exercise training on neurovascular control and skeletal myopathy in systolic heart failure. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2015;308(8):H792-802. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00830.2014
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In the myocardium, aerobic exercise training increases stroke volume and, hence, cardiac output in patients1414 Erbs S, Linke A, Gielen S, Fiehn E, Walther C, Yu J, et al. Exercise training in patients with severe chronic heart failure: impact on left ventricular performance and cardiac size. A retrospective analysis of the Leipzig Heart Failure Training Trial. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2003 Oct;10(5):336-44. doi: 10.1097/01.hjr.0000099031.38268.27.
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,1515 Freimark D, Adler Y, Feinberg MS, Regev T, Rotstein Z, Eldar M, et al. Impact of left ventricular filling properties on the benefit of exercise training in patients with advanced chronic heart failure secondary to ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol. 2005;95(1):136-40. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.08.081.
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and in animal models of HF,88 Rolim NP, Medeiros A, Rosa KT, Mattos KC, Irigoyen MC, Krieger EM, et al. Exercise training improves the net balance of cardiac Ca2+ handling protein expression in heart failure. Physiol Genomics. 2007;29(3):246-52. doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00188.2006.
https://doi.org/10.1152/physiolgenomics....
although some studies failed to confirm such benefits.1111 Roveda F, Middlekauff HR, Rondon MU, Reis SF, Souza M, Nastari L, et al. The effects of exercise training on sympathetic neural activation in advanced heart failure: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42(5):854-60. PMID: 12957432.,1212 Ichige MH, Santos CR, Jordao CP, Ceroni A, Negrao CE, Michelini LC. Exercise training preserves vagal preganglionic neurones and restores parasympathetic tonus in heart failure. J Physiol. 2016;594(21):6241-54. doi: 10.1113/JP272730.
https://doi.org/10.1113/JP272730...
At the cellular level, studies on animal models for sympathetic hyperactivity have demonstrated aerobic exercise training improves the net balance of cardiac Ca2+ handling proteins either alone88 Rolim NP, Medeiros A, Rosa KT, Mattos KC, Irigoyen MC, Krieger EM, et al. Exercise training improves the net balance of cardiac Ca2+ handling protein expression in heart failure. Physiol Genomics. 2007;29(3):246-52. doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00188.2006.
https://doi.org/10.1152/physiolgenomics....
,1616 Medeiros A, Rolim NP, Oliveira RS, Rosa KT, Mattos KC, Casarini DE, et al. Exercise training delays cardiac dysfunction and prevents calcium handling abnormalities in sympathetic hyperactivity-induced heart failure mice. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008 Jan;104(1):103-9. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00493.2007.
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or in combination with b-blockers.1717 Vanzelli AS, Medeiros A, Rolim N, Bartholomeu JB, Cunha TF, Bechara LR, et al. Integrative effect of carvedilol and aerobic exercise training therapies on improving cardiac contractility and remodeling in heart failure mice. PLoS One. 2013;8(5):e62452. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062452.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.006...
Nevertheless, whether MCAE training affects mechanical properties of single myocytes in a heart lacking β1-AR remains to be elucidated.

Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the effects of an MCAE program on mechanical properties of single left ventricular (LV) myocytes in β1AR knockout (β1ARKO) mice. We hypothesized that MCAE training positively affects mechanical properties of LV myocytes from β1ARKO mice.

Methods

Experimental animals

A cohort of 4- to 5-month-old male wild type (WT) and congenic β1ARKO mice in the C57Bl6/J genetic background were studied. Mice were maintained in cages under a 12:12-h light-dark cycle in a temperature-controlled room (22ºC), with free access to water and standard rodent diet. WT and β1ARKO mice were randomly assigned into one of the following groups by using the simple random sampling: WT control (WTc), WT trained (WTt), β1ARKO control (β1ARKOc) and β1ARKO trained (β1ARKOt). The sample size was defined by convenience. All groups initiated the experimental period with eight animals, however, during the cardiomyocyte isolation procedure, some animals/hearts were lost. Thus, the final number of animals in each group is specified in figures and table. Body weight (BW) was measured every week. The experimental protocols were approved by the Ethics Committee for Animal Use at the Viçosa Federal University (protocol #59/2012) in accordance with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals/2011.

