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Evaluation of CO2 Biofixation and Biodiesel Production by Spirulina (Arthospira) Cultivated In Air-Lift Photobioreactor

ABSTRACT

Spirulina is a microalgal genre that has the capacity to produce various bioproducts with applications in several areas including the energy sector. The study aimed to assess the ability of CO2 biofixation, biodiesel and other biocompounds production by Spirulina sp LEB 18 cultured in air-lift photobioreactor. The microalgae presented a rich macronutrient composition: protein (47.3%), carbohydrates (13.4%) and a high lipid content (32.7%) in a media with nitrogen reduction, CO2 using air-lift photobiorector. Furthermore, 160 mg.L.d-1 of CO2 was biofixed, generating a maximum biomass yield of 0.02 g.L.d-1. The lipids evaluated for biodiesel production presented a theoretical yield of 19.8% for in situ transesterification and 47.9% for conventional transesterification. The microalgal biomass has potential for producing biodiesel that can be applied instead or in mixture with traditional diesel fuel. The study of obtaining energy associated with the production of other high value-added biocompounds from the microalgal biomass is of high importance because in this way, the viability of biofuel production by this microorganism can be increased.

Keywords:
biofuels; carbon dioxide; microalgae; photobiorefinary; biocompounds

INTRODUCTION

The planet’s energy needs are met primarily by using fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. The reserves of these sources are finite, and their application and operation cause environmental problems, such as increased atmospheric CO2 generated by burning these materials. The search for alternative renewable sources has intensified to meet the rising global energy and raw material demands 11 Yen HW, Hu IC, Chen CY, Ho SH, Lee DJ, Chang JS. Microalgae-based biorefinery - From biofuels to natural products. Bioresour Technol. 2013;135:166-74.. One of the potential sources to comply with this challenge is the microalgal biomass that joins the production of sustainable energy and CO2, the main greenhouse gas, biofixation.

The concept of microalgal photobiorefinary integrates the production of biofuels and bioproducts with the use of alternative sources of nutrients, making the process of obtaining energy economically viable. Spirulina is a cyanobacteria that has production capacity of several biocompounds, and it has been studied for application as the basis of photobiorefinaries. From its biomass macronutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, can be obtained with applicability in the production of biofuels and compounds such as pigments and fatty acids 22 Brennan L, Owende P. Biofuels from microalgae-A review of technologies for production, processing, and extractions of biofuels and co-products. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2010;14(2):557-77..

Among the advantages of microalgae applications for biofuel production, such as biodiesel, is that there is no competition with food crops, and these microorganisms do not require agricultural land to be cultured. Microalgal cultures do not require large amounts of water and have high productivity with the possibility of a daily harvest, making this an attractive raw material for power generation. Microalgae are able to alter their intracellular composition with changes in nutrient medium and environmental factors. In crops with reduced nitrogen sources, for example, lipid accumulation can be increased in addition to the gradual change in the composition of free fatty acids and triacylglycerols33 Zhu L. Biorefinery as a promising approach to promote microalgae industry: An innovative framework. Renew Sustain Energy Ver. 2015; 41:1376-84.. Recent studies have demonstrated that the application of these microorganisms for energy production, has a higher viability coupled into a biorefinery system 44 Andrade MR, Costa JAV. Mixotrophic cultivation of microalga Spirulina platensis using molasses as organic substrate. Aquaculture. 2007;264:130-4..

Spirulina has GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) certification, which allows both the biomass and the compounds derived from it to be marketed and consumed as food and applied in the cosmetics industry since production complies within good manufacturing practice, besides biofuels obtaining. This microalga have ability to produce high amounts of protein in biomass, about 70%, and lipid production is around 5 to 11%. 55 Morais MG, Reichert CDC, Dalcanton F, Durante AJ, Marins LF, Costa JAV. Isolation and characterization of a new Arthrospira strain. Zeitschrift fur Naturforsch 2008;63:144-50.. The novelty of the work is the application of Spirulina microalga for lipids production along the CO2 biofixation in an air-lift bioreactor combined with the reduction of nitrogen. These factors may lead to changes in the lipid content mainly, highlighting the biodiesel production through the biomass generated in the crop. In this way, the study aimed to assess the ability of CO2 biofixation, biodiesel and other biocompounds production by Spirulina sp LEB 18 cultured in air-lift photobioreactor.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Microorganism and inoculum preparation

