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Revista Archai, Issue: 31, Published: 2021
  • Peri tou (mē) ontos. Melissus and Gorgias at the ontological crossroad Editorial

    Giombini, Stefania; Pulpito, Massimo
  • Measurement and excess in Ajax: transition from an agonal ethic to an enlightened ethic. Artigos

    Singh Caro, Esteban

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen: En el Áyax de Sófocles puede notarse la tematización de un conflicto recurrente, la crisis entre dos sistemas axiológicos, el arcaico, en el que predominan valores agonales, basados en la excelencia personal reconocida comunitariamente, y el ilustrado, aquel que responde a exigencias de las ciudades (poleis) ya desarrolladas, cuyos valores se identifican con la idea de igualdad y de deliberación comunitaria. Dicho conflicto es desarrollado a partir de un tópico propio del ideario práctico de la época, la problemática de la medida y la desmesura (metron/hybris). El presente trabajo procurará dar cuenta del peculiar tratamiento sofocleo al respecto mediante el análisis del léxico en distintos pasajes de la obra. Como se verá, las palabras escogidas por personajes antagónicos como Áyax, Menelao y Agamenón para fundamentar sus decisiones definirán, sin embargo, concepciones comunes acerca del modo actuar en situaciones de conflicto, propias del código heroico arcaico; por el contrario, otros personajes, como Tecmesa, el coro de marineros, Odiseo mismo y Atenea, asumirán perspectivas diferentes al respecto, vinculadas con exigencias ilustradas.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: In Sophocles’ Ajax, a recurring conflict between two axiological systems gets thematized: the archaic, in which agonal values and personal excellence predominate, and the enlightened, which corresponds to the demands of already-developed cities (poleis) and their values of equality and communal deliberation. This conflict is developed from a topic typical of the practical ideology of the time: the problem of measure and excess (metron/hybris). The present work will account for the peculiar Sophoclean treatment of this problem through the analysis of the lexicon in different passages of the work. As will be seen, characters as antagonistic as Ajax, Menelaus, and Agamemnon nonetheless concord in word choice when substantiating their decisions regarding how to act in situations of conflict. These words define common concepts typical of the archaic heroic code. On the contrary, other characters such as Tecmesa, the sailors’ choir, Odysseus himself, and Athena take different perspectives that are linked to enlightened demands.
  • Hippo the Atheist and the story of the moist Artigos

    Casertano, Giovanni

    Abstract in Italian:

    Resumo: A dispetto della stroncatura di Aristotele, Ippone, nel V secolo a.C., si dimostra un pensatore ben inserito nelle correnti culturali più vive ed interessanti del suo secolo. Accomunato ai Milesi per aver posto l’acqua come principio di tutte le cose, è stato considerato anche un pitagorico per aver affermato l’importanza del gioco dei contrari nel nascere e nell’evolversi delle cose. In realtà, queste caratterizzazioni si dimostrano piuttosto generiche, e l’appartenenza a questa o a quella scuola non dà ragione della specificità della sua posizione nell’ambiente culturale mediterraneo e magno-greco, specificità ben rinvenibile anche nella scarsezza delle testimonianze. Più che l’acqua, per Ippone, ammesso che abbia voluto stabilire un’arché di tutte le cose, è l’umido a giocare un ruolo fondamentale nell’essere e nel divenire delle cose. In questo articolo si tenta anche di tracciare un profilo della storia dell’umido, dai Milesi a Eraclito, ad Alcmeone, a Diogene di Apollonia, fino a Democrito. E si vuole inoltre sottolineare come esso rientri anche nel campo specifico delle sue riflessioni, incentrate soprattutto nel campo biologico ed embriologico, riflessioni sempre obbedienti, più che a teorie generali, all’osservazione dell’esperienza concreta.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: In spite of Aristotle's criticism, Hippo, in the 5th century BC, proved to be a thinker well inserted in the most lively and interesting cultural trends of his century. Associated with the Milesians for having set water as the principle of all things, he was also considered a Pythagorean for having affirmed the importance of the play of opposites in the birth and evolution of things. In reality, these characterizations prove to be rather generic, and belonging to this or that school does not give an account of the specificity of his position in the Mediterranean and Magna Grecia cultural milieu, a specificity that can also be seen in the scarcity of evidence. More than water, for Ippone, assuming that he wanted to establish an arché of all things, it is the wet that plays a fundamental role in the being and becoming of things. This article also attempts to outline the history of moisture, from the Milesians to Heraclitus, Alcmeon, Diogenes of Apollonia, and Democritus. We also wish to emphasize how this is part of the specific field of his reflections, focused above all on the biological and embryological fields, reflections that are always obedient, rather than to general theories, to the observation of concrete experience.
  • Many Socrates. An Introduction to the Voices of the Socratic circle Artigos

