Investigation of different levels of cholecalciferol and its metabolite in calcium and phosphorus deficient diets on growth performance, tibia bone ash and development of tibial dyschondroplasia in broilers

ABSTRACT.

This experiment was conducted to examine the effects of 1-α(OH)D3 alone or in combination with different levels of cholecalciferol on performance, and tibia parameters of one-d-old male broilers fed a tibial dyschondroplasia (TD)-inducing diet. A total of three hundred male broilers were randomly allocated to 5 treatment groups with 4 replicates. The dietary treatments consisted of TD inducing diet, TD inducing diet supplemented with 5 μg per kg of 1-α(OH)D3; TD inducing diet supplemented with 5 μg per kg of 1-α(OH)D3 and 1,500; 3,000 or 5,000 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet. At 42 d of age, broiler chickens fed diets containing 1-α(OH)D3 and 1,500 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet had higher body weight (p < 0.05). In the complete experimental period the best FCR and the highest daily weight gain were obtained in broilers supplemented with 1-α(OH)D3 and 1,500 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet. Broilers supplemented with 1-α(OH)D3 and 1,500 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet had significantly lower incidence and severity of TD in comparison with other groups. In conclusion, the results indicated that the supplementation of 1-α(OH)D3 in combination of 1,500 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet could maximize tibia bone ash, performance and prevent TD in broilers fed TD inducing diet.

Keywords:
bone ash; chick; phosphorus deficiency; 1-α(OH)D3; vitamin D3

Introduction

Avian tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), a cartilage abnormality, which commonly occurs in broilers, layers, turkeys, and ducks is very sensitive to calcium (Ca)-to-phosphorus (P) ratio (Rennie, Whitehead & Thorp, 1993Rennie, J. S., Whitehead, C. C., & Thorp, B. H. (1993). The effect of dietary 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in preventing tibial dyschondroplasia in broilers fed on diets imbalanced in calcium and phosphorus. British Journal of Nutrition, 69(3), 809-816. doi: 10.1079/BJN19930081
https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19930081...
), and vitamin D metabolism (Ledwaba & Roberson, 2003Ledwaba, M. F., & Roberson, K. D. (2003). Effectiveness of twenty-five-hydroxycholecalciferol in the prevention of tibial dyschondroplasia in Ross cockerels depends on dietary calcium level. Poultry Science, 82(11), 1769-1777. doi: 10.1093/ps/82.11.1769
https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/82.11.1769...
). The major perturbation leading to TD is disruption of normal growth plate chondrocyte maturation (Farquharson & Jefferies, 2000Farquharson, C., & Jefferies, D. (2000). Chondrocytes and longitudinal bone growth: the development of tibial dyschondroplasia. Poultry Science, 79(7), 994-1004. doi: 10.1093/ps/79.7.994
https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/79.7.994...
). Whitehead, McCormack, McTeir and Fleming (2004Whitehead, C. C., McCormack, H. A., McTeir, L., & Fleming, R. H. (2004). High vitamin D3 requirements in broilers for bone quality and prevention of tibial dyschondroplasia and interactions with dietary calcium, available phosphorus and vitamin A. British Poultry Science, 45(3), 425-436. doi: 10.1080/00071660410001730941
https://doi.org/10.1080/0007166041000173...
) indicated that the supplementation of high levels of cholecalciferol could prevent TD in broiler chickens. Edwards (1990Edwards Jr., H. M. (1990). Efficacy of several vitamin D compounds in the prevention of tibialdyschondroplasia in broiler chickens. Journal of Nutrition, 120(9), 1054-1061. doi: 10.1093/jn/120.9.1054
https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/120.9.1054...
) indicated that the supplementation of a Ca-deficient diet containing 27.5 mg kg-1 cholecalciferol with 10 mg kg-1 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol enhanced tibia ash and reduced the incidence and severity of TD. Similarly, several previous studies indicated that the supplementation of vitamin D metabolites to broiler diet reduced the incidence and severity of TD (Roberson & Edwards, 1996Roberson, K. D., & Edwards Jr., H. M. (1996). Effect of dietary 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol level on broiler performance. Poultry Science, 75(1), 90-94. doi: 10.3382/ps.0750090
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0750090...
; Elliot & Edwards, 1997Elliot, M. A., & Edwards Jr., H. M. (1997). Effect of 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, cholecalciferol and fluorescent lights on the development of tibial dyschondroplasia and rickets in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 76(4), 570-580. doi: 10.1093/ps/76.4.570
https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/76.4.570...
; Nääs et al., 2012Nääs, I. A., Baracho, M. S., Bueno, L. G. F., Moura, D. J., Vercelino, R. A., & Salgado, D. D. (2012). Use of vitamin D to reduce lameness in broilers reared in harsh environments. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 14(3), 159-232. doi: 10.1590/S1516-635X2012000300002
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-635X201200...
; Atencio, Pesti, & Edwards, 2005Atencio, A., Pesti, G., & Edwards Jr., H. M. (2005). Twenty-five hydroxycholecalciferol as a cholecalciferol substitute in broiler breeder hen diets and its effect on the performance and general health of the progeny. Poultry Science, 84(8), 1277-1285. doi: 10.1093/ps/84.8.1277
https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/84.8.1277...
).