Spirulina sp. LEB 18, isolated from Mangueira Lagoon in southern Rio Grande do Sul 66 Zarrouk C. Contribution à l'étude d'une cyanophycée. Influence de diveurs facteurs physiques et chimiques sur la croissance et photosynthese de Spirulina maxima. [Paris]: [s.n.]; 1966., was held in a Zarrouk 77 Costa JAV, Colla LM, Filho PD, Kabke K, Weber A. Modelling of Spirulina platensis growth in fresh water using response surface methodology. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2002; 18:603-7. medium without a carbon source (NaHCO3) and with 50% of the nitrogen source (NaNO3) in a thermostatically controlled oven (30 °C) at an illuminance of 40.5 μmol.m2.s-1 and a 12 h light/dark photoperiod. The microalgae were maintained under these conditions until reaching the log phase of cell growth from the experiment’s beginning.

Culture conditions

The medium used in this study was maintained the same as the Spirulina sp LEB 18 inoculum 77 Costa JAV, Colla LM, Filho PD, Kabke K, Weber A. Modelling of Spirulina platensis growth in fresh water using response surface methodology. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2002; 18:603-7., wherein the carbon source (NaHCO3) was replaced by 10% CO2 (v/v) injected in a flow of 6.5 Lar.min-1 every 40 min for 5 min in the photochemical phase. The nitrogen source of the medium (NaNO3) was reduced by 50%. The microalgae was cultivated in a horizontal tubular photobioreactor equipped with an air-lift (horizontal FBRT) (Figure 1) with a working volume of 130 L. The experiment took place in a thermostatic oven at 30 °C, with a 12 h light/dark photoperiod and 40.5 μmol.m2.s-1 provided by fluorescent illuminance of 40 W. The initial concentration of the culture was 0.2 g.L-1. The experiment was conducted until the stationary growth phase was reached.

Figure 1
Horizontal tubular photobioreactor equipped with air-lift

Cell growth and kinetic parameters evaluation

Microalgae cell growth monitoring was performed daily by measuring the cellular concentration in triplicate, determined by the optical density of the culture at 670 nm in a spectrophotometer (QUIMIS Q798DRM). The cell concentration was obtained through a standard curve relating dry weight and optical density (Xmax) 88 Bailey JE. Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals. McGraw-Hill; 1986. 984 p.. From these data, the maximum productivity (Pmax), maximum specific growth rate (μmáx) and generation time (tg) were calculated.

The productivity (P, g.L.d-1) was calculated according to Equation 1, where X (g.L-1) represents the final cell concentration, X0 (g.L-1) represents the concentration of initial biomass cultivation, t (d) represents the final time and t0 represents the initial time of cultivation.

P= ( X- X 0 ) ( t- t 0 ) (1)

The maximum specific growth rate ((máx) was obtained by exponential regression on the log phase of cell multiplication, and generation time (tg) was obtained from Equation 2 99 Dubois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Rebers PA, Smith F. Colorimetric Method for Determination of Sugars and Related Substances. Anal Chem. American Chemical Society ; 1956;28:350-6..

tg= ln2 μ máx (2)

Every 24 h, the pH of the culture was measured with a digital pH meter (QUIMIS Q.400H).

Biomass Characterization

The biomass obtained in the experiments was centrifuged at 15,000 g for 15 min and was lyophilized to perform the characterization analysis. To compare the results, the same measurements were carried out in Spirulina sp LEB 18 that was commercially produced by the company Olson microalgae (Camaquã, RS-Brazil) through cultures carried in raceway photobioreactors, outdoor conditions in a transparent film greenhouse.