    Illarraga, Rodrigo; Lozano Nembrot, Milena

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen: En este artículo se busca presentar la pluralidad de voces en torno a la figura de Sócrates como problema filosófico. Un universo de críticas y encomios, diálogos constantes que se retroalimentan en respuestas y réplicas que podemos rastrear desde las mismas Acusaciones contra Sócrates de Polícrates y las respuestas de Jenofonte y Platón en sus sendas apologías. Es en esos intersticios en donde podemos reconstruir no solo a la figura de Sócrates, sino a la dinámica de su círculo, un grupo extenso y variopinto signado tanto por las diferencias entre sí como por la devoción a su amigo y maestro. Esta cuestión es, precisamente, la que atraviesa el dossier. Luego de una introducción al tema y, en especial, al rol de la obra de Jenofonte, se pasará a describir los artículos, mostrando los ejes en común que comparten.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This paper aims to introduce the plurality of voices that encircle the character of Socrates as a philosophical issue. A universe of criticism and praise, constant dialogues of answers and replicas that we can trace back to Socrates' Accusations against Polycrates and the answers of Xenophon and Plato in their apologies. In these interstices we can reconstruct not only the figure of Socrates, but also the dynamics of his circle an extensive and diverse group marked both by the differences between them and their devotion to their friend and teacher This is precisely the question that runs through the dossier. After an introduction on the subject and, specially, on the role of Xenophon’s works, the dossier’s papers will be described, showing the common topics and reflections.
  • Socrates and his livelihood Artigos

    Dorion, Louis-André

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen: Conocido por su pobreza, ¿de qué vive Sócrates? Un estudio minucioso de las fuentes revela que, para satisfacer sus necesidades, contaba con tres medios: la mendicidad, la generosidad de sus amigos y los regalos prometidos por los poderosos. Ahora bien, en relación con estos medios, las fuentes examinadas son ambivalentes: algunas señalan que Sócrates los usaba; otras, que los rechazaba firmemente para preservar su independencia.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Known for his poverty, what does Socrates live on? A careful study of the sources reveals that he could satisfy his needs in three different ways: by begging, by the generosity of his friends and by the gifts promised by powerful men. However, regarding these means, the sources are ambivalent: some indicate that Socrates used them, but others that he firmly rejected them in order to preserve his independence.
  • “I want to die many times if this is true” (Plat., Ap., 41b). Socrates, Palamedes, and the rhetorical exercises in the horizon of the Socratic dialogue Artigos

    Mársico, Claudia

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen: La figura de Sócrates separa la historia del pensamiento en dos e inaugura un modelo de filosofía que impactó en toda la tradición posterior con la sola fuerza de su influjo y el halo totémico de su muerte trágica. No faltaron relatos de lo acaecido, pero entre ellos ninguno opaca a la Apología de Sócrates de Platón como texto fundamental para adentrarse en los pormenores del juicio y la condena. En este contexto poco suele tenerse en cuenta que se trata de un texto transido de opacidad. Parece un documento testimonial, una versión cuasi taquigráfica del proceso, pero no lo es. En efecto, nos interesa referirnos especialmente a un hecho que ha sido notado pero no del todo dimensionado: la Apología de Sócrates de Platón presenta similitudes imposibles de atribuir a la mera casualidad con la Apología de Palamedes de Gorgias. ¿Por qué este texto platónico presenta curiosas relaciones intertextuales con un ejercicio retórico basado en figuras míticas en el clima de la promoción de la retórica? Trataremos de responder esa pregunta apelando a su relación con el origen del diálogo socrático.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The figure of Socrates divides the history of Western thought into two parts. It inaugurates a model of philosophy that shaped all subsequent tradition with the sole force of its influence and the totemic aura from his tragic death. There were many accounts of what happened, but none of them overshadowed Plato's Apology of Socrates as a fundamental text for entering into the details of the trial and sentence. In this context, the opacity of this text is rarely taken into account. It seems to be a testimonial document, a quasi-stenographic version of the process, but it is not. In fact, we are interested in referring to a fact that has been noted but not entirely dimensioned: Plato's Apology of Socrates presents similarities impossible to attribute to mere chance with Gorgias’ Apology of Palamedes. Why does this Platonic text present curious intertextual relationships with a rhetorical exercise based on mythical figures in the climate of the promotion of rhetoric? We will try to answer this question appealing to its link with the origin of the Socratic dialogue.
  • Plato’s Protagoras on Who we Are? Artigos

