Lipid profile, cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome in a group of AIDS patients

BACKGROUND: Since the advent of AIDS, the anti-HIV therapy has developed significantly, including the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and the disease acquired a chronic characteristic. However, after the introduction of HAART, several metabolic alterations were observed, mainly related to the lipid profile. OBJECTIVES: to evaluate and compare lipid profiles, analyze cardiovascular risk, describe the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in AIDS patients with or without HAART. METHODS: Over an 18-month period, 319 patients treated at outpatient clinics in the city of São Paulo, Brazil were selected. RESULTS: The final sample included 215 patients receiving HAART and 69 HAART-naive patients. The mean age was 39.5 years, and 60.9% were males. The main cardiovascular risk factors were smoking (27%), hypertension (18%) and family history of atherosclerosis (40%). Mean total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose were higher in the HAART group than in the non-HAART group (205 vs 180 mg/dl, 51 vs 43 mg/dl, 219 vs 164 mg/dl and 101 vs 93 mg/dl respectively; p < 0.001 for all). According to the Framingham risk score, the cardiovascular risk was moderate to high in 11% of the patients receiving HAART and 4% of the HAART-naïve patients. According to the Adult Treatment Panel III definition, the metabolic syndrome was observed in 13% and 12% of the patients with or without HAART, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although the mean values for total cholesterol, HDL-c and triglycerides were higher in the HAART group, a higher cardiovascular risk was not identified in the former. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was comparable in both groups.

metabolic syndrome X; lipid metabolism disorders; cardiovascular disease; highly active antiretroviral therapy

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