Investigation of Some Parameters Affecting Methyl OrangeRemoval by Fusarium acuminatum

Tugba Tugrul Yucel About the author

ABSTRACT

Dye stuff released to the ecosystem from textile industries cause a serious contamination and become a major environmental problem over the last few decades. As biological decolorization of textile wastewater is an important issue, Fusarium . acuminatum was used to removal of a frequently used textile dye, methyl orange. Live pellet of Fusarium acuminatum was used and decolorization studies performed in various temperatures and pH conditions with different dye concentrations. The highest decolorization rate was observed at 35ᴼC. 60 mg/L was found as the optimum initial dye concentration. In the pH range of 3-4, decolorization rate was approximately 70%. It was seen that Fusarium acuminatum have the great ability of the methyl orange removal. To our knowledge, it took place for the first time in the literature.

Keywords:
Biosorption; azo dye; methyl orange; Fusarium acuminatum; live pellet

INTRODUCTION

Environmental pollution has become an important issue with the increase of industrial activities and urbanization, which create more waste than nature can tolerate. Large amount of chemicals, mainly dyes, are utilized during the industrial process of paint, textile, pharmaceutics, paper, pulp, food and release of untreated effluents to ecosystems creates major hazard for the organisms living there. Moreover 17-20% of water contamination is originated from textile effluents; during textile process, the amount of dye released accidentally is up to 50% depending on the type of dye and such release spreads out in to the environment afterwards [11 Gupta VK, Khamparia S, Tyagi I, Jaspal D, Malviya A. Decolorization of mixture of dyes: A critical review. Glob J Environ Sci Manage. 2015; 1(1): 71-94.,22 Mohan SV, Chandrasekhara RN, Sarma PN. Simulated acid azo dye wastewater treatment using suspended growth configured sequencing batch reactor. Appl Environ Res. 2009; 7(1): 25-34.]. As a consequence, there has been a considerable interest for the removal of dyes from aqueous waste streams.

Various physicochemical methods are used in dye removal from wastewater such as, adsorption, membrane filtration, ozonation, precipitation, ion-exchange but they have some disadvantages such as high cost and operational complexities. When compared with physicochemical treatment methods, biological dye removal is inexpensive, ecofriendly and simple to use [33 Patel PV, Mehta MJ, Parekh S. Treatment of industrial wastewater by nonviable biomass - A Review. Int J Eng Res. Appl. 2015; 5: 18-22.,44 Ramachandran P, Sundharam R, Palaniyappan J, Munusamy AP. Potential process implicated in bioremediation of textile effluents: A review. Adv Appl Sci Res. 2013; 4(1): 131-145.].

Recently many research have focused on some microorganisms which are capable of removing dyes from wastewater via biodegradation and biosorption. Microorganisms including bacteria, algae and fungi have been used to remove dyes for many years [11 Gupta VK, Khamparia S, Tyagi I, Jaspal D, Malviya A. Decolorization of mixture of dyes: A critical review. Glob J Environ Sci Manage. 2015; 1(1): 71-94.]. Methyl orange, which is also an azo dye has been chosen for this study since it is known as highly toxic and complex. Some physical parameters were optimized for methyl orange removal by F. acuminatum in this study.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Microorganisms

Fungal culture used in this study was F. acuminatum obtained from the culture collection of Hacettepe University, Department of Biotechnology. The fungus was maintained on potato dextrose agar (Merck) slants and stored at 4ᴼC.

Dye

Methyl orange (Merck) was dissolved in distilled water and the wavelength of maximum absorption was found spectrophotometrically (Jenway, 105 UV/VIS spectrophotometer).

The stock dye solution was prepared and filtered for the sterilization and it was stored at 4ᴼC in complete darkness. In order to obtain the decolorization medium, methyl orange stock solution was diluted to the desired concentration and added to each flask.

Media and Biomass Preparation

The composition of the culture medium was prepared according to Seyis and Subasioglu [55 Seyis I, Subasioglu T. Comparison of live and dead biomass of fungi on decolorization of Methyl Orange. Afr J Biotechnol. 2008; 7(13): 2212-2216.]. The medium contained 2.5 g/L (NH4)2SO4, 2.5 g/L yeast extract, 5 g/L KH2PO4, 0.5 g/L MgSO4•7H2O, 0.13 g/L CaCl2•2H2O and 10 g/L glucose (Sigma). The pH of the medium was adjusted to 6.0.