    Deretić, Irina

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen: En el Gran Discurso de Protágoras, en el diálogo platónico que lleva su nombre, Platón pone em boca de Protágoras un mito acerca del origen, desarrollo y naturaleza del ser humano, que es de gran relevancia filosófica. Se expresa que los dioses crearon a los seres mortales desde dos elementos: la tierra y el fuego. A su vez, también asignaron dos titanes, Epimeteo y Prometeo, para que proveyeran a los mortales de sus facultades. ¿Acaso esto implica que la creación no fue terminada por los dioses? ¿Hasta qué punto los dioses crearon enteramente al ser humano? ¿Podría afirmarse que este es un mito creacionista? El desarrollo de los seres vivientes puede dividirse en cuatro instancias. A lo largo de este artículo, se proponen distintos modelos hermenéuticos para responder los interrogantes mencionados anteriormente.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: In Protagoras’ so called Great Speach, in Plato’s dialogue named after him, the Greek philosopher attributes the sophist a myth about the origin, development and nature of human beings, which has philosophical relevance. It is said that the gods created the mortal beings out of two elements, earth and fire. They assigned two titans, Epimetheus and Prometheus, to provide mortals with their faculties. Do this implies that creation had not been finished by the gods? To what extent do the gods entirely create human beings? Is this mith a creationist one? In this paper, the development of living beings is divided in four stages, and different hermeneutic and explanatory models are proposed to adress the myth and answer the questions raised before.
  • Teaching sophrosyne: The use of the elenchos by Xenophon's Socrates. Artigos

    Danzig, Gabriel

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen: El elenchos socrático en la obra de Jenofonte desempeña un papel central aunque pareciera tener un rol secundario. El siguiente artículo se propone trabajar sobre la caracterización jenofontea del elenchos socrático, así como su valoración desde el punto de vista de sus cualidades educativas. En este sentido, se analizarán las potencialidades del elenchos socrático en tres direcciones: en primer lugar, la dimensión estrictamente formativa; en segundo lugar, su rol para la actuación en los asuntos políticos; y, por último, su contribución con la adquisición de la sophrosyne. A través de este análisis expondré por qué el retrato realizado por Jenofonte de Sócrates debe ser entendido como suplementario a los retratos hechos por otros (como en el caso de Platón) y no como una alternativa a ellos.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The Socratic elenchos in Xenophon's work plays a central role even though it may seem to have a secondary part. The following article aims to work on the xenophontic characterization of the Socratic elenchos, as well as his assessment from the point of view of its educational qualities. In this sense, the socratic elenchos potentialities will be analyzed in three directions: first, the strictly formative dimension; secondly, its role for acting in political affairs; and, finally, his contribution to the acquisition of the sophrosyne. Through this analysis I will explain why the portrait made by Xenophon of the Socratic elenchos should be understood as supplementary to the portraits made by others (like Plato) and not as an alternative to them.
  • Xenophon’s Oeconomicus: the “maîtresse de la maison” Artigos

    Bevilacqua, Fiorenza

    Abstract in Italian:

    Resumen: L’Economico di Senofonte contiene un interessante trattato sulla vita matrimoniale: al centro di questo trattato si colloca la figura della moglie di Iscomaco, così come viene delineata da quanto quest’ultimo narra a Socrate. Una figura in parte innovativa, in quanto viene associata alla gestione dell’oikos come responsabile di quanto si svolge all’interno della casa: un ruolo diverso da quello del marito, che si occupa e dirige ciò che si svolge all’esterno: i compiti di moglie e marito risultano quindi diversi ma complementari. Questa differenza di attitudini e quindi di ruoli è presentata come voluta sia dalla divinità, sia dalla natura (in quanto strumento della divinità) sia dalla consuetudine (nomos). La moglie di Iscomaco viene quindi a configurarsi come una collaboratrice e una compagna per il marito. Tuttavia questa moglie non intrattiene con il marito una relazione paritaria: infatti gestisce attività e persone all’interno della casa secondo le direttive impartite dal marito; anche nella sfera della vita sessuale deve adeguarsi ai desideri e alle convinzioni di Iscomaco; il suo stesso status di moglie sarà mantenuto soltanto se lei risponderà alle sue aspettative: paradossalmente la sua stessa autonomia è in realtà eterodiretta. Se pure può considerarsi una “maîtresse de la maison”, tuttavia, come ha sottolineato con una formula efficacissima Foucault, si tratta comunque di una “maîtresse obéissante de la maison”.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Xenophon’s Oeconomicus includes an interesting treatise on married life, at the hearth of which is the figure of Ischomachus’ wife, such as she is described by Ischomachus’ words to Socrates. It is an almost innovative figure, because she shares the management of the oikos as being responsible for what is carried out within the oikos: her role is different from her husband’s, who runs and manages what is carried out outside of the oikos. Therefore husband’s and wife’s tasks are different, though complementary. The difference in inclinations and, therefore, roles is shown as established by god, nature (as an instrument of god) and custom (nomos). So Ischomachus’ wife is a collaborator and companion of her husband, even though she does not have an equal relation with her him: she manages the activities and people within the oikos according to her husband’s directives. Also in the sphere of sexual life she has to conform to his desires and convictions; her own status as a wife will be preserved only if she meets his expectations: paradoxically her own autonomy is other-directed. Even if she may be considered a “maîtresse de la maison”, nevertheless, as Foucault outlined with a very incisive expression, she is anyway the “maîtresse obéissante de la maison”.
  • Reviewing generic innovation in the Lacedaimonion Politeia Artigos

