Soybean protein concentrate in Pacific white shrimp reared in bioflocs: effect on health and vibrio challenge

Concentrado proteico de soja em dietas para camarão-branco-do-pacífico criado em sistema de bioflocos: efeito na saúde e desafio com vibrio

Delano Dias Schleder Adolfo Jatobá Bruno Corrêa da Silva Daniel Paulo Damin Ferro Walter Quadros Seiffert Felipe do Nascimento Vieira About the authors

ABSTRACT.

Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp were reared in a bioflocs system and fed different levels of soybean protein concentrate as a replacement for fishmeal, and both immunological parameters of this marine shrimp and its resistance to Vibrio sp. infection (CPQBA 378-12 DRM01) were evaluated. Four different diets were formulated with 0, 33, 66 and 100 % of soybean protein concentrate as a substitute for fishmeal. Shrimp were reared in a biofloc system in twelve 800 L tanks (250 shrimp m-3) maintained at constant aeration and temperature. After 42 days, 36 animals (14.21 ± 0.89 g) per treatment were challenged with Vibrio sp. (1 x 105 CFU mL-1 - LD10), and hemolymph was collected before and after challenge to perform immunological assays (agglutination titer, concentration of protein and phenoloxidase activity). Shrimp fed with the experimental diets showed no difference in their resistance to infection and haemato-immunological parameters. Thus, rearing L. vannamei in a biofloc system on diets containing either partial or total replacement of fishmeal for soybean protein concentrate did not affect either immunocompetence or susceptibility to infection.

Keywords:
immune response; infection; plant protein; Litopenaeus vannamei

RESUMO.

O presente trabalho avaliou os parâmetros imunológicos e a resistência contra o Vibrio sp. (CPQBA 378-12 DRM01) de camarões marinhos Litopenaeus vannamei alimentados com diferentes níveis de concentrado proteico de soja em substituição à farinha de peixe e cultivados em sistema de bioflocos. Foram formuladas quatro dietas com 0, 33, 66 e 100 % de concentrado proteico de soja em substituição a farinha de peixe. Os camarões foram cultivados em 12 tanques de 800 L com 250 camarões m-3, sob temperatura e aeração constantes. Após 42 dias, 36 animais (14,21 ± 0,89 g) por tratamento foram desafiados com Vibrio sp. (1 x 105 UFC mL-1 - DL10). Antes e após o desafio foi coletada hemolinfa para avaliação dos parâmetros imunológicos (título aglutinante, concentração de proteína no soro e atividade da fenoloxidase). Não houve diferença na resistência ao desafio e nos parâmetros imunológicos entre os tratamentos. Portanto, o cultivo de L. vannamei em sistema de bioflocos utilizando dietas com substituição total ou parcial com concentrado proteico de soja não afeta sua imunocompetência e susceptibilidade a infecção bacteriana.

Palavras-chave:
resposta imunológica; infecção; proteína vegetal; Litopenaeus vannamei

Introduction

Fishmeal stands out among the different sources of animal protein used to produce marine shrimp diets based on nutritional value, attractiveness and palatability (Suárez et al., 2009Suárez, J. A., Gaxiola, G., Mendoza, R., Cadavid, S., Garcia, G., Alanis, G., ... Cuzon, G. (2009). Substitution of fish meal with plant protein sources and energy budget for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931). Aquaculture, 289(1-2), 118-123.). However, stagnation of fishmeal production in association with increasing demand has contributed to its current high price. Thus, the replacement of fishmeal for cheaper and more available ingredients has become a subject of considerable interest for the shrimp industry, mostly by their effects on shrimp farming profitability (Sookying, Davis, & Soller, 2013Sookying, D., Davis, D. A., & Soller, D. S. F. (2013). A review of the development and application of soybean based diets for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture Nutrition, 19(4), 441-448.; Tacon & Metian, 2008Tacon, A. G., & Metian, M. (2008). Global overview on the use of fish meal and fish oil in industrially compounded aquafeeds: Trends and future prospects. Aquaculture, 285(1), 146-158.).