Carbohydrate, protein and lipid composition

The lyophilized biomass was rehydrated and subjected to an ultrasonic probe (COLE PARMER CPX 130 - Illinois - USA) for 10 min in 10 s pulses by obtaining the microalgal extracts. From this extract, analysis of carbohydrates was performed using the Dubois et al99 Dubois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Rebers PA, Smith F. Colorimetric Method for Determination of Sugars and Related Substances. Anal Chem. American Chemical Society ; 1956;28:350-6. method (standard glucose curve) and protein content, with the method proposed by Lowry et al.1010 Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem. 1951;193:265-75. (albumin standard curve). The lipids were quantified from lyophilized biomass using the method used by Folch et al. 1111 Folch J, Lees M, Stanley SGH. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J Biol Chem. 1957;226(1):497-509.. The moisture content was determined according to the AOAC 1212 Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 17. ed Gaithersburg, Maryland: AOAC, 2000; 2(30), met. 968.11, p. 4. Analyses were performed in triplicate.

Determination of methyl esters and fatty acid composition

The determination of methyl esters was performed in triplicate in two ways. First, the lipid esterification method was applied directly to the microalgal biomass (in situ). In the second, the same esterification method was applied as that to the lipid extract obtained by Folch et al. (1957) (conventional). For esterification, approximately 30 mg of the sample (dry or lipid extract biomass) were treated with 0.05 M of sodium methoxide (MeONa) in methanol (MeOH) for 10 min at 100 °C and then with methyl chloride (MeCl) in MeOH for 10 min at the same temperature 1313 Association Française de Normalization - AFS. Animal and vegetable fats and oils - Gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters - Part 2?: preparation of methyl esters of fatty acids, 1977; France. Then, the esterified fatty acids passed by purification on a 100 mg sílica column (Supelco, USA) to remove impurities that could adversely affect the chromatographic analysis. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to monitor the reaction.

After purification, 1μL of the sample was analyzed by a gas chromatograph (GC-2014 - Shimadzu - Japan) in the presence of an internal standard, methyl heptadecanoate for methyl ester quantification. The conditions for analysis by GC were: ionizing flame detector (FID) 340 °C, Supelco SP 2330 column (Supelco, USA), 30 m x 0.25 mm x 0,2μm and N2 carrier gas. The fatty acid peaks were identified through a chromatogram of the standard mixture of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME mix RMS; Supelco, USA).

Biodiesel Yield

Biodiesel yield was calculated in triplicate by referring to the quantity of total lipids from the biomass in accordance with the methyl ester content obtained from direct extraction (made from the dry biomass), indirect extraction (performed from the lipid extract) through Equation 3, where RTbiodiesel is the theoretical biodiesel yield:

R Tbiodisel = methyl esters (g)/g dry biomass total lipids (g)/ g dry biomass . 100 (3)

CO2 biofixation

Through an elemental analyzer CHNS/O (Perkin Elmer 2400 - Series II) calibrated with certified acetanilide reference material, the amount of carbon in the microalgal biomass was obtained. From these data, the fixed CO2 accumulation, the amount of CO2 fixed daily and the CO2 biofixation in mg.L-1.d-1 in relation to the daily fixed value to bioreactor volume were calculated.

The accumulation of fixed CO2 (FA, g CO2) was calculated in triplicate according to Equation 4 where Xt (g.L-1) is the cell concentration at time t (d), X0 (g.L-1) is the concentration at time t0, mCBM (gC.gamostra -1) is the weight fraction of carbon determined in the microalgal biomass Vbiorreactor (L) is the volume of medium in the bioreactor, MCO2 (g. mol-1) and MC are the molecular masses of CO2 and carbon.

FA = ( X t - X 0 ) m cbm V biorreactor ( M CO2 M c ) (4)

The daily fixing of CO2 (FD, g fixed CO2. g injected CO2 -1.d-1) from Equation 5 was also calculated, where FA(t + 1) is the accumulation of CO2 fixed at time t + 1 (d), FAt is the CO2 accumulation in time t (d), and mid (gCO2) is the mass of CO2 injected daily. The maximum daily fixation (FDmax) is the maximum daily fixing that was reached 1414 Morais MG, Costa JAV. Biofixation of carbon dioxide by Spirulina sp. and Scenedesmus obliquus cultivated in a three-stage serial tubular photobioreactor. J Biotechnol. 2007;129:439-45..