According to Edwards, Shirley, Escoe, and Pesti (2002Edwards Jr., H. M., Shirley, R. B., Escoe, W. B., & Pesti, G. M. (2002). Quantitative evaluation of 1-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol as a cholecalciferol substitute for broilers. Poultry Science, 81(5), 664-669. doi: 10.1093/ps/81.5.664
https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/81.5.664...
), the relative biological value of one-alpha-hydroxy-cholecalciferol (1-α(OH)D3), a metabolite of cholecalciferol is eight times as effective as cholecalciferol. Landy and Toghyani (2014Landy, N., & Toghyani, M. (2014). Evaluation the effects of dietary cholecalciferol substitution with 1alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol on performance and tibia parameters in broiler chickens. International Journal of Poultry Science, 13(9), 515-517. doi: 10.3923/ijps.2014.515.517
https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2014.515.51...
) investigated the effect of feeding 5 μg kg-1 of 1-α(OH)D3 as a substitution for 5,000 IU cholecalciferol kg-1. The results showed that 1-α(OH)D3 can be used as a substitute for cholecalciferol. Several studies investigated the efficacy of 1-α(OH)D3 alone or in combination of phytase where the results showed a positive interaction between 1-α(OH)D3 and phytase (Snow, Baker, & Parsons, 2004Snow, J. L., Baker, D. H., & Parsons, C. M. (2004). Phytase, citric acid, and 1α-hydroxycholecalciferol improve phytate phosphorus utilization in chicks fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Poultry Science, 83(7), 1187-1192. doi: 10.1093/ps/83.7.1187
https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/83.7.1187...
; Driver, Pesti, Bakalli, & Edwards, 2005Driver, J. P., Pesti, G. M., Bakalli, R. I., & Edwards Jr., H. M. (2005). Phytase and 1alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol supplementation of broiler chickens during the starting and growing/finishing phases. Poultry Science, 84(10), 1616-1628. doi: 10.1093/ps/84.10.1616
https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/84.10.1616...
; Kheiri, Poshtvar, Jalali Haji Abadi, & Landy, 2019Kheiri, F., Poshtvar, M., Jalali Haji Abadi, S. M. A., & Landy, N. (2019). Influence of dietary 1αlpha-hydroxycholecalciferol, individually or in combination with microbial phytase in calcium and phosphorus deficient diets on growth performance and tibia parameter of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica). Acta Scienctiarum. Animal Sciences, 41, e42540. doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v41i1.42540
https://doi.org/10.4025/actascianimsci.v...
). Ghasemi, Toghyani, & Landy (2018Ghasemi, G. H., Toghyani, M., & Landy, N. (2018). The effects of dietary 1α-hydroxycholecalciferol in calcium and phosphorous-deficient diets on growth performance, parameters of tibia and immune responses of broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition, 5(2), 134-139. doi: 10.1016/j.aninu.2018.04.011
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2018.04....
) investigated the efficacy of 1-α(OH)D3 alone in Ca-P deficient diets, and the results indicated that 1-α(OH)D3 couldn’t improve tibia parameters of broilers. It has been documented that 1-α(OH)D3 was more effective in phytate phosphorus (PP) digestion in broilers fed low Ca diets (Ledwaba & Roberson, 2003Ledwaba, M. F., & Roberson, K. D. (2003). Effectiveness of twenty-five-hydroxycholecalciferol in the prevention of tibial dyschondroplasia in Ross cockerels depends on dietary calcium level. Poultry Science, 82(11), 1769-1777. doi: 10.1093/ps/82.11.1769
https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/82.11.1769...
; Han et al., 2012Han, J. C., Liu, Y., Yao, J., Wang, J., Qu, H., Yan, Y., & Dong, X. (2012). Dietary calcium levels reduce the efficacy of one alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol in phosphorus-deficient diets of broilers. The Journal of Poultry Science, 49(1), 34-38. doi: 10.2141/jpsa.011069
https://doi.org/10.2141/jpsa.011069...
). Landy, Toghyani, Bahadoran and Eghbalsaied (2015Landy, N., & Toghyani, M. (2014). Evaluation the effects of dietary cholecalciferol substitution with 1alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol on performance and tibia parameters in broiler chickens. International Journal of Poultry Science, 13(9), 515-517. doi: 10.3923/ijps.2014.515.517
https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2014.515.51...
) reported the ability of 1-α(OH)D3 in Ca-P deficient diets without cholecalciferol to improve tibia quality of broilers, although when cholecalciferol was adequate, tibia parameters were not improved by 1-α(OH)D3 supplementation. Similarly, Landy and Toghyani (2018Landy, N., & Toghyani, M. (2018). Evaluation of one-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1α-ohd3) alone or in combination with cholecalciferol in calcium and phosphorus deficiency diets on development of tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) in broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition, 4(1), 109-112. doi: 10.1016/j.aninu.2017.11.002
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2017.11....
) reported that the supplementation of cholecalciferol to Ca-P deficient diets containing 1-α(OH)D3 reduced tibia bone ash of broilers, however it could be reduced the incidence and severity of TD.