Soybean and its derivatives have significant potential as a fishmeal replacement. Soybean ingredients have high protein content (45 to 50%) and a good balance of amino acids, except a deficiency in methionine. Additionally, they show lower price fluctuation when compared to fishmeal, potential for long-term storage, and can be considered a renewable source of protein (Sookying et al., 2013Sookying, D., Davis, D. A., & Soller, D. S. F. (2013). A review of the development and application of soybean based diets for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture Nutrition, 19(4), 441-448.). In addition to its amino acid profile, soybean concentrate can be distinguished from other derivatives for its higher digestibility (energy and protein) and palatability, as well as fewer anti-nutritional factors (Suárez et al., 2009Suárez, J. A., Gaxiola, G., Mendoza, R., Cadavid, S., Garcia, G., Alanis, G., ... Cuzon, G. (2009). Substitution of fish meal with plant protein sources and energy budget for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931). Aquaculture, 289(1-2), 118-123.). However, studies evaluating the effect soybean protein concentrate as a replacement for fishmeal have mostly considered performance parameters (Bauer, Prentice-Hernandez, Tesser, Wasielesky Jr., & Poersch, 2012Bauer, W., Prentice-Hernandez, C., Tesser, M. B., Wasielesky Jr., W., & Poersch, L. H. (2012). Substitution of fishmeal with microbial floc meal and soy protein concentrate in diets for the pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture, 342, 112-116.; Paripatananont, Boonyaratpalin, Pengseng, & Chotipuntu, 2001Paripatananont, T., Boonyaratpalin, M., Pengseng, P., & Chotipuntu, P. (2001). Substitution of soy protein concentrate for fishmeal in diets of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture Research, 32(S1), 369-374.), not immune response. Moreover, diseases like vibriosis and viral diseases affect shrimp production; therefore, susceptibility to disease, which has also been poorly studied, is important as a factor in the assessment of shrimp health (Lightner et al., 2012Lightner, D. V., Redman, R. M., Pantoja, C. R., Tang, K. F. J., Noble, B. L., Schofield, P., ... Navarro, S. A. (2012). Historic emergence, impact and current status of shrimp pathogens in the Americas. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 110(2), 174-183. ). In fact, the assessment of haemato-immunological parameters in association with disease challenge is commonly performed to verify the health status of crustaceans (Elshopakey et al., 2017Elshopakey, G. E., Risha, E. F., Abdalla, O. A., Okamura, Y., Hanh, V. D., Ibuki, M., ... Itami, T. (2017). Enhancement of immune response and resistance against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) by dietary supplementation of β-1, 4-mannobiose. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 74, 26-34.; Jia et al., 2017Jia, E., Li, Z., Xue, Y., Jiang, G., Li, X., Liu, W., & Zhang, D. (2017). Effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide on the growth, antioxidants, immunity and disease resistance of Chinese mitten crab. Aquaculture, 481, 154-161.).

