Sensitivity profile of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks of dairy cattle to acaricides in small farms in the northwestern São Paulo State, Brazil

Perfil de sensibilidade de carrapatos Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus de bovinos leiteiros a carrapaticidas em pequenas propriedades do noroeste do estado de São Paulo

Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick is one of the most important parasite afflicting cattle, mainly in taurine breed. Chemical application is still the most widely used way of control, although there are reports of tick resisting to many active principles in different countries. The goal of this study was to obtain the in vitro sensitivity profile of dairy cattle ticks to six commercial acaricides in five small farms in northwestern São Paulo state, located in Bady Bassitt and Ipiguá municipalities, and to investigate the productive characteristics and tick control methods applied in these farms. R. (B.) microplus engorged females were collected from naturally infested cattle and subjected to adult immersion test using the following drugs: amitraz, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos/cypermethrin mix, dichlorvos/cypermethrin mix, and dichlorvos/chlorpyrifos mix. In each farm, a questionnaire was also administered. Considering the mean efficacy level from all farms, there was no product with appropriate efficacy level. Pyrethroids had the worst results (cypermethrin and deltamethrin having mean efficacy of 17% and 27% respectively), with resistance observed in all farms. Conversely, amitraz (73%), chlorpyrifos/cypermethrin (79%), and chlorpyrifos/dichlorvos (76%) exhibited the highest mean efficacies. The ticks were resistant to all formulations in two herds. The cattle farmers were not aware of tests that detect ticks susceptibility to acaricides and did not adopt proper technical procedure when using chemicals. These indicate the need to educate cattle farmers on considering resistance as a product choice criterion. A constant monitoring of resistance is also relevant. Further investigations in the region should be conducted to better understand the resistance levels.

Ticks; Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus; cattle; resistance; São Paulo

Instituto Biológico Av. Conselheiro Rodrigues Alves, 1252 - Vila Mariana - São Paulo - SP, 04014-002 - São Paulo - SP - Brazil