To differentiate the effect of cholecalciferol supplementation when 1-α(OH)D3 incorporated to the diets deficient in Ca and P, the null hypothesis of no effect was used. The alternative hypothesis is that there is an effect of cholecalciferol supplementation on growth performance, and tibia quality of male broiler chickens. The current study was conducted to examine the effects of 1-α(OH)D3 alone or in combination with different inclusion rate of cholecalciferol on growth performance, tibia bone ash, and development of tibial dyschondroplasia in broilers.

Material and methods

Ethical approval

Experimental procedures were conducted in accordance with the Ethical Committee of the Shahrekord University, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord branch, Iran (License number 2017-02/18).

Animals and dietary treatments

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of 1-α(OH)D3 individually or in combination with different levels of cholecalciferol (0, 1,500, 3,000 and 5,000 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet) in TD inducing diets on growth performance, incidence and severity of TD of broilers. On d of hatch, a total of 300 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were individually weighed (34 ± 1) and randomly allocated to 5 treatment groups, 4 replicates per pen with 15 male broiler chickens per replicate. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Starter (1 to 14 d), grower (15 to 28 d) and finisher (29 to 42 d) diets were formulated to meet nutrient requirement of Ross 308 strain (Aviagen, 2014Aviagen. (2014). Ross Broiler Management Manual. Midlothian, UK: Aviagen Ltd.), except for Ca, P, Cl and cholecalciferol. The basal diet was low in Ca and P and high in chlorine (Cl) and the vitamin premix that included in the diets did not contain cholecalciferol (TD inducing diet). The 5 treatment groups were supplemented with 500 FTU phytase kg-1 of diets (Phyzyme XP 5000, Danisco Animal Nutrition). The dietary treatments consisted of basal diet (Table 1), basal diet supplemented with 5 μg per kg of 1-α(OH)D3 (Vitamin Derivatives Inc., Georgia; USA); basal diet supplemented with 5 μg per kg of 1-α(OH)D3 and 1,500; 3,000 or 5,000 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet (BASF GmbH., Düsseldorf, Germany). The male broiler chickens were raised in cages (120 × 120 × 80 cm) with wood shaving-lined floors and room temperature was set via wire-floored battery brooders in moderate temperature rooms (33°C during first week, and gradually reduced by 3°C in the second and third weeks, and finally fixed at 22°C. The broiler house was windowless and lighting was presented by incandescent bulbs for 23h each day.