Exercise training protocol and graded treadmill exercise test

MCAE was performed on a motor treadmill (Insight Equipamentos Científicos, Brazil) 5 days/week (Monday to Friday), 60 min/day, for 8 weeks. Over the first week, the duration and running speed of exercise were progressively increased from 10 minutes and 10% of the maximal speed until 60 minutes and 60% of the maximal speed, achieved during a graded treadmill exercise test. At the end of the fourth week of aerobic exercise training, graded treadmill exercise tests were repeated to readjust the running speed. This intensity was maintained during the rest of the training period. During the training period, animals from the untrained groups were handled every day and subjected to a short period of mild exercise (5 min, 0% grade, 5 m/min, 3 days/week). The exercise capacity estimated by total distance run was evaluated using a graded treadmill exercise protocol for mice (Panlab/Harvard Apparatus, Spain), as described previously.1818 Ferreira JC, Rolim NP, Bartholomeu JB, Gobatto CA, Kokubun E, Brum PC. Maximal lactate steady state in running mice: effect of exercise training. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2007;34(8):760-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1681.2007.04635.x.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1681.2007...
Briefly, after being adapted to the treadmill for 1 week (10 min/day, 0% grade, 0.3 km/h), mice were placed in the exercise streak and allowed to acclimatize for at least 30 minutes. The graded treadmill exercise test began at 6 m/min with no grade and increased by 3 m/min every 3 minutes until fatigue, which was defined as when the test was interrupted because the animals could no longer keep pace with the treadmill speed. The graded treadmill exercise test was performed in WT and b1ARKO untrained and exercise-trained groups before and after the exercise training period.

Cardiomyocyte isolation

Forty-eight hours after the last exercise training session, mice were weighed and killed by decapitation, and their hearts were removed quickly. Left ventricular myocytes were enzymatically isolated as described previously.1919 Natali AJ, Turner DL, Harrison SM, White E. Regional effects of voluntary exercise on cell size and contraction-frequency responses in rat cardiac myocytes. J Exp Biol. 2001;204(Pt 6):1191-9. PMID: 11222134. Briefly, hearts were mounted onto a Langendorff system and perfused with calcium-free HEPES-Tyrode solution for 6 minutes with the following composition (in mM): 130 NaCl, 1.43 MgCl2, 5.4 KCl, 0.4 NaH2PO4, 0.75 CaCl2, 25 HEPES, 22 glucose, 0.01 µg/ml insulin, 0.1 EGTA, pH 7.4, at 37ºC. Afterwards, the hearts were perfused for 7-10 minutes with a solution containing 1 mg/ml collagenase type II (Worthington, USA) and CaCl2 (0.8 µM). The digested heart was then removed from the perfusion apparatus and the heart and left ventricle were carefully weighed. Left ventricle was cut into small pieces and placed into conical flasks with collagenase-containing solution. The cells were dispersed by agitating the flasks for periods of 3 minutes at 37ºC. Single cells were separated from the non-dispersed tissue by filtration. The resulting cell suspension was centrifuged and resuspended in HEPES-Tyrode solution containing CaCl2 (2.5 and 5 µM, subsequently). The isolated cells were stored in HEPES-Tyrode solution containing 10 µM CaCl2 at room temperature until use. Only calcium-tolerant, quiescent, rod-shaped cardiomyocytes showing clear cross-striations were studied. The isolated cardiomyocytes were used within 2-3 hours of isolation.