As for biomass preparation, F. acuminatum was incubated for 7 days at 30ᴼC in a shaking incubator at 150 rpm. Following the incubation, fungal pellets (0.5g wet pellet per flask) were washed with distilled water for three times, centrifuged and transferred to the medium containing methyl orange. Dye concentrations of the medium varied between 20-100 mg/L.

Decolorization

Flasks were incubated at 30ᴼC, shaking incubator, 150 rpm in complete darkness in order to avoid photodegradation. At the end of the incubation period, biomass was filtered and centrifuged at 6000×g for 15 min. Dye concentrations were read as absorbance at 500 nm using spectrophotometer (Jenway, 105 UV/VIS). Results were expressed as amount of decrease in absorbance at same wavelength. In each experiment dye containing medium was used as control. All experiments were repeated three times.

Effects of Different Physiological Conditions on Decolorization

The effect of temperature, initial dye concentration and initial pH was studied. Inoculated flasks were incubated at 25-45ᴼC, with 5ᴼC increments for 96 h. To investigate the effect of dye concentration, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 mg/L concentrations of methyl orange was added from the stock solution to the medium. For the pH studies, initial pH of each medium was adjusted between 3.0-8.0. After each incubation, percent decolorization was calculated.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

There are various microorganisms which were used for the removal of methyl orange studies, such as; Candida zeylanoides [66 Ramalho PA, Scholze H, Cardoso MH, Ramalho MT, Oliveira-Campos AM. Improved conditions for the aerobic reductive decolourisation of azo dyes by Candida zeylanoides. Enzyme Microb Tech. 2002; 31(6-1): 848-854.], Lactobacillus casei, [77 Tantiwa N, Seesuriyachan P, Kuntiya A. Strategies to decolorize high concentrations of methyl orange using growing cells of Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2013; 77(10): 2030- 2037.], Trametes hirsuta [88 Couto SR, Rosales E, Sanromán MA. Decolourization of synthetic dyes by Trametes hirsuta in expanded-bed reactors. Chemosphere. 2006; 62(9): 1558-1563.], Trametes polyzona [99 Chairin T, Nitheranont T, Watanabe A, Asada Y, Khanongnuch C, et al. Biodegradation of bisphenol a and decolorization of synthetic dyes by laccase from white-rot fungus, Trametes polyzona. Appl Biochem Biotech. 2013; 169: 539-545.], Trametes trogii [1010 Levin L, Grassi E, Carballo R. Efficient azoic dye degradation by Trametes trogii and a novel strategy to evaluate products released. Int Biodeter Biodegrad. 2012; 75: 214-222.], Phanerochaete chrysosporium [1111 Ollikka P, Alhonmaki K, Leppanen VM, Glumoff T, Raijola TL, et al. Decolorization of azo, triphenyl methane, heterocyclic, and polymeric dyes by lignin peroxidase isoenzymes from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993; 59(12): 4010-4016., 1212 Pasti-Grigsby MB, Paszczynski A, Goszczynski S, Crawford DL, Crawford RL. Influence of aromatic substitution patterns on azo dye degradability by Streptomyces spp. and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1992; 58(11): 3605-3613.], Ganoderma sp. [1313 Zhuo R, Ma L, Fan F, Gong Y, Wan X, et al. Decolorization of different dyes by a newly isolated white-rot fungi strain Ganoderma sp.En3 and cloning and functional analysis of its laccase gene. J Hazard Mater. 2011; 192(2): 855-873.], Aspergillus ochraceus [1414 Telke AA, Kadam AA, Jagtap SS, Jadhav JP, Govindwar SP. Biochemical characterization and potential for textile dye degradation of blue laccase from Aspergillus ochraceus NCIM-1146. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng. 2010; 15:696-703.] and Humicola fuscoatra [1515 Subasioglu T, Seyis I. Determination of biosorption conditions of Methyl Orange by Humicola fuscoatra. J Sci Ind Res. 2009; 68(12): 1075-1077.].

Optimization of parameters for the removal of methyl orange using F. acuminatum should be investigated since none of the previous studies found in literature concentrated on this issue. In this respect, F. acuminatum was studied as an alternative for methyl orange decolorization and some physiological conditions affecting the dye removal were investigated.

First of all, in order to find a correlation between decolorization and temperature, incubation was performed between 25-45ᴼC. The highest decolorization rate was observed at 35ᴼC, which decreases slightly above this temperature (Fig. 1). It is considered that temperatures in the range 35-45ᴼC are suitable for the enzymes of fungus, which are used for decolorization.

Figure 1
Effect of incubation temperature on decolorization of methyl orange.

