Primary thyroid tuberculosis: a rare etiology of hypothyroidism and anterior cervical mass mimicking carcinoma

Tuberculose tireoidiana primária: rara etiologia de hipotireoidismo e massa cervical anterior mimetizando carcinoma

OBJECTIVE: The involvement of the thyroid by tuberculosis (TB) is rare. Hypothyroidism caused by tissue destruction is an extremely rare report. Our aim was to report a patient with primary thyroid TB emphasizing the importance of diagnosis, despite the rarity of the occurrence. CASE REPORT: Women, 62 years old, showing extensive cervical mass since four months, referring lack of appetite, weight loss, dysphagia and dysphonia. Laboratorial investigation revealed primary hypothyroidism. Cervical ultrasound: expansive lesion in left thyroid lobe, involving adjacent muscle. Computed tomography scan: 13 cm diameter cervical mass with central necrosis. Fine needle biopsy: hemorrhagic material. Surgery: total thyroidectomy, left radical neck dissection and protective tracheotomy. The pathological examination showed chronic granulomatous inflammatory process with areas of caseous necrosis and lymph node involvement. The thyroid baciloscopy was positive. Pulmonary disease was absent. The patient was treated with antituberculosis drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid TB is not frequent, and should be considered as differential diagnosis of hypothyroidism and anterior cervical mass.

Thyroid tuberculosis; hypothyroidism; anterior neck mass; thyroidectomy

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