Cell contractility measurement

Cell contractility was evaluated as described previously.2020 Carneiro-Junior MA, Quintao-Junior JF, Drummond LR, Lavorato VN, Drummond FR, da Cunha DN, et al. The benefits of endurance training in cardiomyocyte function in hypertensive rats are reversed within four weeks of detraining. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2013 Apr;57:119-28. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2013.01.013.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2013.01....
Briefly, the isolated cells were placed in a chamber with a glass coverslip base mounted onto the stage of an inverted microscope (Nikon Eclipse, TS100). The chamber was perfused with HEPES-Tyrode solution plus 10 µM CaCl2 at 37ºC. Steady-state 1-Hz contractions were elicited via platinum bath electrodes (Myopacer, Field Stimulator, IonOptix) with 5-ms voltage pulses and an intensity of 40 V. The cells were visualized on a personal computer monitor with a NTSC camera (MyoCam, IonOptix) in partial scanning mode. The image was used to measure cell shortening (our index of contractility) in response to electrical stimulation using a video motion edge detector (IonWizard, IonOptix). The cell image was sampled at 240 Hz. Cell shortening was calculated from the output of the edge detector using an A/D converter (IonOptix, Milton, MA). Cell shortening (expressed as percentage of resting cell length) and the velocities of shortening and relaxation were calculated.

Statistics

Data were subjected to Shapiro-Wilk or Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality tests as appropriate. Paired t test was used to compare initial and final BW in each group. The comparisons among groups of the values of BW, heart weight (HW), left ventricular weight (LVW) and ratios, as well as cell contraction were made using a two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test using software SigmaPlot®, 12.5 version (Systat Software, San Jose, CA). Data are presented as means ± SD. A statistical significance level of 5% was adopted. Numbers of mice, hearts, and myocytes used are given in the relevant table and figure legends.

Results

Table 1 shows BW and LVW. The initial BW of β1ARKO animals was higher as compared to their respective control WT animals. As expected, the final BW of each group was higher, compared to their respective initial BW. The final BW was higher (p < 0.05) in β1ARKO (β1ARKOc + β1ARKOt), compared to WT mice (WTc + WTt). However, the final BW was not affected (p > 0.05) by the MCAE. Likewise, HW was higher in β1ARKO than in WT mice, but no effect of MCAE was observed (p > 0.05). Regarding LVW, β1ARKO presented higher values than WT mice; nevertheless, no effect of MCAE was found (p > 0.05). As for the ratios, β1ARKO mice presented higher HW to BW ratio than WT mice. However, it was not affected by MCAE (p > 0.05). The LVW to BW ratio was higher in β1ARKO mice, compared to WT mice, but there was no effect of MCAE.

Table 1
Body and left ventricular weights

Figure 1 shows the physical capacity. β1ARKO animals (β1ARKOc + β1ARKOt) exhibited a longer running distance, compared to WT animals (WTc + WTt). In addition, trained animals presented a longer running distance, compared to their respective controls.

Figure 1
Total distance run. Values are means ± SD of 8 mice in each group. *p < 0.05 vs. WTc group; §p < 0.05 vs. WTt group; #p < 0.05 vs. β1ARKOc group.

The contractile properties of single LV myocytes are presented in Figure 2. β1ARKO myocytes (β1ARKOc + β1ARKOt) had higher shortening amplitude that WT cells (WTc + WTt). The amplitude of shortening in β1ARKOt myocytes was higher, compared to β1ARKOc and WTt cells; and in WTc cells, compared to WTt cells (Figure 2A). Regarding the contractile time course, β1ARKOc myocytes exhibited higher velocity of shortening than WTc cells. In addition, β1ARKOt myocytes exhibited higher velocity of shortening than β1ARKOc and WTt cells (Figure 2B). As for the velocity of relaxation, β1ARKOc myocytes exhibited higher values than WTc cells. Moreover, β1ARKOt myocytes exhibited higher velocity of relaxation than β1ARKOc and WTt cells (Figure 2C).

Figure 2
Cell contractility. A) Shortening. B) Velocity of shortening. C) Velocity of relaxation. WTc, wild-type control (n = 7; N = 14-39 cells from each mouse); WTt, wild-type trained (n = 6; N = 8-27 cells from each mouse); β1ARKOc, knockout β1-AR control (n = 7; N = 24-31 cells from each mouse); β1ARKOt, knockout β1-AR trained (n = 6; N = 17-29 cells from each mouse). Values are means ± SD.*p < 0.05 vs. WTc group; §p < 0.05 vs. WTt group; #p < 0.05 vs. β1ARKOc group.