Fungus showed activity in a wide temperature range, which is an advantage in terms of industrial use. According to Akar et al. [1616 Akar T, Demir TA, Kiran I, Ozcan A, Ozcan AS, et al. Biosorption potential of Neurospora crassa cells for decolorization of Acid Red 57 (AR57) dye. J Chem Technol Biot. 2006; 81(7): 1100-1106.], dye removal decreases while the temperature increases from 20ᴼC to 50ᴼC. Anjaneya et al. [1717 Anjaneya O, Santoshkumar M, Anand SN, Karegoudar TB. Biosorption of acid violet dye from aqueous solutions using native biomass of a new isolate of Penicillium sp. Int Biodeter Biodegr. 2009;63: 782- 787.] concluded that increased temperatures result in better biosorption, but the optimum temperature was found to be 35°C. Hadibarata et al. [1818 Hadibarata T, Adnan LA, Yusoff ARM, Yuniarto A, Rubiyatno Fikri MM, et al. Microbial decolorization of an azo dye reactive black 5 using white-rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii F032. Water Air Soil Poll. 2013; 224: 1595.] reported the decolorization of RB5 increases when the temperature increases from 15°C to 40°C. Moreover, different temperatures were reported for the decolorization of methyl orange as 28°C [99 Chairin T, Nitheranont T, Watanabe A, Asada Y, Khanongnuch C, et al. Biodegradation of bisphenol a and decolorization of synthetic dyes by laccase from white-rot fungus, Trametes polyzona. Appl Biochem Biotech. 2013; 169: 539-545.], 35°C [77 Tantiwa N, Seesuriyachan P, Kuntiya A. Strategies to decolorize high concentrations of methyl orange using growing cells of Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2013; 77(10): 2030- 2037.], 37°C [1212 Pasti-Grigsby MB, Paszczynski A, Goszczynski S, Crawford DL, Crawford RL. Influence of aromatic substitution patterns on azo dye degradability by Streptomyces spp. and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1992; 58(11): 3605-3613.].

Dye concentration of the effluent is another important factor. Initial concentration of the dye was studied between 20-100 mg/L. Although the maximum amount of decolorization was observed at 60 mg/L, decolorization rate is above 60% in the range 20-60 mg/L and slightly above 50% even at 80 mg/L (Fig. 2). Above the certain concentrations of dye, binding sites of biomass saturates and decolorization rate decreases. Similarly, according to Hadibarata et al. [1818 Hadibarata T, Adnan LA, Yusoff ARM, Yuniarto A, Rubiyatno Fikri MM, et al. Microbial decolorization of an azo dye reactive black 5 using white-rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii F032. Water Air Soil Poll. 2013; 224: 1595.], with increasing initial dye concentrations decolorization rate decreases. It is most probably due to the fact that, since the toxicity increases, growth and enzyme inhibition occurs. It was reported that Zhuo et al. [1313 Zhuo R, Ma L, Fan F, Gong Y, Wan X, et al. Decolorization of different dyes by a newly isolated white-rot fungi strain Ganoderma sp.En3 and cloning and functional analysis of its laccase gene. J Hazard Mater. 2011; 192(2): 855-873.] performed the decolorization with the concentration of 50 mg/L of methyl orange. Similarly, Couto et al. [88 Couto SR, Rosales E, Sanromán MA. Decolourization of synthetic dyes by Trametes hirsuta in expanded-bed reactors. Chemosphere. 2006; 62(9): 1558-1563.] found the dye concentration of methyl orange as 60 mg/L.