Feed analyses

The dietary treatments were formulated after analyzing of feed ingredient (monocalcium phosphate, CaCO3, Soybean meal, and corn), for Ca and tP contents according to standard Association Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC, 1995Association Official Analytical Chemist [AOAC]. (1995). Official Methods of Analysis (16th ed.). Washington, DC: AOAC International.) procedures. Dietary Ca and tP concentration were determined by the ICPOES method 2011.14 (AOAC, 1990Association Official Analytical Chemist [AOAC]. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis (15th ed.). Washington, DC: AOAC International.).

Growth performance

The average body weights of broilers from each cage was determined and recorded at d 1, 14, 28 and at the end of the experiment (42 d) to determine average daily weight gain (DWG). Feed intake data of male broiler chickens were collected at the end of the experiment to determine daily feed intake (DFI). Mortalities recorded daily to correct DFI: DWG (FCR).

Chemical analysis

At the conclusion of experiment, 2 male broiler chickens/cage (8 birds per treatment) were killed, right tibias were separated and pooled for the determination of tibia bone ash according to the method (22.10) described by AOAC (1995Association Official Analytical Chemist [AOAC]. (1995). Official Methods of Analysis (16th ed.). Washington, DC: AOAC International.). The left tibia was removed and evaluated for TD by making a longitudinal cut across the tibia. Each bird was scored for incidence and severity of TD as described by Edwards and Veltmann (1983Edwards Jr., H. M., & Veltmann Jr., J. R. (1983).The role of calcium and phosphorus in the etiology of tibialdyschondroplasia in young chicks. The Journal of nutrition, 113(8), 1568-1575. doi: 10.1093/jn/113.8.1568
https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/113.8.1568...
).

Table 1
Composition of the basal diets in different growth periods.

Statistical analysis

The experimental design was completely randomized, and all obtained data were subjected to ANOVA using the General Linear Model procedures of Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS, 2012Statistical Analysis Systems [SAS]. (2012). User’s guide. Cary, NC: SAS Institude Inc.) according to the following model:

Y i j = µ + T i + e i j

where μ is the overall mean, Ti is the effect of experimental treatments and eij is the random residual error. Orthogonal comparisons were performed to determine the linear and quadratic effects of the cholecalciferol levels or 1-α(OH)D3 on growth performance and tibia quality of broilers. Means were compared using the Tukey’s test at 5% significance.

Results and discussion

Growth performance

Performance data of broilers during starter, grower, and finisher periods are presented in Table 2. Treatments failed to induce any significant effects on performance criteria in starter and grower periods (p > 0.05). At 42 d of age the BW was increased in the broilers supplemented with 1-α(OH)D3 and 1,500 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet; although it was decreased by increasing the level of cholecalciferol (linearly and quadratically affected). During the finisher period DFI was linearly and quadratically affected by addition of different levels of cholecalciferol (p < 0.0001). As indicated in Table 2 DFI was decreased by addition of 1-α(OH)D3 and 1-α(OH)D3 and different concentrations of cholecalciferol. During the finisher period FCR was affected by the dietary treatments (linear and quadratic effects). The best FCR obtained in the group supplemented with 1-α(OH)D3 and 1,500 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet.

Table 2
Effects of dietary 1-α(OH)D3 individually or in combination with different levels of cholecalciferol on body weight (BW), daily feed intake (DFI), feed: gain ratio (FCR) and daily weight gain (DWG) of broilers in starter, grower and finisher periods.