Discussion

In this study, we tested the effects of MCAE on mechanical properties of LV myocytes from β1ARKO mice. The main finding was that MCAE increased the amplitude of shortening and velocities of shortening and relaxation in β1ARKO mice myocytes.

The initial and final BWs were higher in β1ARKO than in WT mice. Similar results have been observed elsewhere.2121 Ueta CB, Fernandes GW, Capelo LP, Fonseca TL, Maculan FD, Gouveia CH, et al. beta(1) Adrenergic receptor is key to cold- and diet-induced thermogenesis in mice. J Endocrinol. 2012;214(3):359-65. doi: 10.1530/JOE-12-0155.
https://doi.org/10.1530/JOE-12-0155...
b-AR activation in adipose tissue leads to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production, which activates protein kinase A (PKA) and stimulates lipolysis. Even though β3-AR is the predominant receptor in rodent adipose tissue, mice overexpressing β1-AR exhibit increased adipocyte lipolytic activity.2222 Soloveva V, Graves RA, Rasenick MM, Spiegelman BM, Ross SR. Transgenic mice overexpressing the beta 1-adrenergic receptor in adipose tissue are resistant to obesity. Mol Endocrinol. 1997;11(1):27-38. doi: 10.1210/mend.11.1.9870.
https://doi.org/10.1210/mend.11.1.9870...
Therefore, β1ARKO mice may have reduced lipolysis, which would influence the amount of body fat and, consequently, BW.2323 Lafontan M, Berlan M. Fat cell adrenergic receptors and the control of white and brown fat cell function. J Lipid Res. 1993;34(7):1057-91. PMID: 8371057. Nevertheless, our MCAE did not affect the final BW. Regarding HW, β1ARKO mice exhibited heavier hearts and left ventricles than WT mice, as well as higher HW to BW and LVW to BW ratios. Our MCAE, nevertheless, did not modify these cardiac parameters. Exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy in WT mice has been demonstrated elsewhere;2424 Allen DL, Harrison BC, Maass A, Bell ML, Byrnes WC, Leinwand LA. Cardiac and skeletal muscle adaptations to voluntary wheel running in the mouse. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001;90(5):1900-8. PMID: 11299284.

25 Kaplan ML, Cheslow Y, Vikstrom K, Malhotra A, Geenen DL, Nakouzi A, et al. Cardiac adaptations to chronic exercise in mice. Am J Physiol. 1994;267(3 Pt 2):H1167-73. PMID: 8092282.
-2626 Kemi OJ, Loennechen JP, Wisloff U, Ellingsen O. Intensity-controlled treadmill running in mice: cardiac and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2002;93(4):1301-9. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00231.2002.
https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.002...
nevertheless in β1ARKO mice, as far as we know, no data have been reported.