FD = ( FA ( t+1 ) - FA t ) m id (5)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The Spirulina sp LEB 18 experiment using Zarrouk medium with a reduction in nitrogen source and the replacement of the carbon source by CO2 shows an adaptation phase of approximately 7 d, as shown in Figure 2. After this period, the cell growth rate gradually increased until the point where it remained constant in the exponential growth phase between 12 d to 40 d, reaching the maximum cell concentration. At this point, there was a slow down until the stationary phase, identified by the point where the cell concentration was stabilized. The entry into the stationary phase for microalgal cultures occurs resulting from nutrient limitation or cellular shading 1515 Schimidell, W, Lima AU, Aquarone E, Borzani W. Biotecnologia Industrial. v. 2. São Paulo: Edgard Blücher LTDA; 2001.. Throughout the experiments, there was little pH change because of the CO2 injections; pH levels were between 7.75 and 8.83 (Table 1).

Figure 2
Growth curve of Spirulina sp LEB 18

Table 1
Kinetic parameters and biomass composition of Spirulina sp LEB 18 cultured in tubular PTBR with CO2 (laboratory scale) and commercially in raceway ponds (commercial scale).

Spirulina sp LEB 18 utilized the carbon source (CO2) for cell growth, producing biomass, even with the reduction of the nitrogen source. The cultivation carried out in a horizontal tubular bioreactor presented biofixation of 160 mg.L-1.d-1 (Table 1). The microalgae CO2 biofixation mechanism is based on the ability of these microorganisms to perform photosynthesis. Changes in nutritional sources generally do not affect the photosynthetic rate; however, the change in the concentration of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus can cause a reduction in CO2 absorption in microalgal culture 1616 Ozerio RA, Cesar P, Cunha R, Lamarca CP. Revision on Carbon Sequestration By Microalgae and Forests and the Production of Lipids for the Microalgae. Insula. 2007;39-73.. Other factors such as illuminance, CO2 injection rate on crops, pH, cell density and temperature can also determine increases or decreases in biofixation.

In the experiment with Spirulina sp LEB 18, the kinetic parameters obtained at the end of the 47 d experiment were expected because of changes in the culture medium. A reduction in the nitrogen source is an effective way to increase the accumulation of lipids and/or carbohydrates in the microalgal biomass; however, the increase of these components or productivity is always proportional to cell concentration, maximum specific growth rate and generation time 1717 Richmond A. Handbook of microalgal mass culture. 1st ed. Boston: CRC Press; 1990.. Radmann et al.1818 Radmann EM, Camerini FV, Santos TD, Costa JAV. Isolation and application of SOX and NOX resistant microalgae in biofixation of CO2 from thermoelectricity plants. Energy Convers Manag. 2011;52:3132-6.cultivated Spirulina sp LEB 18 in Zarrouk medium with 10% CO2 as a carbon source, for 15 d in a vertical tubular bioreactor achieved a maximum cell concentration of 1.53 g.L-1 and maximum specific growth rate of 0.22 d-1; these results were superior to those obtained in this study. The reduction of the nitrogen source may have adversely influenced the development of the microorganism, reducing the productivity (0.02 g.L.d-1), maximum specific growth rate (0.12 d-1) and maximum cell concentration (1.07 g.L-1) and increasing the generation time (5.85 d). Nitrogen is an element used by cells primarily for the formation of proteins and nucleic acids and is essential for cellular development 19.

Spirulina sp LEB 18 biomass is rich in macronutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids that can generate high value-added bioproducts. The composition of microalgae, when grown both on a laboratory and a commercial scale, the protein was the macronutrient that was present in a larger quantity (47.3% and 44.7%, respectively). Among the protein compounds present in Spirulina phycocyanin, a blue biocorante applied in the food industry and cosmetics, stands out with a recognized antioxidant capacity 2020 Santiago-Santos MC, Ponce-Noyola T, Olvera-Ramirez R, Ortega-Lopez J, Canizares-Villanueva RO. Extraction and purification of phycocyanin from Calothrix sp, Process Biochemistry,2004;( 39):2047-2052..