Figure 2
Effect of initial methyl orange concentrations on decolorization

pH is one of the major parameters of decolorization studies. During the reaction, pH affects the enzyme activity and ionization degree of the biosorbent. Hydrogen ions act as a bridge between the dye and the surface of the biosorbent [1919 Adebisi SA, Amuda OS, Adejumo AL, Olayiwola AO, Farombi AG. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamics studies of adsorption of aniline blue from aqueous media using steam-activated carbon prepared from Delonix regia pod. J Water Res Protect. 2015; 7: 1221-1233., 2020 Zhang Z, Shi D, Ding H, Zheng H, Chen H. Biosorption characteristics of 1,8-dihydroxy anthraquinone onto Aspergillus oryzae CGMCC5992 biomass. Int J Environ Sci Technol. 2015; 12(10): 3351-3362.]. As seen in Figure 3, the decolorization rate increases up to almost 70% in the pH range 3-4 and decreases with the increasing pH value. Although under the increasing Ph conditions methyl orange decolorization decreases, it still remained almost 30%. This seems to indicate that acidic pH values would be favorable for the removal of methyl orange in terms of dye - biosorbent interactions and enzymes which are capable of decolorization and showed higher activity than the alkaline pH. It was also reported previously that the maximum removal of methyl orange was determined in the pH range 2.5 - 3.0 [1111 Ollikka P, Alhonmaki K, Leppanen VM, Glumoff T, Raijola TL, et al. Decolorization of azo, triphenyl methane, heterocyclic, and polymeric dyes by lignin peroxidase isoenzymes from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993; 59(12): 4010-4016.]. Similarly, Couto et al. [2121 Couto SR, Rosales E, Gundín M, Sanromán MA. Exploitation of a waste from the brewing industry for laccase production by two Trametes species. J Food Eng. 2004; 64(4): 423-428.] reported that decolorization of methyl orange was found around 70% at pH 4.0, whereas at pH 5.0 it decreased to 51%.

Figure 3
Effect of initial pH on decolorization of methyl orange.

The characteristics of the wastewater samples of textile industry were reported by Sengul et al., [2222 Sengul F, Dursun D, Catalkaya EC, Dincer AR, Kargi F. Treatability of solvent containing wastewater of paint industry. Çevre Bilim Teknol. 2003; 1(3): 1-9.].

According to these data, pH values of the wastewaters were between 2.15 and 3.5. The results point that the high decolorization rate achieved at acidic pH values in our study would be rewarding in terms of industrial applicability.

In this study, it was performed the decolorization of methyl orange via the pellets of F. acuminatum more than 50% of the dye removal was seen even in the first 48 h of the incubation (Fig.4). F. acuminatum produces various enzymes that may perform decolorization successfully. Fungus continued to grow in the methyl orange medium and synthesized enzymes necessary for the decolorization activity, while the presence of pellets were performing the biosorption process. Abdel Ghany and Abboud [2323 Abdel Ghany TM, Al Abboud MA. Capacity of growing, live and dead fungal biomass for safranin dye decolourization and their impact on fungal metabolites. Aust J Basic Appl Sci. 2014; 8(10): 489-499.] reported that fungal decolorization begins at 2nd day and increases sharply until the 10th day. According to Selvam et al. [2424 Selvam K, Swaminathan K, Chae KS. Decolourization of azo dyes and a dye industry effluent by a white rot fungus Thelephora sp. Bioresource Technol. 2003; 88: 115-119.], Thelephora sp. was able to remove only 33.3% of Orange G after 216 h. Similarly, Zeroual et al. [2525 Zeroual Y, Kim BS, Kim CS, Blaghen M, Lee KM. A comparative study on biosorption characteristics of certain fungi for bromophenol blue dye. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2006; 134: 51-60.] found that almost all Orange G decolorization was observed between the 4th and the 7th day, which means that it takes longer time for the fungal biomass to begin growing and showing activity of dye removal. Working with live biomass is more convenient than growing cells at this point since there is no need for awaiting the growth phase.

Figure 4
Effect of incubation time on decolorization of methyl orange.

There is only limited data for removal of dyes by Fusarium species in the literature. Korniłłowicz- Kowalska and Rybczynska [2626 Kornillowicz-Kowalska T, Rybczynska K. Screening of microscopic fungi and their enzyme activities for decolorization and biotransformation of some aromatic compounds. Int J Environ Sci Technol. 2015; 12: 2673-2686.] screened 20 strains of F. oxysporium and found that only 4 strains have the decolorizing ability of alizarine blue black B with the rate of 40-70%. Przystaś et al. [2727 Przystas W, Zablocka-Godlewska E, Grabinska-Sota E. Effectiveness of dyes removal by mixed fungal cultures and toxicity of their metabolites. Water Air Soil Poll. 2013; 224: 1534.] studied removal of the mixture of two dyes, tryphenilmethane brilliant green and azo evans blue with a concentration of 80 mg/L by F. oxysporium. Abedin [2828 Abedin RMA. Decolorization and biodegradation of crystal violet and malachite green by Fusarium solani (Martius) Saccardo. A comparative study on biosorption of dyes by the dead fungal biomass. Am Eur J Botany. 2008; 1(2): 17-31.] reported the biosorption of crystal violet and malachite green by F. solani with 3-10 mg/L dye concentrations. Abd El-Zaher [2929 Abd El-Zaher EHF. Biodegradation of reactive dyes using soil fungal isolates and Ganoderma esinaceum. Ann Microbiol. 2010; 60: 269-278.] observed 45-66% decolorization with F. oxysporium for 24 h with different dyes with a dye concentration of 0.01%. Ansari et al. [3030 Ansari AT, Sundaramoorthy N, Kavitha M. Adsorption, biosorption and discolourisation of rhodamine-band basic violet-2 using fungi isolated form soil samples collected near textile dye industry. Int J Res Pharm Biomed Sci. 2011; 2(4): 1706-1710.] reported the decolorization activity as 12-55% for 24 h with a 30-80 ppm dye concentrations.