We observed that trained mice (WTt and β1ARKOt) showed longer total running distance than their respective controls (WTc and β1ARKOc). This MCAE-induced increase may be associated with cardiovascular adaptations, which are known features of aerobic exercise training.2727 Moore RL, Korzick DH. Cellular adaptations of the myocardium to chronic exercise. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1995;37(6):371-96. PMID: 7777668. Previous studies using the same aerobic exercise training protocol also observed increased exercise capacity in trained animals.88 Rolim NP, Medeiros A, Rosa KT, Mattos KC, Irigoyen MC, Krieger EM, et al. Exercise training improves the net balance of cardiac Ca2+ handling protein expression in heart failure. Physiol Genomics. 2007;29(3):246-52. doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00188.2006.
https://doi.org/10.1152/physiolgenomics....
,1717 Vanzelli AS, Medeiros A, Rolim N, Bartholomeu JB, Cunha TF, Bechara LR, et al. Integrative effect of carvedilol and aerobic exercise training therapies on improving cardiac contractility and remodeling in heart failure mice. PLoS One. 2013;8(5):e62452. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062452.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.006...
Specifically, the β1ARKO groups showed longer total running distance than the WT groups. It is known that sympathetic activation during aerobic exercise promotes glycogenolysis by b-AR pathway.2828 Chruscinski AJ, Rohrer DK, Schauble E, Desai KH, Bernstein D, Kobilka BK. Targeted disruption of the beta2 adrenergic receptor gene. J Biol Chem. 1999;274(24):16694-700. PMID: 10358008.,2929 Rohrer DK, Chruscinski A, Schauble EH, Bernstein D, Kobilka BK. Cardiovascular and metabolic alterations in mice lacking both beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors. J Biol Chem. 1999;274(24):16701-8. PMID: 10358009. Probably, the β1ARKO mice have compensatory mechanisms in the skeletal muscle, such as modified β2 and α1 adrenergic signaling pathways, which could improve glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, insulin-independent glucose uptake and lipolysis in the skeletal muscles.3030 Boyda HN, Procyshyn RM, Pang CC, Barr AM. Peripheral adrenoceptors: the impetus behind glucose dysregulation and insulin resistance. J Neuroendocrinol. 2013;25(3):217-28. doi: 10.1111/jne.12002.
https://doi.org/10.1111/jne.12002...
These compensatory mechanisms may have led to increased exercise performance in β1ARKO mice. However, inasmuch as this issue is not the focus of this study, further investigations are needed to test the hypothesis that β1ARKO mice increase exercise performance by altering β2 and α1 adrenergic signaling pathways.

Although myocytes from β1ARKO mice had a higher amplitude of shortening than cells from WT mice, an independent factor effect, LV myocytes from β1ARKOc and WTc groups had similar contractile properties. Although β1AR is the predominant adrenergic receptor subtype expressed in the heart in terms of density and modulation of cardiac contraction,3131 Bristow MR, Ginsburg R, Umans V, Fowler M, Minobe W, Rasmussen R, et al. Beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic-receptor subpopulations in nonfailing and failing human ventricular myocardium: coupling of both receptor subtypes to muscle contraction and selective beta 1-receptor down-regulation in heart failure. Circ Res. 1986;59(3):297-309. PMID: 2876788.,3232 Zhu WZ, Zheng M, Koch WJ, Lefkowitz RJ, Kobilka BK, Xiao RP. Dual modulation of cell survival and cell death by beta(2)-adrenergic signaling in adult mouse cardiac myocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98(4):1607-12. doi: 10.1073/pnas.98.4.1607.
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.98.4.1607...
its deletion had little impact on resting cardiac function, but had significant effects on cardiac function after b-agonist stimulation.3333 Rohrer DK, Desai KH, Jasper JR, Stevens ME, Regula DP Jr, Barsh GS, et al. Targeted disruption of the mouse beta1-adrenergic receptor gene: developmental and cardiovascular effects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93(14):7375-80. PMID: 8693001. Other studies did not observe changes in cardiomyocyte contractility upon loss of β1-AR3434 Zhu WZ, Chakir K, Zhang S, Yang D, Lavoie C, Bouvier M, et al. Heterodimerization of beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptor subtypes optimizes beta-adrenergic modulation of cardiac contractility. Circ Res. 2005;97(3):244-51. doi: 10.1161/01.RES.0000176764.38934.86
https://doi.org/10.1161/01.RES.000017676...
or β1/2-AR under basal conditions.3535 Zhou YY, Yang D, Zhu WZ, Zhang SJ, Wang DJ, Rohrer DK, et al. Spontaneous activation of beta(2)- but not beta(1)-adrenoceptors expressed in cardiac myocytes from beta(1)beta(2) double knockout mice. Mol Pharmacol. 2000;58(5):887-94. PMID: 11040034. Therefore, the similarity between β1ARKOc and WTc groups suggests that β1-AR has little impact on the contractile properties of cardiomyocytes under basal conditions.