    Humble, Noreen

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen: Este artículo analiza la estructura genérica y los fundamentos de la Lacedaimonion Politeia de Jenofonte. La Lac. ha sido frecuentemente considerada como un elogio o defensa de Esparta. Sin embargo, su retórica y estructura narrativa tienen poca similitud con prácticas contemporáneas para la composición de encomios o defensas. Aun cuando esto no impide un motivo elogioso o defensivo, examinar el tipo de retórica y los patrones narrativos de Jenofonte revela distintas afiliaciones genéricas, mostrando que la Lac., al igual que muchos otros escritos de Jenofonte, es un trabajo híbrido con características de la literatura de politeiai y de la investigación filosófica. En efecto, una cuidadosa pesquisa, en particular, de la manera en que Jenofonte utiliza interlocutores imaginarios (característica compartida por ambos tipos de escritura) sugiere que el encomio no puede haber sido el objetivo de este tratado.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This paper examines the generic structure and underpinnings of Xenophon's Lacedaimonion Politeia. The Lac. has frequently been regarded as a praise or defence of Sparta yet its rhetoric and narrative structure bear little resemblance to contemporary practices for composing encomia or defense speeches. Although this does not preclude an encomiastic or defensive purpose, an examination of the type of rhetoric Xenophon employs and the narrative patterns and structures in the work reveal different generic affiliations, showing that the Lac., like many of Xenophon’s other writings, is a hybrid work with features belonging to politeia-literature and philosophical enquiry. Further, careful examination, in particular, of the way Xenophon makes use of imaginary interlocutors (a feature of both types of writing) suggests that praise cannot have been the aim of this treatise.
  • Observations on emotion and persuasion in Xenophon's Cyropaedia Artigos

    Tamiolaki, Melina

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen: El presente trabajo tiene como objeto investigar la relación entre emoción y persuasión en la Ciropedia de Jenofonte, no solo analizando sus expresiones léxicas, sino también los escenarios y el contexto en donde se manifiestan. Esta obra, usualmente considerada como el epítome de la teoría del liderazgo elaborada por el filósofo ateniense, nos muestra una faceta crucial de Ciro: su capacidad de apelar a distintas emociones dependiendo de las audiencias a las que se dirigía.Tal indagación nos permitirá rastrear los elementos constitutivos de una posible teoría de las emociones en Jenofonte, lo cual, como veremos, se diferencia parcialmente del tratamiento que Aristóteles elaborará con posterioridad en la Retórica, pero también del de sus predecesores historiográficos, Heródoto y Tucídides. La teoría de Jenofonte revela una complejidad que excede la mera apelación a las emociones mediante el discurso como medio de persuasión y presenta una íntima relación con el discurso político y constitucional del s. IV a.C.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The present work has the object of investigating the relation between emotion and persuasion in Xenophon’s Cyropaedia, not only by analyzing its lexical expressions, but also the emotional scenarios and the context in which they manifest. The Cyropaedia, usually considered as the epitome of Xenophon’s theory of leadership, shows us a crucial characteristic of Cyrus: his capacity of appealing to different emotions depending on the audience. This inquiry will allow us to trace the constitutive elements of a possible theory of emotions in Xenophon, which we will see, differs partially from the Aristotelian treatment in the Rhetoric, but also from his historiographic predecessors, Herodotus and Thucydides. Xenophon´s theory reveals a complexity that exceeds the mere appellation to emotions through speech as a means of persuasion and shows an intimate relation with the fourth century B.C. political and constitutional discourse.
  • 'Many Cyruses': Xenophon's "Cyropaedia" and English Renaissance Humanism Reconsidered Artigos