Spirulina sp LEB 18, cultivated with nitrogen source reduction and by replacing the carbon source of Zarrouk (NaHCO3) with 10% (v/v) CO2, increased the lipid concentration (32.7%) by nearly 6 times when compared with growing the same species on a commercial scale (5.7%). The cultivation time until the stationary phase and the reduction of the nitrogen component may have contributed to the increase of lipid concentration. In the exponential growth phase, protein content is generally higher because of cell proliferation and nucleic acids. The increased production of lipids and carbohydrates, however, occurs in the stationary phase as an energy accumulation form 2121 Dunstan GA. Changes in the lipid composition and maximisation of the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of three microalgae grown in mass culture. 1993;5:71-83.. The nitrogen source reduction in microalgal cultivation is capable of shifting the metabolism of cells for the production of lipids or carbohydrates 2222 Lourenço S de O. Cultivo de Microalgas Marinhas - Princípios e Aplicações. São Carlos: Rima; 2006.. In the case of Spirulina sp LEB 18 cultivation in a tubular bioreactor, this difference was favorable for lipid production and decreased carbohydrate production by approximately 2 times (13.4% and 21.7% tubular and cultivation on a commercial scale, respectively). Microalgae carbohydrates and lipids have been studied for energy production and food applications. Thus, the obtained carbohydrates can be applied in the production of bioethanol, and lipids can be applied for biodiesel production, obtaining of essential fatty acids and as pigments such as astaxanthin or biopolymers.

Biodiesel consists of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) produced by transesterification of lipids that directly influence the quality of the produced biofuel. According to the FAME composition in biodiesel, there may be changes in the viscosity characteristics, density and cetane number 2323 Ramírez-Verduzco LF, Rodríguez-Rodríguez JE, Jaramillo-Jacob ADR. Predicting cetane number, kinematic viscosity, density and higher heating value of biodiesel from its fatty acid methyl ester composition. Fuel. 2012;91:102-11.. Through gas chromatographic analysis, 82.7% and 87.6% of FAMEs were identified in Spirulina sp LEB 18 biomass grown on a laboratory scale (horizontal PTBR) and a commercial scale (raceway bioreactor), respectively (Table 2).

Table 2
Fatty acids composition (%, w.w-1) for Spirulina sp LEB 18 cultured in tubular PTBR with CO2 (laboratory scale) and commercially in raceway ponds (commercial scale).

The main fatty acids found in both samples were palmitic, palmitoleic (C16), oleic, linoleic and linolenic (C18) acids. These results are in agreement with the literature that reports that the fatty acid composition of microalgae consists mainly of C16 and C18 fatty acids, approaching the vegetable oils that are generally used for biodiesel production and are g suitable for the production of this biofuel 2424 Miao X, Wu Q. Biodiesel production from heterotrophic microalgal oil. Bioresour Technol [Internet]. 2006;97:841-6.,2525 Knothe G. Improving biodiesel fuel properties by modifying fatty ester composition. Energy Environ Sci. The Royal Society of Chemistry; 2009;2:759-66..

Oleic acid (18:1), considered as a biodiesel quality indicator, has been identified in both conditions of Spirulina sp LEB 18 cultivation, with 3.4% and 3.0%, on a commercial and laboratory scale, respectively. Addition of the methyl oleate is suggested to improve biodiesel properties such as oxidative stability and melting temperature 2525 Knothe G. Improving biodiesel fuel properties by modifying fatty ester composition. Energy Environ Sci. The Royal Society of Chemistry; 2009;2:759-66.. Palmitic acid was the dominant FAME among the total FAME that were identified (44.9%, growing tubular bioreactor and 47.2%, commercial cultivation). The content was similar to that of palm oil, which was between 39.2% and 45.8% of 16:0 2626 Departament of standarts Malasya, Palm oil - specification (second revision) MS 814, 2007.. When comparing the composition of microalgae grown on a laboratory scale with the commercial scale, it can be said that the reduction in the nitrogen source and CO2 injection did not alter the FAME composition in the biomass.