More important, the MCAE program increased the amplitude of shortening of LV myocytes from β1ARKO mice. The MCAE may have triggered two compensatory mechanisms in the heart of β1ARKO mice. First, an increase in α1-ARs signaling is common under situations of β1-ARs desensitization when the reduction of β1-adrenergic signaling is compensated by an increase in α1-adrenergic signaling pathway, which could help preserve cardiac function.3636 O'Connell TD, Jensen BC, Baker AJ, Simpson PC. Cardiac alpha1-adrenergic receptors: novel aspects of expression, signaling mechanisms, physiologic function, and clinical importance. Pharmacol Rev. 2014;66(1):308-33. doi: 10.1124/pr.112.007203.
https://doi.org/10.1124/pr.112.007203...
Although not evaluated here, an increased inotropic responsiveness of rat cardiomyocytes via α1-AR stimulation was found as an adaptation to aerobic exercise training.3737 Korzick DH, Hunter JC, McDowell MK, Delp MD, Tickerhoof MM, Carson LD. Chronic exercise improves myocardial inotropic reserve capacity through alpha1-adrenergic and protein kinase C-dependent effects in Senescent rats. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2004;59(11):1089-98. PMID: 15602054.,3838 Korzick DH, Moore RL. Chronic exercise enhances cardiac alpha 1-adrenergic inotropic responsiveness in rats with mild hypertension. Am J Physiol. 1996;271(6 Pt 2):H2599-608. PMID: 8997321. Moreover, the potential therapeutic role of α1-ARs to maintain normal cardiac function, especially in terms of commitment of the β1-adrenergic signaling pathway, has been proposed in previous studies.3737 Korzick DH, Hunter JC, McDowell MK, Delp MD, Tickerhoof MM, Carson LD. Chronic exercise improves myocardial inotropic reserve capacity through alpha1-adrenergic and protein kinase C-dependent effects in Senescent rats. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2004;59(11):1089-98. PMID: 15602054.

38 Korzick DH, Moore RL. Chronic exercise enhances cardiac alpha 1-adrenergic inotropic responsiveness in rats with mild hypertension. Am J Physiol. 1996;271(6 Pt 2):H2599-608. PMID: 8997321.

39 Beaulieu M, Brakier-Gingras L, Bouvier M. Upregulation of alpha1A- and alpha1B-adrenergic receptor mRNAs in the heart of cardiomyopathic hamsters. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1997;29(1):111-9. doi: 10.1006/jmcc.1996.0256.
https://doi.org/10.1006/jmcc.1996.0256...
-4040 Milligan G, Svoboda P, Brown CM. Why are there so many adrenoceptor subtypes? Biochem Pharmacol. 1994;48(6):1059-71. PMID: 7945399. Second, MCAE may have reduced the responsiveness of β2-AR in myocytes of β1ARKO mice. When β2-AR coupling to Gi protein is reduced, the inhibitory effect of the receptor to adenylate cyclase activation is also reduced,55 Xiang Y, Kobilka BK. Myocyte adrenoceptor signaling pathways. Science. 2003;300(5625):1530-2. doi: 10.1126/science.1079206.
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1079206...
which causes an increased cAMP production and phosphorylation of proteins involved in cardiomyocyte excitation-contraction coupling.66 Bers DM. Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. Nature. 2002;415(6868):198-205. doi: 10.1038/415198a.
https://doi.org/10.1038/415198a...

