Abstract in Portuguese:Resumo: Este texto apresenta o dossiê Scales of Global History, com algumas breves reflexões sobre a prática historiográfica da chamada História Global.
Abstract in English:Abstract: This text presents the Scales of Global History dossier, with some reflections about the historiography of Global History.
Abstract in English:Abstract: One of the puzzling questions about the formal Dutch abolition of the slave-trade in 1814 is why a state that was so committed to maintaining slavery in its Empire did not put up any open resistance to the enforced closing of the trade that fed it. The explanations that historians have given so far for this paradox focus mainly on circumstances within the Netherlands, highlighting the pre-1800 decline of the role of Dutch traders in the African slave-trade, the absence of a popular abolitionist movement, and the all-overriding focus within elite-debates on the question of economic decline. This article argues that the (often partial) advanced made by abolitionism internationally did have a pronounced influence on the course of Dutch debates. This can be seen not only from the pronouncements by a small minority that advocated abolition, but also in the arguments produced by the proponents of a continuation of slavery. Careful examination of the three key debates about the question that took place in 1789-1791, 1797 and around 1818 can show how among dominant circles within the Dutch state a new ideology gradually took hold that combined verbal concessions to abolitionist arguments and a grinding acknowledgement of the inevitability of slave-trade abolition with a long-term perspective for prolonging slave-based colonial production in the West-Indies.
Abstract in English:Abstract: This article makes the case for a project in the making: a study of the social transformation of the countryside as it joins the global market over the long nineteenth century, told as a collective biography of the mule drivers of Ottoman Lebanon - those obscure peasants who, owning one or a few mules, made their livelihood in the transport of goods and persons rather than work the land. Over the first half of the century, these actors mobilized for revolts while a village-based economy turned to cash-crop agriculture and the central government built a new state apparatus that would insure its survival within global capitalism, rendering the peasants' situation ever more precarious. From the 1860s to the First World War, as local resources were diverted to feed European industry and local petty-trade networks came undone, when elites at all levels struggled to assert their control over labor and resources, these same muleteers turned into social bandits - smugglers who defended the peasant against the state's taxation and the capitalists' extraction. Some of them accumulated wealth and ultimately integrated an emerging middle class. The projected account makes two historiographical interventions. (a) Within the history of the modern Middle East, it argues that the region's confessional tensions are tied to developments that are characteristic of capitalism over the period - namely, the rise of a new kind of state and the loss of control over resources by local actors at the margins. This approach pushes against purely culturalist explanations, attempting to wed culturalist and materialist stances. (b) Conversely, by drawing parallels with other mounted rural bandits in the Anatolian and Romanian hinterlands of the Ottoman Empire, as well as with the gauchos in Latin America, ox-cart drivers in India, and rickshaw pullers in China, this local history speaks to a global history of capitalism. Reducing the scale of analysis to reveal the subjectivity of local actors, and linking the cultural norms that shape agency to objective structural transformation that can be compared across contexts, this project challenges histories of capitalism that ignore the countryside or the global South and thereby produce a sanitized account characterized by secular politics and a liberal culture.
Abstract in English:Abstract: As is well known, opium was a major colonial commodity. It was linked to trade in several other commodities of the modern era such as tea, sugar and cotton and through these to Atlantic the slave trade. The movement of these commodities across continents shaped capitalism in very specific ways. In the case of India, for instance, earnings from the several components of the opium enterprise played an important role in the growth of industrial capitalism. This paper looks at the historical circumstances in which various localities and regions of the Indian subcontinent, especially western India, and the Indian Ocean became part of the opium enterprise during the early nineteenth century. It attempts to understand the manner in which local destinies were linked to the global, reinforcing and/or resisting British imperial interests. For this purpose I have chosen the port of Daman, on the West Coast of India as a representative example. Daman (Damaõ) was a Portuguese colony. The paper pays close attention to political processes at the local level so as to make sense of global patterns of trade in a commodity that was vital for sustaining the British Empire.
Abstract in English:Abstract: This article uses the example of Mennonite nation-building in Paraguay during the 1920s and 1930s to argue that state formation is not inherently modernist. Tracing nineteenth and early twentieth-century discourses of Mennonite colonies in Imperial Russia, Canada, and elsewhere as a "state within a state," the essay advocates a reevaluation of theories of modern statehood advanced by thinkers like James C. Scott and Ernest Gellner. As conservative, pacifist Mennonites traveled from North America to the Paraguayan Chaco to escape the pressures of assimilation in democratic society, their migration paved the way for coreligionists fleeing persecution in the Soviet Union to join in the formation of a rural, autonomous "Mennonite state" that was organized internationally, characterized by deep religious observance, and conceived in opposition to high modernist projects.
Abstract in English:Abstract: This article explores the advance of the prison reform in the Russian Empire. It examines the governmental department that was the driver of this reform, the Main Prison Administration, and focuses on its policy in the domain of the forced labour of prisoners. Two types of forced labour are of particular interest here. One is the traditional hard penal labour, or katorga, and the other is the obligatory labour for the prisoners serving shorter terms. I outline here how this second type of labour came to play the decisive role in the discourse on punishment in the late imperial period, what kind of conceptions supported it, and how it was implemented throughout the empire.