Performance data of broilers throughout the entire experimental period are presented in Table 3. At 42 d of age, broilers fed 1-α(OH)D3 in combination with 1,500 (2,223 g) or 3,000 (2,202) IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet had significantly higher BW compared with broilers fed basal diet (1,874 g), 1-α(OH)D3 alone (2,029 g), and 1-α(OH)D3 in combination with 5,000 (2,006 g) IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet. Throughout the entire experimental period broiler chickens fed basal diet had the highest DFI and the lowest final BW. Broiler chickens fed diet supplemented with 1-α(OH)D3 in combination with different levels of cholecalciferol had significantly lower DFI than those fed basal diet or basal diet supplemented with 1-α(OH)D3 alone. Broiler chickens fed basal diet supplemented with 1-α(OH)D3 in combination with 1,500 (1.73) and 3,000 (1.74) IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet had better FCR values compared with broilers fed basal diet (2.26), basal diet supplemented with 1-α(OH)D3 alone (1.96), and basal diet supplemented with 1-α(OH)D3 in combination with 5,000 (1.91) IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet (p < 0.01).

Table 3
Effects of dietary 1-α(OH)D3 individually or in combination with different levels of cholecalciferol on body weight (BW), daily feed intake (DFI), feed: gain ratio (FCR) and daily weight gain (DWG) of broilers throughout the entire experimental period.

As indicated in Table 4, broiler chickens fed basal diet had the lowest tibia ash, and the highest incidence and severity of TD that was resulted from Ca-P and cholecalciferol deficiency. Similarly, results of studies indicated that Ca and P deficiencies could increase skeletal abnormalities, such as rickets and TD, which lead to lameness and enhanced morbidity (Williams, Waddington, Solomon, & Farquharson, 2000Williams, B., Waddington, D., Solomon, S., & Farquharson, C. (2000). Dietary effects on bone quality and turn over, and Ca and P metabolism in chickens. Research in Veterinary Science, 69(1), 81-87. doi: 10.1053/rvsc.2000.0392
https://doi.org/10.1053/rvsc.2000.0392...
; Edwards & Veltman, 1983Edwards Jr., H. M., & Veltmann Jr., J. R. (1983).The role of calcium and phosphorus in the etiology of tibialdyschondroplasia in young chicks. The Journal of nutrition, 113(8), 1568-1575. doi: 10.1093/jn/113.8.1568
https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/113.8.1568...
). Since cholecalciferol is needed for Ca absorption and normal bone mineralization, in the current study cholecalciferol deficiency in broiler chickens fed basal diet massively intensified Ca-P deficiency which resulted in high incidence and severity of TD and poor growth rate as a result of morbidity.

In the present study, broiler chickens fed basal diet supplemented with 1-α(OH)D3 in combination with 1,500 or 3,000 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet had better FCR, and higher BW than those fed basal diet supplemented with 1-α(OH)D3 alone or basal diet supplemented with 1-α(OH)D3 and 5,000 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet. Han et al. (2009Han, J. C., Yang, X. D., Zhang, L. M., Li, W. L., Zhang, T., Zhang, Z. Y., & Yao, J. H. (2009). Effects of 1α-hydroxycholecalciferol and phytase on growth performance, tibia parameter and meat quality of 1-to 21-d-old broilers. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 22(6), 857-864. doi: 10.5713/ajas.2009.80623
https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2009.80623...
) investigated the effects of 1-α(OH)D3 in broiler diet contained adequate level of cholecalciferol, the results indicated that the supplementation of 5 μg 1α-OHD3 kg-1 of diet in combination with 5 μg cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet had negative effects on BW and DFI of broilers. Biehl, Emmert and Baker (1997Biehl, R. R., Emmert, J. L., & Baker, D.H. (1997). Iron bioavailability in soybean meal as affected by supplemental phytase and 1a-hydroxycholecalciferol. Poultry Science, 76(10), 1424-1427. doi: 10.1093/ps/76.10.1424
https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/76.10.1424...
) reported that the supplementation of 1-α(OH)D3 to broilers diets contained adequate levels of cholecalciferol couldn’t improve BW of broilers, whereas the supplementation of 1-α(OH)D3 to broilers diet that not supplemented with cholecalciferol could improve BW of 1- to 16-d-old broilers (Edwards et al., 2002Edwards Jr., H. M., Shirley, R. B., Escoe, W. B., & Pesti, G. M. (2002). Quantitative evaluation of 1-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol as a cholecalciferol substitute for broilers. Poultry Science, 81(5), 664-669. doi: 10.1093/ps/81.5.664
https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/81.5.664...
). Atencio et al. (2005Atencio, A., Pesti, G., & Edwards Jr., H. M. (2005). Twenty-five hydroxycholecalciferol as a cholecalciferol substitute in broiler breeder hen diets and its effect on the performance and general health of the progeny. Poultry Science, 84(8), 1277-1285. doi: 10.1093/ps/84.8.1277
https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/84.8.1277...
) reported that addition of 25-OHD3 to broiler breeder diet containing very low levels of cholecalciferol could enhance hen-day egg production. Similarly, results of another experiment of ours indicated that the supplementation of 5,000 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet to broiler diet containing 5 μg 1α-OHD3 kg-1 of diet reduced feed efficiency of broilers during the starter period (Landy et al., 2015Landy, N., Toghyani, M., Bahadoran, R., & Eghbalsaied, S. (2015). The effects of 1αlpha-hydroxycholecalciferol supplementation on performance and tibia parameter of broiler chickens. Research Opinions in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 5(8), 342-347. Recovered from https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20153359455
https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abst...
). Reddy and Tserng (1989Reddy, G. S., & Tserng, K. Y. (1989). Calcitroic acid, end product of renal metabolism of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 through C-24 oxidation pathway. Biochemistry, 28(4), 1763-1769. doi: 10.1021/bi00430a051
https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00430a051...
) reported that 1-α(OH)D3 can become toxic in high dosage, resulting in lower absorption of Ca and P. Since deficiency of Ca and P can impair broiler performance; thus it seem that in the present study supplementation of 1-α(OH)D3 become toxic when inclusion rate of cholecalciferol was higher than 1,500 IU kg-1 of diet, resulting in reduction of growth performance.