    Grogan, Jane

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumo: La historia de la recepción de un texto suele estar en conflicto con sus orígenes. Colin Burrow nota la ironía de que, a pesar del gran apoyo de aquellos en el poder, la Eneida de Virgilio es tomada y traducida por los desfavorecidos durante el Renacimiento. Lo mismo es en parte cierto para la Ciropedia de Jenofonte. Este artículo examina el lugar de la Ciropedia dentro de la tradición humanista inglesa, centrándose en ciertas traducciones inglesas del texto y en sus interpretaciones dentro de la tradición speculum principis (espejo de príncipes). Esto culmina en el momento en el que el monarca reinante, el Rey Jacobo I de Inglaterra, encuentra reflejado en Ciropedia un modelo irresistible de realeza imperial.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The reception history of a text is frequently at odds with its origins. Colin Burrow notes the irony that despite its loud support of those in power, Virgil’s Aeneid is taken up and translated by the disempowered during the Renaissance. The same is partly true of Xenophon’s Cyropaedia. This paper examines the place of the Cyropaedia within the English humanist tradition, focussing on English translations of the text, and its interpretation within the speculum principis (mirror-for-princes) tradition. This culminates in the moment when the reigning monarch, King James I of England, finds mirrored in the Cyropaedia an irresistible model of imperial kingship.
  • "The "opinions of mortals" of Parmenides and a possible Eleatic Pythagoreanism Artigos

    Luis Cordero, Nestor

    Abstract in French:

    Résumé: La Déesse de Parménide annonce toujours que les δόξαι sont un produit humain. Mais il y a un point qui n'a pas été en général remarqué dans les études consacrées à l'étude des δόξαι: elles décrivent une activité humaine qui consiste a expliquer la réalité par la présence de principes opposés, et qui est toujours en rapport avec la "nomination" (voir fr. 8.51, fr. 8.38-41, fr 9, fr. 19.3). Il y avait à l'époque de Parménide une école qui correspondait à ce portrait robot, ou s'agit-il d'un collage de Parménide? Quoi qu'il en soit, il est attesté la présence d'une branche du Pythagorisme qui se caractérisait, précisément, pour "placer" des noms sur les choses.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The Goddess of Parmenides always announces that the δόξαι are a human product. But there is one point that has not generally been noticed in the studies devoted to the study of the δόξαι: they describe a human activity that consists in explaining reality by the presence of opposite principles, and that is always related to "nomination" (see fr. 8.51, fr. 8.38-41, fr 9, fr. 19.3). Was there a school in Parmenides' time which corresponded to this sketch, or is it a collage of Parmenides'? In any case, it is attested the presence of a branch of Pythagorism which was characterized, precisely, by "placing" names on things.
  • Sound-Oriented Textuality: The Case of Heraclitus Artigos

    Mota, Marcus

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo: Neste artigo apresenta-se a proposta de compreender os textos restantes do livro perdido de Heráclito como arranjos de palavras a partir de padrões audiofocais. Assim, tais textos não apenas conteriam referências a sons como também explorariam criativamente grandezas psicoacústicas. Basilar para a argumentação aqui desenvolvida é a identificação de um movimento oscilatório presente tanto na distribuição dos vocábulos e frases quanto nas referências textuais. Tal movimento oscilatório aproxima a escrita de Heráclito de eventos físicos acústicos.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This paper presents the proposal to understand the remaining texts of Heraclitus' lost book as words arrangement based on audiofocal patterns. Thus, such texts would not only contain references to sounds but would also creatively explore psychoacoustic magnitudes. Basic to the argument developed here is the identification of an oscillatory movement present both in the distribution of words and sentences and in textual references. Such oscillatory movement approximates Heraclitus' writing to acoustic physical events.
  • SCIENTIFIC EVOLUTION OF PHILOSOPHICAL CONCEPTS OF THE ORIGINS OF UNIVERSE AND LIFE Articles

    Agostini, Cristina de Souza; Silveira, Isabel Porto da; Polla, Cauê Cardoso

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT: In order to demonstrate the great importance of Philosophy in the elaboration of current scientific theories, a parallel was drawn between concepts of pre-Socratic Philosophy and current modern theories. Thus, throughout this essay, the convergences between some elaborations developed by philosophers and their reinterpretation from a scientific point of view, supported by the scientific method and the present technological apparatuses, were exposed. In this sense, having as its core the reflection about the atomic theory of Leucippus and Democritus, we investigate the way in which atomism dialogues with the modern Atomic Theory to the Quantum Theory, through concepts of Kosmos and Cosmology. In a second moment, origin of life theories were revisited from the pre-Socratic concepts of Psyche. Finally, Philosophy and Science are brought together as possible and complementary tools for the restoration of the amplification of thought and investigative processes.
  • Plato and Plotinus facing the Problem of Separation Artigos