The time courses of β1ARKO LV myocyte contraction and relaxation were also improved by MCAE, indicating enhanced systolic and diastolic functions. The Ca2+ regulatory proteins modulate cardiomyocyte mechanical properties. While faster myocyte contraction is associated with increased density and or activity of L-type Ca2+ channels and RyR2, quicker relaxation is dependent on the increased activity and or density of SERCA2a, PLB and NCX.66 Bers DM. Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. Nature. 2002;415(6868):198-205. doi: 10.1038/415198a.
https://doi.org/10.1038/415198a...
Although not measured in the present study, MCAE may have improved the net balance of cardiac Ca2+ handling proteins in β1ARKO mice. Such adaptations have been demonstrated previously in a different model for sympathetic hyperactivity.88 Rolim NP, Medeiros A, Rosa KT, Mattos KC, Irigoyen MC, Krieger EM, et al. Exercise training improves the net balance of cardiac Ca2+ handling protein expression in heart failure. Physiol Genomics. 2007;29(3):246-52. doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00188.2006.
https://doi.org/10.1152/physiolgenomics....
,1616 Medeiros A, Rolim NP, Oliveira RS, Rosa KT, Mattos KC, Casarini DE, et al. Exercise training delays cardiac dysfunction and prevents calcium handling abnormalities in sympathetic hyperactivity-induced heart failure mice. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008 Jan;104(1):103-9. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00493.2007.
https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.004...
In addition, endurance-exercise training may have reduced the b/a-MHC ratio,2020 Carneiro-Junior MA, Quintao-Junior JF, Drummond LR, Lavorato VN, Drummond FR, da Cunha DN, et al. The benefits of endurance training in cardiomyocyte function in hypertensive rats are reversed within four weeks of detraining. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2013 Apr;57:119-28. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2013.01.013.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2013.01....
which would also help explain the increased velocities of LV myocyte contraction and relaxation.

In recent years, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged as the method that leads to significant benefits to cardiac function. For instance, mice submitted to HIIT presented higher cardiomyocyte contractile function by increasing the expression and activity of calcium cycle regulatory proteins, as compared to those submitted to MCAE.4141 Kemi OJ, Haram PM, Loennechen JP, Osnes JB, Skomedal T, Wisloff U, et al. Moderate vs. high exercise intensity: differential effects on aerobic fitness, cardiomyocyte contractility, and endothelial function. Cardiovasc Res. 2005;67(1):161-72. doi: 10.1016/j.cardiores.2005.03.010.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cardiores.2005...

42 Kemi OJ, Ellingsen O, Ceci M, Grimaldi S, Smith GL, Condorelli G, et al. Aerobic interval training enhances cardiomyocyte contractility and Ca2+ cycling by phosphorylation of CaMKII and Thr-17 of phospholamban. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2007 Sep;43(3):354-61. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2007.06.013.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2007.06....
-4343 Kemi OJ, Ceci M, Condorelli G, Smith GL, Wisloff U. Myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase function is increased by aerobic interval training. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2008 Apr;15(2):145-8. doi: 10.1097/HJR.0b013e3282efd4e0.
https://doi.org/10.1097/HJR.0b013e3282ef...
Thus, it is possible that cardiomyocytes from β1ARKO mice might be more responsive to HIIT. However, in the present study, we chose the MCAE because the effects of such exercise protocol on the single cardiomyocyte contractility in β1ARKO mice are not known. We believe that future studies using HIIT would provide interesting findings in this animal model.

This study has limitations. First, we used global KO mice and systemic alterations confounding the exercise effects may have occurred, thus these results have to be interpreted with caution. Second, although WTt animals had improved their exercise capacity, unexpectedly their LV myocytes presented lower cell shortening than WTc mice. This finding really intrigued us, and, unfortunately, we cannot explain it.

Conclusion

In conclusion, MCAE training improves myocyte contractility in the left ventricle of β1ARKO mice. This finding has potential clinical implications and supports the therapeutic value of this type of exercise training in the treatment of heart diseases involving β1-AR desensitization or reduction.

  • Sources of Funding
    This study was funded by CNPq, Fapemig, Capes and Fapesp.
  • Study Association
    This article is part of the thesis of master submitted by Aurora Corrêa Rodrigues, from Universidade Federal de Viçosa.
  • Ethics approval and consent to participate
    This study was approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal Experiments of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa under the protocol number #59/2012.

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    19 Feb 2018
  • Date of issue
    Mar 2018

History

  • Received
    14 May 2017
  • Reviewed
    05 Sept 2017
  • Accepted
    22 Sept 2017
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