Decolorization rate of the textile dye effluent by non living biomass with F. acuminatum was reported as 23% [33 Patel PV, Mehta MJ, Parekh S. Treatment of industrial wastewater by nonviable biomass - A Review. Int J Eng Res. Appl. 2015; 5: 18-22.].

CONCLUSION

Biological treatment of dyes is an important area of interest in wastewater treatment, therefore, some physical parameters affecting the decolorization of methyl orange by F. acuminatum have been studied.

In this respect, decolorization was investigated in connection with the temperature, initial dye concentration, incubation time and initial pH. It can be concluded that fungus can achieve maximum decolorization efficiency at pH 4 and 35ᴼC. The fungus has the ability of decolorizing 60 mg/L methyl orange in a short time period with the high percentage. In addition, the fungus is effective in a wide range of temperature, pH and initial dye concentration as discussed above, which makes it a promising alternative for use in industrial applications.

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Gupta VK, Khamparia S, Tyagi I, Jaspal D, Malviya A. Decolorization of mixture of dyes: A critical review. Glob J Environ Sci Manage. 2015; 1(1): 71-94.
  • 2
    Mohan SV, Chandrasekhara RN, Sarma PN. Simulated acid azo dye wastewater treatment using suspended growth configured sequencing batch reactor. Appl Environ Res. 2009; 7(1): 25-34.
  • 3
    Patel PV, Mehta MJ, Parekh S. Treatment of industrial wastewater by nonviable biomass - A Review. Int J Eng Res. Appl. 2015; 5: 18-22.
  • 4
    Ramachandran P, Sundharam R, Palaniyappan J, Munusamy AP. Potential process implicated in bioremediation of textile effluents: A review. Adv Appl Sci Res. 2013; 4(1): 131-145.
  • 5
    Seyis I, Subasioglu T. Comparison of live and dead biomass of fungi on decolorization of Methyl Orange. Afr J Biotechnol. 2008; 7(13): 2212-2216.
  • 6
    Ramalho PA, Scholze H, Cardoso MH, Ramalho MT, Oliveira-Campos AM. Improved conditions for the aerobic reductive decolourisation of azo dyes by Candida zeylanoides. Enzyme Microb Tech. 2002; 31(6-1): 848-854.
  • 7
    Tantiwa N, Seesuriyachan P, Kuntiya A. Strategies to decolorize high concentrations of methyl orange using growing cells of Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2013; 77(10): 2030- 2037.
  • 8
    Couto SR, Rosales E, Sanromán MA. Decolourization of synthetic dyes by Trametes hirsuta in expanded-bed reactors. Chemosphere. 2006; 62(9): 1558-1563.
  • 9
    Chairin T, Nitheranont T, Watanabe A, Asada Y, Khanongnuch C, et al. Biodegradation of bisphenol a and decolorization of synthetic dyes by laccase from white-rot fungus, Trametes polyzona. Appl Biochem Biotech. 2013; 169: 539-545.
  • 10
    Levin L, Grassi E, Carballo R. Efficient azoic dye degradation by Trametes trogii and a novel strategy to evaluate products released. Int Biodeter Biodegrad. 2012; 75: 214-222.
  • 11
    Ollikka P, Alhonmaki K, Leppanen VM, Glumoff T, Raijola TL, et al. Decolorization of azo, triphenyl methane, heterocyclic, and polymeric dyes by lignin peroxidase isoenzymes from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993; 59(12): 4010-4016.
  • 12
    Pasti-Grigsby MB, Paszczynski A, Goszczynski S, Crawford DL, Crawford RL. Influence of aromatic substitution patterns on azo dye degradability by Streptomyces spp. and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1992; 58(11): 3605-3613.
  • 13
    Zhuo R, Ma L, Fan F, Gong Y, Wan X, et al. Decolorization of different dyes by a newly isolated white-rot fungi strain Ganoderma sp.En3 and cloning and functional analysis of its laccase gene. J Hazard Mater. 2011; 192(2): 855-873.
  • 14
    Telke AA, Kadam AA, Jagtap SS, Jadhav JP, Govindwar SP. Biochemical characterization and potential for textile dye degradation of blue laccase from Aspergillus ochraceus NCIM-1146. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng. 2010; 15:696-703.