In an even more granular sense, few studies have reported on the effect of diets containing soybean protein concentrate on shrimp reared in bioflocs technology (BFT) systems (Sá, Sabry Neto, Cordeiro Júnior, & Nunes, 2013Sá, M. V. C., Sabry Neto, H., Cordeiro Júnior, E., & Nunes, A. J. P. (2013). Dietary concentration of marine oil affects replacement of fish meal by soy protein concentrate in practical diets for the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture Nutrition, 19(2), 199-210.). The BFT system is based on the presence of microbial aggregates. The manipulation of the C:N ratio favors the conversion of inorganic nitrogen in microbial biomass, maintaining water quality and, consequently, reducing the need for water exchange and increasing biosecurity (McIntosh et al., 2000McIntosh, D., Samocha, T. M., Jones, E. R., Lawrence, A. L., McKee, D. A., Horowitz, S., & Horowitz, A. (2000). The effect of a commercial bacterial supplement on the high-density culturing of Litopenaeus vannamei with a low-protein diet in an outdoor tank system and no water exchange. Aquacultural Engineering, 21(3), 215-227.). This manipulation takes place through the addition of organic carbon based on the nitrogen concentration present in the feed and water (Ahmad, Rani, Verma, & Maqsood, 2017Ahmad, I., Rani, A. M. B., Verma, A. K., & Maqsood, M. (2017). Biofloc technology: an emerging avenue in aquatic animal healthcare and nutrition. Aquaculture International, 25(3), 1215-1226.). The microbial aggregates present in BFT systems can also be used as a feed source for the animals, and the consumption of these microbial aggregates seems to improve the immune system, increasing both antioxidant defense (Cardona et al., 2016Cardona, E., Lorgeoux, B., Chim, L., Goguenheim, J., Le Delliou, H., & Cahu, C. (2016). Biofloc contribution to antioxidant defence status, lipid nutrition and reproductive performance of broodstock of the shrimp Litopenaeus Stylirostris: Consequences for the quality of eggs and larvae. Aquaculture, 452, 252-262.; Liu, Zhu, Liu, Guo, & Ye, 2017Liu, G., Zhu, S., Liu, D., Guo, X., & Ye, Z. (2017). Effects of stocking density of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) on immunities, antioxidant status, and resistance against Vibrio harveyi in a biofloc system. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 67, 19-26.; Xu & Pan, 2013Xu, W.-J., & Pan, L.-Q. (2013). Enhancement of immune response and antioxidant status of Litopenaeus vannamei juvenile in biofloc-based culture tanks manipulating high C/N ratio of feed input. Aquaculture, 412, 117-124.) and resistance against Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) challenge (Ekasari et al., 2014Ekasari, J., Azhar, M. H., Surawidjaja, E. H., Nuryati, S., De Schryver, P., & Bossier, P. (2014). Immune response and disease resistance of shrimp fed biofloc grown on different carbon sources. Fish & shellfish immunology, 41(2), 332-339.).

This study aimed to evaluate the haemato-immunological parameters of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared in a bioflocs system, as well as its resistance to Vibrio sp. infection, when fed different levels of soybean protein concentrate as a replacement for fishmeal.

Material and methods

Biological material

The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) used in this study were purchased from AQUATEC (Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil) and represent a lineage of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) breed under the mandatory notification (WSSV, IHHNV, TSV, IMNV, and YHV) by the OIE-World Organization for Animal Health.

Lethal dose

For bacterial challenge, a strain of Vibrio sp. (CPQBA 378-12 DRM01) was isolated from L. vannamei broodstock maintained at the Laboratório de Camarões Marinhos of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (LCM-UFSC). The strain was identified using 16S rRNA sequencing and showed higher similarity with Vibrio natriegens and Vibrio alginolyticus on phylogenetic analysis (Figure 1). A lethal dose (LD) assay was performed, using 10 experimental units (40 L) with 10 L. vannamei individuals (11.5 ± 1.2 g). These units were filled with sterilized seawater under constant temperature (28.0 ± 1.0ºC) and aeration. Nine different concentrations were evaluated, ranging from 5 x 104 to 1 x 107 colony forming units (CFU) per shrimp, one for each experimental unit. One unit was inoculated with 3 % sterile saline solution (SSE) as control (Buglione et al., 2010Buglione, C. C., Nascimento Vieira, F., Pedreira Mouriño, J. L., Pedrotti, F. S., Jatoba, A., & Laterça Martins, M. (2010). Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences, 32(3), 291-296.).

The inoculum was cultivated in Brain and Heart Infusion Broth (BHI) at 28°C for 18h and then centrifuged at 1,800 g for 30 min. The supernatant was discharged, and the precipitate was resuspended in 3% SSE at 1 x 108 CFU mL-1 based on a previously established relationship between absorbance at 600 nm (OD600) and CFU. Afterwards, the bacterial suspension was diluted to the desired concentration for the challenge (ranging from 5 x 104 to 1 x 107) and then inoculated (100 µl) at the first abdominal dorsal segment. Mortality was monitored every 6 h over the course of 96h (data not shown).