    Fattal, Michel

    Abstract in French:

    Résumé: La présente étude se propose d’analyser d’une manière précise les raisons philosophiques et doctrinales qui ont poussé Platon et Plotin à vouloir résoudre le problème de la séparation et d’apprécier l’originalité et la pertinence de la solution apportée à ce problème par Platon et par son exégète néoplatonicien.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The current study seeks (a) to analyze in a precise manner the philosophical and doctrinal reasons that led Plato and Plotinus to want to solve the problem of separation and (b) to appreciate the originality and relevance of the solution to this problem developed by Plato and his Neoplatonic interpreter.
  • Plato’s Phaedo and “the Art of Glaucus”: Transcending the Distortions of Developmentalism Artigos

    Altman, William Henry Furness

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: In a 1985 article, Diskin Clay offered a modern solution to an ancient problem: instead of choosing between the scholiast’s two different explanations of “the art of Glaucus,” he offered a more textual explanation based on Socrates’ image of the distorted appearance of the embodied soul inRepublicX. This paper’s thesis is that we should reconsider the way we read Socrates’ last discourse by privileging its dramatic and didactic aspects in a manner that allows us to give Clay’s insights the weight they deserve. This is preferable to regardingPhaedoas an outgrown stage of Plato’s development rather than the dramatic culmination of the dialogues as a whole, and the hegemonic hermeneutic based on chronological order of composition has made this great dialogue’s original form as unrecognizable as the ocean has made Glaucus.
  • Epistemerastes. The Platonic Philosopher in the Timaeus between True Opinion and Science Artigos

    Casella, Federico

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse the ways in which the nature of true philosophers is described in Plato’s Timaeus. By examining the distinction between two kinds of opinion - one (produced by sensation) absolutely false, the other (developed through one of the soul’s rational faculties) reliably true - I will try to show that Plato coined a new term to denote both true philosophers and the characteristics of their knowledge. From being a ‘love of wisdom’, true philosophy came to be defined as a ‘passion for science’. Finally, I will try to illustrate the protreptic intent underlying this choice of words and how it concerns the main critical target of the Timaeus, the so-called Presocratics.
  • What’s Eleatic about the Eleatic Principle? Artigos

    Assaturian, Sosseh

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: According to the Eleatic Principle, only items which have the capacity to affect or be affected are. Recently, there has been a question about what, if anything, is Eleatic about the Eleatic Principle (EP). I examine the purported origins of the EP in Plato’s Sophist and argue that the text presents three ways in which something can affect or be affected: (1) as tangible contact, (2) as Cambridge change, and (3) by being responsible for the way something else is. Next, I look to the historical Eleatics in search of precursors to the EP. Against recent work in this area, I argue that elements of the EP are present in Parmenides, Zeno, and Melissus. The poem of Parmenides is compatible with (1) and (2) through the interaction of Light and Night, and the characterization of what-is as knowable. Zeno’s moving arrow paradox employs elements of (2), while his argument from complete divisibility adds preconditions to (3). Finally, against the traditional view that Melissus denies the existence of the sensible world, I show that for Melissus, the sensible world exists alongside what-is. The causal link between what-is and the sensible world, along with Melissus’ commitment to what-is as the object of knowledge renders Melissus the Eleatic whose Eleaticism is most represented in the Eleatic Principle. Alternatives for the application of the EP in contemporary metaphysics and reasons for the inclusion of an Eleatic visitor as the main interlocutor of a dialogue that is often taken as a criticism of Eleaticism emerge.
  • Corporeality and Thickness: Back on Melissus’ Fragment B9 Artigos

    Brémond, Mathilde

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Melissus’ fragment B9, where he claims that being has no body and no thickness, raises the question of how being can be extended and full and at the same time incorporeal. Most recent interpretations tried to avoid lending to “body” the meaning of “physical body”. My aim in this paper is to reconstruct Melissus’ notion of body, by examining its connection to “thickness”. I show that Melissus meant by “thick” something that has distinct parts and therefore supports in B9 the indivisibility of being. I then indicate that he relied on the contrast between soul and body for his conception of corporeality, by highlighting that by Presocratic thinkers, the soul was considered as “thin” and regarded as something that could be exempt of the division into parts. I conclude that even though Melissus’ notion of incorporeality is very different from the one Plato will develop, he made a huge step toward its conceptualization.
  • Establishing the Logos of Melissus: A Note on Chapter 1, Hippocrates’ De natura hominis Artigos