Tibial dyschondroplasia

Tibia related parameters of broilers are presented in Table 4. Dietary supplementation of 1-α(OH)D3 alone or in combination with different levels of cholecalciferol linearly and quadratically (p < 0.01) affected tibia bone ash, incidence and severity of TD. Broilers fed TD inducing diet had lower tibia bone ash (32.3%) compared with those fed TD inducing diet supplemented with 1-α(OH)D3 alone (38.2%), or with combination of 1,500 (38.1%), 3,000 (36.5%) and 5,000 (36.4%) IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet. Supplementation of the diet with 1-α(OH)D3 alone (57.1%) or with combination of 1,500 (50.0%), 3,000 (71.4%) and 5,000 (66.7%) IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet significantly lowered the incidence of TD compared with those fed TD inducing diet (100%). Supplementation of 3,000 (71.4%) or 5,000 (66.7%) IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet significantly increased the incidence of TD compared with those fed basal diet supplemented with 1,500 (50.0%) IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet. Supplementation of the diet with 1-α(OH)D3 alone or in combination with different levels of cholecalciferol lowered the percent of 3-scored birds. The addition of 1-α(OH)D3 alone (0.71) or in combination with 1,500 (0.75), 3,000 (1.43), and 5,000 (1.00) IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet significantly lowered the TD score than those fed basal diet (3.00).

Table 4
Effects of dietary 1-α(OH)D3 individually or in combination with different levels of cholecalciferol on the development of tibial dyschondroplasia.