Rearing conditions

Four isocaloric diets were formulated with different levels of soybean protein concentrate as a replacement for fishmeal (0, 33, 66 and 100 %). Diets were formulated with 271-274 g kg-1 of estimated digestible protein (Jatobá et al., 2017Jatobá, A., Vieira, F. d. N., Silva, B. C., Soares, M., Mouriño, J. L. P., & Seiffert, W. Q. (2017). Replacement of fishmeal for soy protein concentrate in diets for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc-based rearing system. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 46(9), 705-713.) and similar amounts of marine-origin fat (fish oil + fat contained in the fishmeal), ensuring a similar profile of fatty acids. The protein content, crude lipids, crude fibre, ash and moisture of all diets were determined (Table 1).

Figure 1
Phylogenetic tree derived from partial 16S rDNA sequence data for bacteria related to the CPQBA 378-12-DRM 01 strain, which was isolated from L. vannamei broodstock from the maturation sector of LCM-UFSC and used for bacterial challenge. Sequence data was from The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) and GenBank.

Table 1
Ingredients and proximal composition of the experimental diets with different replacement levels of fishmeal by soybean protein concentrate.

Shrimp juveniles (initial weight: 3.96 ± 0.04 g) were grown under a super-intensive biofloc system (BFT) in polyethylene units (800 L) supplied with water pumped from a bioflocs matrix tank. The units had an area of 4 m² (bottom and sides), and an additional 2 m² were provided as artificial substrate. Constant aeration was provided through diffusion hoses connected to a 7.5 hp blower, while 1,000 W titanium heaters with a thermostat were used to maintain the temperature at 29.0 ± 0.5ºC.

The experimental units were distributed in a completely random design among the four treatments (0, 33, 66 and 100 % of soybean protein concentrate) in triplicate. Each tank received 200 shrimp, maintaining an initial density of 250 shrimp m-3. The rearing trial lasted 42 days, until the animals reached 14.21 ± 0.89 g (Jatobá et al., 2017Jatobá, A., Vieira, F. d. N., Silva, B. C., Soares, M., Mouriño, J. L. P., & Seiffert, W. Q. (2017). Replacement of fishmeal for soy protein concentrate in diets for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc-based rearing system. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 46(9), 705-713.).

Bacterial challenge and haemato-immunological analysis

After the rearing period, 12 shrimp from each experimental unit were transferred to 40 L tanks filled with sterilized seawater under constant temperature (28.0 ± 1.0ºC) and aeration. Then, 100 µl of bacterial suspension in SSE at the concentration of 1 x 105 CFU mL-1 (LD10, calculated using the lethal dose assay), produced as described above, were inoculated in the dorsal region of the first abdominal segment of each shrimp. As in the lethal dose assay, mortality was monitored every 6 h over 96h.

Hemolymph from five shrimp per experimental unit was collected to form three pools for each treatment, before and 96h after challenge, for haemato-immunological analysis. Samples were collected using 1-mL sterile syringes with a 21 G needle and left to clot at 4°C for 2h. The coagulated hemolymph was frozen at -20°C, thawed, and then centrifuged at 10,000 g for 10 min to obtain the serum, which was then aliquoted and stored at -20°C for later use. Haemato-immunological assays, including serum agglutination titer, concentration of protein and phenoloxidase activity (PO) were performed as described by Silva et al. (2016Silva, B. C., Jatobá, A., Schleder, D. D., Vieira, F. d. N., Mouriño, J. L. P., & Seiffert, W. Q. (2016). Dietary supplementation with butyrate and polyhydroxybutyrate on the performance of pacific white shrimp in biofloc systems. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 47(4), 508-518.).

Data analysis

A bacterial lethal dose curve was performed by using a linear regression model. Data adjustment to the model was based on the significance level (p < 0.05), the regression coefficients by t test, the determination coefficient (R2 = S.Q.Reg./ S.Q.Treatment), the sum of squared deviations, and the phenomenon under study. Mortality data from the experimental challenge and data from haemato-immunological assays were first subjected to Cochran analysis to verify the homogeneity of variance, and then the data were subjected to repeated-measures ANOVA and ANOVA factorial (replacement level x challenge), respectively. If differences were found between the means, the Tukey test for comparison of means was used at 5 % probability.