Abstract in English:Abstract: Based on Scales of Global History dossier, this article criticizes the silences of Global History in terms of Latin American history, and reflects upon the question of how to include this history on that approach.
Abstract in Portuguese:Resumo: Gostaria de ampliar neste artigo a análise de um episódio histórico ocorrido entre 1836 e 1841: a ocupação francesa do território litigioso situado entre o Brasil e a Guiana Francesa. Pretendo considerar dois fatores regionais que, a meu ver, influenciaram a decisão tanto do governo de Caiena como do governo metropolitano de construir fortes militares na região. Tais fatores são a Cabanagem e as tentativas dos negros Bonis de se instalarem no baixo Oiapoque. Entendo também que a retirada francesa do lago do Amapá, em 1840, mas não do posto à margem direita do rio Oiapoque, se deva não só a fatores internacionais e diplomáticos como também a questões de ordem regional. Não querendo negar os interesses do governo de Paris de expandir o território de sua colônia sul-americana, pretendo chamar a atenção para as ameaças - reais ou fictícias - dos cabanos2 e dos negros Bonis, provenientes da Guiana Holandesa.
Abstract in English:Abstract: This article will analyze an historical episode that occurred between 1836 and 1841 during the French occupation of the disputed territory located between Brazil and French Guiana. I intend to consider two regional factors that influenced the decision of both the Cayenne Government and the metropolitan government to build military forts in the region. Such factors are the Cabanagem and the attempts of black Bonis to settle in Lower Oiapoque. I will go on to show that the French withdrawal from Amapá Lake in 1840, but not from the post on the right bank of the Oiapoque River, was due not only to international and diplomatic factors but also had regional causes. Notwithstanding the French government's interests in expanding the territory of its South American colony, I want to draw attention to the threats - real or fictitious - of Cabanos, from Brazil, and black Bonis, from Dutch Guiana.
Abstract in Portuguese:Resumo: Este artigo procurou investigar proposições em defesa da tolerância religiosa na documentação inquisitorial produzida sob o Reformismo Ilustrado no mundo luso brasileiro, tendo como hipótese de que as reformas institucionais tocantes à Inquisição, Igreja e cleros regular e secular criaram, de forma indireta, condições para que a defesa da tolerância religiosa fosse difundida mais amplamente. Concentramos nossa análise entre a segunda metade do século XVIII e primeira década do XIX e nas proposições presentes nas falas dos libertinos, cotejando-as com debates e condições presentes no contexto de amplas mudanças institucionais em Portugal e suas colônias. Procuramos, assim, mapear as possíveis aproximações entre concepções religiosas que remetem a uma religiosidade popular com outras concepções de tolerância de matriz iluminista, e em que medida elas foram influenciadas pelo contexto e discurso de modernização por parte da Coroa.
Abstract in English:Abstract: This paper aimed to investigate propositions in defense of religious tolerance in inquisitorial sources produced under the Enlightened Reformism in luso-brazilian world, having as hypothesis that the institutional reforms touching the Inquisition, the Catholic Church and regular and secular clergy have created, indirectly, conditions for the defense of religious tolerance were widespread more widely. We focus our analysis between the second half of the eighteenth century and the first decade of the nineteenth and in the "heretic propositions" present in the speeches of the Libertines, comparing them with debates and present conditions in the context of broad institutional changes in Portugal and its colonies. We seek thus to map the possible similarities between religious conceptions that refer to a popular religion and other matrix of Enlightenment conceptions of tolerance, and to what extent they were influenced by the context and discourse of modernization by the Portuguese monarchy.
Abstract in Portuguese:Resumo: Apresentamos, neste artigo, uma análise sobre o papel exercido pelo Real Gabinete Português de Leitura do Rio de Janeiro, durante a segunda metade do século XIX, no tocante à reunião e à guarda de livros de ciência médica. Com a análise dos livros que compõem o Catálogo organizado por Ramiz Galvão, publicado em 1906 (que reúne o acervo constituído pela instituição desde o ano de 1837), objetivamos compreender qual era a importância relativa do acervo de ciência médica, identificado em meio ao acervo geral do Real Gabinete Português de Leitura, e se esse era atualizado e relevante mediante o contexto de constituição do campo médico-científico no Brasil. Assim como, por meio de seu estudo detalhado, intentamos saber qual era o idioma preponderante das obras e a que público-alvo se direcionavam, e se a sua guarda se coadunava com o perfil da instituição de preservação de uma cultura lusófona.
Abstract in English:Abstract: This work presents an analysis on the role of the Royal Portuguese Cabinet of Reading during the second half of the 19th century regarding the collection and safekeeping of medical science books. By analyzing the books contained in the 1906 catalog by Ramiz Galvão (consisting of the institution's collection since 1837), we intend to understand the relative importance of the medical science collection found in the general collection of the Royal Portuguese Cabinet of Reading, and whether it was updated and relevant amidst the constitution of Brazil's medical science field. It is also intended to discover the preponderant idiom among its works and at which target audience they were aimed at, therefore, whether its guard matched the institution's outline of lusophone culture preservation.