    Harriman, Benjamin

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The earliest mention of Melissus of Samos by name is found in the first chapter of the Hippocratic De natura hominis. In the following note, I attempt to examine what is meant by the reference Melissus’ ‘logos’ in this work and suggest, against previous accounts, including Galen’s, that it has little to do with his commitment to monism. Rather Melissus’ logos is better understood as his referring to his strategy for demonstrating such a conclusion, especially his use of a supplemental argument in his fragment B8. Polybus’ concern in this first chapter is not monism as such but the claims to knowledge monists make. Melissus is a prime example of a monist who fails to grasp what he claims to know.
  • Overcoming Parmenides: Zeno, Melissus and Gorgias committed to doing 'better than him' Artigos

    Rossetti, Livio

    Abstract in Italian:

    Riassunto: Durante il V secolo AC Parmenide ebbe molti e qualificati lettori, tra cui Zenone, Empedocle, Anassagora, Leucippo, Melisso, Protagora, Gorgia, Ippia. Tre di loro hanno cercato di fare molto di più di quello che è stato in grado di fare lui con l' ‘esercizio deduttivo’ che incontriamo in 28B8.1-33 (o, nel caso di Melisso, con l'intera dottrina dell'essere), e ci sono riusciti. In effetti, che si siano sforzati di superare l'elevato standard già raggiunto da Parmenide nell'invenzione dei passaggi strettamente deduttivi è sostanzialmente fuori discussione. Il mio articolo è dedicato a rendere conto degli ambiziosi obiettivi che Zenone, Melisso e Gorgia raggiunsero, ciascuno in modi molto differenti.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: During the fifth century BCE Parmenides had many and qualified readers, among whom Zeno, Empedocles, Anaxagoras, Leucippus, Melissus, Protagoras, Gorgias, Hippias. Three of them tried to do much more than what he was able to do with the ‘deductive exercise’ we encounter in 28B8.1-33 (or, in the case of Melissus, with the whole doctrine of being), and they succeeded. Indeed, that they strived to overcome the high standard already reached by Parmenides in the invention of strictly deductive passages is basically out of the question. My paper is devoted to account for the ambitious aims Zeno, Melissus, and Gorgias attained, each in a very distinguished manner.
  • WHAT IS GORGIAS’ ‘NOT BEING’? A brief journey through the Treatise, the Apology of Palamedes and the Encomium of Helen Artigos

    Di Iulio, Erminia

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Assuming that a nihilist reading of Gorgias’ thought is to be ruled out, the issue of ‘not being’ remains one of the thorniest in his philosophy; indeed, it is fair to conclude that Gorgias is deeply concerned with ‘not being’. But what, after all, is Gorgias’ ‘not being’? This paper aims to answer this crucial question, by taking into consideration Gorgias’ main texts (i.e. the Treatise, the Apology of Palamedes and the Encomium of Helen). Each of them provides a serious - although not always explicit - account of ‘not being’. Overall, the aim is to show that Gorgias’ account of ‘not being’ is not concerned with ‘non-existence’ at all. It is deeply concerned, however, with falsehood and language. The paper will, therefore, be structured as follows: in part 1, the Treatise and specifically the the first section of the Particular Proof will be addressed and its ‘linguistic’ conception of ‘not-being’ fully exploited; in part 2, the Apology of Palamedes will be taken into account, in order to enucleate its ‘not-being-as-falsehood’ argument; the results from part 1 and part 2 will allow us, in part 3, to provide an analysis of the Encomium of Helen which points at its underlying conception of ‘not-being’.
  • GORGIAS' revising of ancient epistemology: on non-being by GORGIAS and its paraphrases Artigos

    Volf, Marina

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The philosophical nature of the two versions of paraphrasing the Gorgias' treatise On Non-Being - the skeptical version by Sextus Empiricus and the peripatetic version by an anonymous author - are discussed. The paper gives a comparative analysis of the arguments upheld by the informants enunciating Gorgias' thoughts, demonstrates the range of philosophical problems, which Gorgias considered, judging by the narratives of his speech, and shows how both versions add to and clarify each other in terms of philosophical issues. The work provides insights as to how Gorgias modernizes and transforms the initial attitudes of Parmenides, shifting the reasoning plan: from how thought can be directed to an object and the qualities of this object to how thought can be directed to the non-existent. Accordingly, the problems of intentionality in the Gorgias' teaching are considered as well as the privileged status of any of mental states, the nature of word or speech as an autonomous way to develop knowledge about external objects, the issue of meaning as a reference, and inter-subjectivity in cognition. A conclusion is reached that giving preference to one of the paraphrasing versions considerably impoverishes our understanding of the Gorgias' teaching, while the joint analysis of both versions demonstrates the engagement of the sophistic issues, raised by Gorgias, in the general philosophic and, particularly, epistemological paradigm of the ancient as well as modern philosophy.
  • BETWEEN ELEATICS AND ATOMISTS: GORGIAS’ ARGUMENT AGAINST MOTION Artigos