Results and discussion

In the bacterial challenge assay, shrimp fed with 33 and 66 % of soybean protein concentrate replacement showed lower mortality rate in the first 70 h, but not different (p ≥ 0.05). However, after 96 h, all treatments reached similar (p ≥ 0.05) mortality rate (Figure 2).

Figure 2
Cumulative mortality of BFT-reared Litopenaeus vannamei fed with diets containing different replacement levels of fishmeal by soybean protein concentrate and challenged with Vibrio sp. strain (CPQBA 378-12 DRM01) for 96h.

Based on the haemato-immunological assays, shrimp fed with all four experimental diets showed no difference, either before or after bacterial challenge (p > 0.05). After challenge with Vibrio sp., agglutination titer and serum protein concentration showed a reduction (p <0.05) in all treatments. However, PO activity remained at the same level before and after challenge (Table 2).

Table 2
Haemato-immunological parameters of BFT-reared Litopenaeus vannamei (n = 15) fed diets with different levels of protein concentrate to replace fishmeal before (BC) and after (AC) challenge with Vibrio sp. strain (CPQBA 378-12 DRM01) for 96h.

The replacement of fishmeal by soybean protein concentrate at levels of 66 and 100% decreased shrimp growth and yield (Jatobá et al., 2017Jatobá, A., Vieira, F. d. N., Silva, B. C., Soares, M., Mouriño, J. L. P., & Seiffert, W. Q. (2017). Replacement of fishmeal for soy protein concentrate in diets for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc-based rearing system. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 46(9), 705-713.); however, none of the different replacement levels affected the susceptibility of shrimp to Vibrio sp. challenge, nor did such replacement levels result in significant differences in haemato-immunological parameters evaluated before or after challenge.

The effect of plant-based ingredients, especially soybean, as the main source of feed protein, on resistance to infection and innate immune response of aquatic organisms seems to be controversial. Bulbul et al. (2016Bulbul, M., Kader, M. A., Asaduzzaman, M., Ambak, M. A., Chowdhury, A. J. K., Hossain, M. S., ... Koshio, S. (2016). Can canola meal and soybean meal be used as major dietary protein sources for kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus?. Aquaculture, 452, 194-199.) demonstrated that the use of canola and soybean meal as the primary protein source did not affect the viability or hemocyte count of Marsupenaeus japonicus grown in clear water. Meanwhile, Macrobrachium nipponense grown in clear water and fed with fermented soybean meal greater than 25 %, as a replacement for fishmeal, showed a reduction in resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection, as well as a reduction in immunocompetence (Ding, Zhang, Ye, Du, & Kong, 2015Ding, Z., Zhang, Y., Ye, J., Du, Z., & Kong, Y. (2015). An evaluation of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal in the diet of Macrobrachium nipponense: growth, nonspecific immunity, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 44(1), 295-301.).

In fish, soy protein concentrate at 60%, as a replacement for fishmeal, did not affect resistance against Vibrio harveyi in Paralichthys dentatus reared in clear water. However, replacement by a combination of 48% soy protein concentrate and 12% soybean meal did increase survival by 25% after challenge with V. harveyi (Ward, Bengtson, Lee, & Gomez-Chiarri, 2016Ward, D., Bengtson, D. A., Lee, C. M., & Gomez-Chiarri, M. (2016). Incorporation of soybean products in summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) feeds: Effects on growth and survival to bacterial challenge. Aquaculture, 452, 395-401.). Kokou, Rigos, Henry, Kentouri, and Alexis (2012Kokou, F., Rigos, G., Henry, M., Kentouri, M., & Alexis, M. (2012). Growth performance, feed utilization and non-specific immune response of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) fed graded levels of a bioprocessed soybean meal. Aquaculture, 364, 74-81.) found that different percentages of fishmeal replacement by bioprocessed soybean meal variously modulated innate immune response of Sparus aurata grown in clear water.