In the present trial addition of 1-α(OH)D3 alone to TD inducing diet could increase tibia bon ash. Supplementation of 1,500 IU cholecalciferol to TD inducing diet containing 1-α(OH)D3 had no effect on tibia bone ash, although the supplementation of higher levels of cholecalciferol had little influence on tibia bone ash. The tibia ash tended to decrease in broilers fed diets containing 3,000 or 5,000 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet compared with those fed 1,500 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet. As reported by Garcia et al. (2013Garcia, A. F., Murakami, A. E., Duarte, C.R., Rojas, I. C. O., Picoli, K. P., & Puzotti, M. M. (2013). Use of vitamin D3 and its metabolites in broiler chicken feed on performance, bone parameters and meat quality. Asian-Australas Journal of Animal Science, 26(3), 408-415. doi: 10.5713/ajas.2012.12455
https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2012.12455...
) 1-α(OH)D3 become toxic in high dosage resulting in reduction the absorption of Ca and P, thus reduction in tibia ash of broilers supplemented with 1-α(OH)D3 and 3,000 or 5,000 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet may be due to toxic effect of using combination of 1-α(OH)D3 and 3,000 or 5,000 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet. Drewe, Dietsch and Keck (1988Drewe, J., Dietsch, P., & Keck, E. (1988). Effect of vitamin D status on the activity of carbonic anhydrase in chicken epiphysis and kidney. Calcified Tissue International, 43(1), 26-32. doi: 10.1007/BF02555164
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02555164...
) observed an increase in plasma calcitriol of chickens when cholecalciferol deficient diets were supplemented with calcitriol, later in another study by Rennie et al. (1993Rennie, J. S., Whitehead, C. C., & Thorp, B. H. (1993). The effect of dietary 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in preventing tibial dyschondroplasia in broilers fed on diets imbalanced in calcium and phosphorus. British Journal of Nutrition, 69(3), 809-816. doi: 10.1079/BJN19930081
https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19930081...
) failed to monitor any marked effect of calcitriol supplementation on plasma calcitriol of broilers when calcitriol was supplemented to a diet that was cholecalciferol sufficient. Results of the experiment done by Edwards (2002Edwards Jr., H. M. (2002). Studies on the efficacy of cholecalciferol and derivatives for stimulating phytate utilization in broilers. Poultry Science, 81(7), 1026-1031. doi: 10.1093/ps/81.7.1026
https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/81.7.1026...
) indicated that an interaction between calcitriol and cholecalciferol exists in bone mineralization. Similarly, Landy et al. (2015Landy, N., Toghyani, M., Bahadoran, R., & Eghbalsaied, S. (2015). The effects of 1αlpha-hydroxycholecalciferol supplementation on performance and tibia parameter of broiler chickens. Research Opinions in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 5(8), 342-347. Recovered from https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20153359455
https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abst...
) investigated the efficiency of 1-α(OH)D3 alone or in combination of 5,000 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet, the results indicated that the supplementation of 1-α(OH)D3 in combination of 5,000 IU cholecalciferol reduced tibia ash, Ca and P compared with those fed 1-α(OH)D3 alone. In the present trial we investigated the effects of 1-α(OH)D3 in Ca-P deficient diet alone or in combination of different levels of cholecalciferol, because of possible interactions between cholecalciferol and 1α-OHD3. Our results indicated that an interaction between cholecalciferol and 1-α(OH)D3 exists on bone mineralization. Edwards (1989Edwards Jr., H. M. (1989). The effect of dietary cholecalciferol, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on the development of tibial dyschondroplasia in broiler chickens in the absence and presence of disulfiram. Journal of Nutrition, 119(4), 647-652. doi: 10.1093/jn/119.4.647
https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/119.4.647...
, 1990Edwards Jr., H. M. (1990). Efficacy of several vitamin D compounds in the prevention of tibialdyschondroplasia in broiler chickens. Journal of Nutrition, 120(9), 1054-1061. doi: 10.1093/jn/120.9.1054
https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/120.9.1054...
) reported that the supplementation of Ca deficient diet containing 27.5 mg kg-1 cholecalciferol with 10 mg kg-1 calciteriol enhanced tibia bone ash and reduced the incidence and severity of TD.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the results indicated that the supplementation of 1-α(OH)D3 alone to the TD inducing diet could maximize tibia bone ash and prevents incidence and severity of TD, but in couldn't maximize performance criteria. Performance parameters were maximized in broiler chickens fed dietary containing 1-α(OH)D3 in combination with 1,500 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet. Supplementation of 3,000 and 5,000 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet in compare with 1,500 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet enhanced incidence of TD. Furthermore, supplementation of higher levels of cholecalciferol (5,000 IU kg-1 of diet) decrease growth performance of broiler chickens, it seems that there are some variables that may affect growth performance and bone quality when higher dosage of cholecalciferol supplemented to diets.

Acknowledgements

This project was supported by the Department of Animal Science of Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch, Iran (Grant No. 2017/011).

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    30 Nov 2020
  • Date of issue
    2021

History

  • Received
    19 July 2019
  • Accepted
    22 May 2020
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