    Ioli, Roberta

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The aim of my paper is to investigate Gorgias’ argument against motion, which is found in his Peri tou mē ontos and preserved only in MXG 980a1˗8. I tried to shed new light both on this specific reflection and on the reliability of Pseudo-Aristotle’s version. By exploring the so called “change argument” and the “argument from divisibility”, I focused on the particular strategy used by the Sophist in his synthetikē apodeixis, which should be investigated in relation to the dispute between monistic and pluralistic ontology. In this regard, the puzzle from “divisibility everywhere” and its connection with the void as not-being can provide new elements to grasp the philosophical background in which the Sophist moves. On the one hand, Gorgias’ argument against motion is part of a broader dispute on the divisibility/indivisibility of being; on the other, his original elaboration of this puzzle seems to be perfectly understandable within the controversy between Eleatics and Atomists, and coherent with the argumentative style of the Sophist.
  • The paradigm of fragmented sensitivity in Gorgias' 'PTMO' Artigos

    Spangeberg, Pilar

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen: El artículo pretende mostrar la importancia que reviste el tratamiento ofrecido por Gorgias en torno a la sensación y su relación con el pensamiento y el lenguaje en los dos resúmenes conservados del Peri tou me ontos (PTMO). Sostengo que allí se postula una fragmentación radical del hombre como polo unificado de la sensación, así como también del objeto en una multiplicidad de aristas que no encuentran momento sintético alguno. El paradigma de la sensibilidad fragmentada es el fundamento central, incuestionado en el tratado que se proyectará a las relaciones entre ser, pensamiento y discurso para abonar la tesis de la imposibilidad del conocimiento y de la comunicación. Más allá de las intenciones gorgianas, se subraya el valor aporético de tales planteos y se sugieren importantes proyecciones de tales aporías en las propuestas de Platón y Aristóteles en torno a la sensibilidad.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The article aims to show the importance of Gorgias’ treatment of sensation and its relation to thought and language in the two preserved summaries of the Peri tou me ontos (PTMO). I argue that Gorgias postulates there a radical fragmentation of man in multiple sensations, as well as of the object in a multiplicity of edges that do not find any synthetic moment. The paradigm of fragmented sensitivity is the central scheme, unquestioned in the treatise, that will be projected to the relationships between being, thought and discourse to support the theses of the impossibility of knowledge and communication. Beyond Gorgias’ intentions, the article aims to exhibit the important projections of the aporias raised by him as shown in Plato and Aristotle's proposals regarding sensitivity.
  • Unity and Multiplicity in Plato's diairetic method in the Sophist Artigos

    Santos, Bárbara Helena de Oliveira

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo: Ao colocar a diairesis em comunhão com a dialética, Platão rompe com a estrutura dicotômica-unívoca parmenídica; no Fragmento 2 do Poema Da Natureza, a deusa estabelece que há apenas dois caminhos para a verdade, um que é e outro que não é. Desses dois caminhos, Parmênides nega o segundo, afirmando que é impossível conhecer o que não é: para o filósofo préssocrático conhecer algo está relacionado ao é, logo, para ele, é impossível conhecer o que não é. De maneira que há, em Parmênides, uma cisão entre “ser” e “não-ser”. O desafio, ao qual nos propomos neste artigo, é explorar as implicações, para a diairesis no Sofista de Platão, quanto à afirmação parmenídica sobre a impossibilidade cognoscível a respeito do não-ser.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: By placing diairesis in communion with the dialectic, Plato breaks with the dichotomous-univocal Parmenidean structure; in Fragment 2 of the poem On Nature by Parmenides, the goddess establishes that there are only two routes to the truth, one that is and one that is not. Of these two, Parmenides denies the second, stating that it is impossible to know what is not: for the pre-socratic philosopher to know something is related to what is, therefore, for him, it is impossible to know what is not. So, in Parmenides, there is a split between “being” and “not-being”. Therefore, our objective in this article, is to explore the implications, for the diairesis in Plato's Sophist, of the Parmenidean affirmation that non-being is impossible to know.
  • Editor’s note Nota

    Cornelli, Gabriele
  • Review of Torrano, J. Mito e imagens míticas. Hesíodo, homéricos, tragédia e Platão (2019) Resenhas

    Silva, Maria Aparecida de Oliveira
  • Archai Dossier: Socratic Voices Apresentação De Dossiê

    Illarraga, Rodrigo; Lozano Nembrot, Milena
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