In cultures performed in a horizontal FBRT using 10% (v / v) CO2 and reduction of the nitrogen source on a laboratory scale, the direct esterification of microalgal lipids formed saturated FAMEs (47.6%) and unsaturated FAMEs (35.0%). The highest percentage of saturated FAMEs is an advantage because the higher the concentration of these compounds in biodiesel, the greater the oxidation resistance 2727 Kondamudi N, Strull J, Misra M, Mohapatra SK. A green process for producing biodiesel from feather meal. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:6163-6.. The presence of large amounts of unsaturated FAMEs reduces the stability of the biodiesel, causing it to rapidly oxidize (Sarin et al, 2007). According to Sarin et al. 2828 Sarin R, Sharma M, Sinhara YS, Malhotra RK. Jatropha-palm biodiesel blends: na optimum mix for Asia. Fuel, 2007;86:1365-1371., palm oil has 43.4% saturated and 41% unsaturated fatty acids, thereby Spirulina sp LEB 18 biodiesel would be more stable compared to palm oil.

The yield obtained for esterification of the lipid extract of the biomass (47.4 ± 1.40%) was approximately 2 times higher than the in situ yield (19.8 ± 1.70%). This result highlights the importance of studying the extraction of microalgal lipids primarily for the reduction of costs and reaction time and the increased efficiency of the applied methodologies, enabling even more conventional transesterification. Conventional transesterification is the chemical conversion of triacylglycerides (oil) in FAMEs through a solvent and a catalyst which comprises two steps: the extraction of oil feedstock and esterification of the obtained oil. When the process occurs in situ, extraction and esterification steps occur together in a single step. Use of this method to obtain biodiesel from microalgal biomass reduces extraction costs in addition to the reaction time 2929 Pandey A, Lee D-J, Chisti Y, Soccol CR. Biofuels From Algae. 1st ed. Elsevier; 2014..

CONCLUSION

Spirulina sp LEB 18 cultured in tubular air-lift photobioreactor biofixed 160 mg.L.d-1 CO2 reaching 1.07 g.L-1 of maximum cell concentration. The biomass obtained presents potential to biodiesel production with 32.7% of lipids, an interesting fatty acid composition and yield of 47.9% in conventional transesterification. The other evaluated compounds (proteins and carbohydrates) can be used to obtain high value-added products such as pigments and biofuels. The biodiesel production from microalgal biomass cultured with CO2 combined with other compounds production supports the application of a photobiorefinary concept from this raw material. Along with this, CO2 using make the process more feasible reducing costs with the carbon source.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors are grateful to CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel), CNPq (National Council of Technological and Scientific Development), CGTEE (Company of Thermal Generation of Electric Power), MCTI (Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation) and Olson microalgae for the financial support that made this research possible and for the Program to Support Production of Publication Academic/PROPESP/FURG/2015.

REFERENCES

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    Brennan L, Owende P. Biofuels from microalgae-A review of technologies for production, processing, and extractions of biofuels and co-products. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2010;14(2):557-77.
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    Zhu L. Biorefinery as a promising approach to promote microalgae industry: An innovative framework. Renew Sustain Energy Ver. 2015; 41:1376-84.
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    Ramírez-Verduzco LF, Rodríguez-Rodríguez JE, Jaramillo-Jacob ADR. Predicting cetane number, kinematic viscosity, density and higher heating value of biodiesel from its fatty acid methyl ester composition. Fuel. 2012;91:102-11.
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    Miao X, Wu Q. Biodiesel production from heterotrophic microalgal oil. Bioresour Technol [Internet]. 2006;97:841-6.
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    Knothe G. Improving biodiesel fuel properties by modifying fatty ester composition. Energy Environ Sci. The Royal Society of Chemistry; 2009;2:759-66.
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    Kondamudi N, Strull J, Misra M, Mohapatra SK. A green process for producing biodiesel from feather meal. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:6163-6.
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    Sarin R, Sharma M, Sinhara YS, Malhotra RK. Jatropha-palm biodiesel blends: na optimum mix for Asia. Fuel, 2007;86:1365-1371.
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    Pandey A, Lee D-J, Chisti Y, Soccol CR. Biofuels From Algae. 1st ed. Elsevier; 2014.

Publication Dates

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    2018
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