On the other hand, rearing marine shrimp in a bioflocs system seems to positively influence resistance to infection and immunocompetence of the animals. Bioflocs is an aggregate formed by bacteria (gram-negative and gram-positive), algae, fungi, protozoans and nematodes (Ahmad et al., 2017Ahmad, I., Rani, A. M. B., Verma, A. K., & Maqsood, M. (2017). Biofloc technology: an emerging avenue in aquatic animal healthcare and nutrition. Aquaculture International, 25(3), 1215-1226.). The cell walls of these microorganisms, like lipopolysaccharides and peptidoglycans, is known to be immunostimulant for shrimp (Wang, Sun, Liu, & Xue, 2017Wang, W., Sun, J., Liu, C., & Xue, Z. (2017). Application of immunostimulants in aquaculture: current knowledge and future perspectives. Aquaculture Research, 48(1), 1-23.). Ekasari et al. (2014Ekasari, J., Azhar, M. H., Surawidjaja, E. H., Nuryati, S., De Schryver, P., & Bossier, P. (2014). Immune response and disease resistance of shrimp fed biofloc grown on different carbon sources. Fish & shellfish immunology, 41(2), 332-339.) found that L. vannamei reared in a bioflocs system with addition of different carbon sources improved immune response and resistance against IMNV. Xu and Pan (2013Xu, W.-J., & Pan, L.-Q. (2013). Enhancement of immune response and antioxidant status of Litopenaeus vannamei juvenile in biofloc-based culture tanks manipulating high C/N ratio of feed input. Aquaculture, 412, 117-124.) also reported improvement in immune response and antioxidant production in shrimp reared in a bioflocs system. Thus, in the present study, rearing marine shrimp in a bioflocs system may have overcome the effects of protein source replacement, homogeneously enhancing immunocompetence and response to bacterial infection of L. vannamei from the different treatments.

Nevertheless, activation of the innate immune system of the shrimp reared in biofloc system is not necessarily a positive situation, essentially because it could lead to higher energy cost and physiological impairment in these animals. Therefore, further studies should be performed to shed more light on the apparent immunostimulatory effect of bioflocs system on shrimp health.

Conclusion

Rearing L. vannamei in a biofloc system with diets replacing fishmeal with soybean protein concentrate, either partially or completely, does not affect the susceptibility or immunocompetence (agglutination titer, concentration of protein and phenoloxidase activity) of these animals upon challenge with Vibrio sp.

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge FINEP for their financial support of FINEP/RECARCINA - 2010-2012. Felipe Vieira and Walter Seiffert received productivity research fellowships from CNPq (PQ 305357/2017-4 and 302792/2012-0, respectively). We are also grateful to IMCOPA and Guabi for providing the necessary ingredients for diet preparation.

References

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  • Ding, Z., Zhang, Y., Ye, J., Du, Z., & Kong, Y. (2015). An evaluation of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal in the diet of Macrobrachium nipponense: growth, nonspecific immunity, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 44(1), 295-301.
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  • Jia, E., Li, Z., Xue, Y., Jiang, G., Li, X., Liu, W., & Zhang, D. (2017). Effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide on the growth, antioxidants, immunity and disease resistance of Chinese mitten crab. Aquaculture, 481, 154-161.
  • Kokou, F., Rigos, G., Henry, M., Kentouri, M., & Alexis, M. (2012). Growth performance, feed utilization and non-specific immune response of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) fed graded levels of a bioprocessed soybean meal. Aquaculture, 364, 74-81.
  • Lightner, D. V., Redman, R. M., Pantoja, C. R., Tang, K. F. J., Noble, B. L., Schofield, P., ... Navarro, S. A. (2012). Historic emergence, impact and current status of shrimp pathogens in the Americas. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 110(2), 174-183.
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  • Sookying, D., Davis, D. A., & Soller, D. S. F. (2013). A review of the development and application of soybean based diets for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Aquaculture Nutrition, 19(4), 441-448.
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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    22 Oct 2018
  • Date of issue
    2018

History

  • Received
    24 Apr 2017
  • Accepted
    02 May 2018
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