  • 15
    Subasioglu T, Seyis I. Determination of biosorption conditions of Methyl Orange by Humicola fuscoatra. J Sci Ind Res. 2009; 68(12): 1075-1077.
  • 16
    Akar T, Demir TA, Kiran I, Ozcan A, Ozcan AS, et al. Biosorption potential of Neurospora crassa cells for decolorization of Acid Red 57 (AR57) dye. J Chem Technol Biot. 2006; 81(7): 1100-1106.
  • 17
    Anjaneya O, Santoshkumar M, Anand SN, Karegoudar TB. Biosorption of acid violet dye from aqueous solutions using native biomass of a new isolate of Penicillium sp. Int Biodeter Biodegr. 2009;63: 782- 787.
  • 18
    Hadibarata T, Adnan LA, Yusoff ARM, Yuniarto A, Rubiyatno Fikri MM, et al. Microbial decolorization of an azo dye reactive black 5 using white-rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii F032. Water Air Soil Poll. 2013; 224: 1595.
  • 19
    Adebisi SA, Amuda OS, Adejumo AL, Olayiwola AO, Farombi AG. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamics studies of adsorption of aniline blue from aqueous media using steam-activated carbon prepared from Delonix regia pod. J Water Res Protect. 2015; 7: 1221-1233.
  • 20
    Zhang Z, Shi D, Ding H, Zheng H, Chen H. Biosorption characteristics of 1,8-dihydroxy anthraquinone onto Aspergillus oryzae CGMCC5992 biomass. Int J Environ Sci Technol. 2015; 12(10): 3351-3362.
  • 21
    Couto SR, Rosales E, Gundín M, Sanromán MA. Exploitation of a waste from the brewing industry for laccase production by two Trametes species. J Food Eng. 2004; 64(4): 423-428.
  • 22
    Sengul F, Dursun D, Catalkaya EC, Dincer AR, Kargi F. Treatability of solvent containing wastewater of paint industry. Çevre Bilim Teknol. 2003; 1(3): 1-9.
  • 23
    Abdel Ghany TM, Al Abboud MA. Capacity of growing, live and dead fungal biomass for safranin dye decolourization and their impact on fungal metabolites. Aust J Basic Appl Sci. 2014; 8(10): 489-499.
  • 24
    Selvam K, Swaminathan K, Chae KS. Decolourization of azo dyes and a dye industry effluent by a white rot fungus Thelephora sp. Bioresource Technol. 2003; 88: 115-119.
  • 25
    Zeroual Y, Kim BS, Kim CS, Blaghen M, Lee KM. A comparative study on biosorption characteristics of certain fungi for bromophenol blue dye. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2006; 134: 51-60.
  • 26
    Kornillowicz-Kowalska T, Rybczynska K. Screening of microscopic fungi and their enzyme activities for decolorization and biotransformation of some aromatic compounds. Int J Environ Sci Technol. 2015; 12: 2673-2686.
  • 27
    Przystas W, Zablocka-Godlewska E, Grabinska-Sota E. Effectiveness of dyes removal by mixed fungal cultures and toxicity of their metabolites. Water Air Soil Poll. 2013; 224: 1534.
  • 28
    Abedin RMA. Decolorization and biodegradation of crystal violet and malachite green by Fusarium solani (Martius) Saccardo. A comparative study on biosorption of dyes by the dead fungal biomass. Am Eur J Botany. 2008; 1(2): 17-31.
  • 29
    Abd El-Zaher EHF. Biodegradation of reactive dyes using soil fungal isolates and Ganoderma esinaceum. Ann Microbiol. 2010; 60: 269-278.
  • 30
    Ansari AT, Sundaramoorthy N, Kavitha M. Adsorption, biosorption and discolourisation of rhodamine-band basic violet-2 using fungi isolated form soil samples collected near textile dye industry. Int J Res Pharm Biomed Sci. 2011; 2(4): 1706-1710.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    2018

History

  • Received
    29 Apr 2016
  • Accepted
    09 June 2016
Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar Rua Prof. Algacyr Munhoz Mader, 3775 - CIC, 81350-010 Curitiba PR Brazil, Tel.: +55 41 3316-3052/3054, Fax: +55 41 3346-2872 - Curitiba - PR - Brazil
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