Abstract in English:Abstract Background and aims: Rocuronium may provide excellent onset time, but high doses are required for effective action. Several strategies have managed to shorten rocuronium onset time, including the use of Magnesium Sulphate (MgSO4). Methods: One hundred and eighty patients were randomized into six groups according to rocuronium dose received (0.3, 0.6 or 1.2 mg.kg-1) and the administration of saline or MgSO4 (60 mg.kg-1). Correlations between tissue perfusion and rocuronium onset time was determined by variations in perfusion index. Results: Median (quartiles) rocuronium onset times were 85.5 (74.0–92.0); 76.0 (52.0–87.0) and 50.0 (41.0–59.5) seconds for 0.3, 0.6 mg.kg-1 and 1.2 mg.kg-1 doses, respectively. MgSO4 decreased rocuronium onset at doses of 0.3 mg.kg-1 (60.0 [48.0–74.3] seconds) and 0.6 mg.kg-1 (44.0 [39.0–49.0] seconds) but not at 1.2 mg.kg-1 (38.0 [33.5–56.3] seconds) (p < 0.001). Perfusion index variations in groups that received MgSO4 were greater than in controls. A negative correlation between shorten onset and increased perfusion index was observed in rocuronium doses of 0.3 mg.kg-1 (r = -0.50; p < 0.001) and 0.6 mg.kg-1 (r = -0.424; p < 0.001), but not for 1.2 mg.kg-1 dose (r = -0.25; p = 0.07). Conclusion: MgSO4 reduces rocuronium onset time at doses of 0.3 mg.kg-1 and 0.6 mg.kg-1 being that the latter has a similar effect when compared to the dose of 1.2 mg.kg-1, with or without the use of MgSO4.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Spinal anesthesia is commonly employed during inguinal hernial surgeries. Its short duration may, however, be considered a limitation, especially for bilateral hernial repair. The aim of this research is to investigate the analgesic and hemodynamic effects of intravenous infusion of both MgSO4 and dexmedetomidine on patients undergoing bilateral inguinal hernia surgeries under spinal anesthesia. Methods This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded controlled trail. It included 60 male patients who had been scheduled for bilateral elective inguinal hernia surgery under spinal anesthesia at Kasr Al-Aini hospital. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups (n = 20 each) to receive 50 mL of 0.9% saline intravenous infusion of either dexmedetomidine 0.5 µg.kg-1. h-1 (Group D) or magnesium sulphate 15 mg.kg-1. h-1 (Group M) or normal saline (Group S). The primary outcome of this study was set as the total duration of analgesia. Secondary outcomes were set as the onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade, perioperative hemodynamics, and the total 24-hour postoperative morphine consumption. Results Durations of sensory and motor blockades as well as durations of analgesia were all significantly longer among patients in Group D (mean 2.2, 3.5, 5.8 hours respectively) and Group M (mean 2.2, 3.3, 5.2 hours respectively), in comparison to Group S (mean 1.5, 2.7, 3.9 hours respectively). No significant differences were found in systolic or diastolic arterial blood pressure, heart rate oxygen saturation, cardiac output, or stroke volume among the study groups. Seven patients in Group D and four patients in Groups M and S developed hypotension. Conclusion Intravenous infusion of either dexmedetomidine or MgSO4 with spinal anesthesia effectively improves the quality of spinal anesthesia and prolongs the duration of postoperative analgesia and decreases the 24-hour postoperative morphine consumption. Results also demonstrated that the use of dexmedetomidine resulted in a slightly longer duration of analgesia, whilst the use of MgSO4 resulted in slightly better hemodynamic stability.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background and objectives: Abdominal Hysterectomy (AH) is associated with significant inflammatory response and can result in moderate to severe postoperative pain. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of magnesium infusion in reducing postoperative pain and analgesic consumption after AH under spinal anesthesia with Intrathecal Morphine (ITM). Method: Eighty-six patients were included in this clinical, controlled, randomized, double-blind study. Patients received in Group Mg, MgSO4 50 mg kg−1 for 15 minutes followed by 15 mg kg−1 h−1 until the end of the surgery; and in Group C, (control) the same volume of isotonic saline. Both groups received 100 µg of ITM. All patients received dipyrone + ketoprofen intraoperatively and postoperatively, and dexamethasone intraoperatively only. We evaluated the intensity of pain, tramadol consumption, and adverse events 24 hours postoperatively. Results: Serum magnesium concentrations were higher in Group Mg at the end, and one hour after the operation (p = 0.000). Postoperative pain scores were reduced in Group Mg at 6 hours at rest and on movement (p < 0.05). Tramadol consumption did not show a statistically significant difference between Group Mg and Group C (15.5 ± 36.6 mg and 29.2 ± 67.8 mg respectively, p = 0.53). Hemodynamic variables, the incidence of pruritus, nausea, and vomiting were similar in the two groups. Conclusion: Infusion of MgSO4 during AH undergoing spinal anesthesia with ITM reduced at 6 hours at rest and on movement. More studies should be performed to evaluate the potential antinociceptive effect of MgSO4 in scenarios where a multimodal analgesia approach was employed.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background and objectives We aimed to compare the analgesic effects of both posterior (type 2) Quadratus Lumborum Block (QLB) and Transversus Abdominis Plane Block (TAPB) compared to spinal anesthesia alone for postoperative pain management in inguinal hernia repair. Methods This study enrolled 63 patients scheduled for open inguinal hernia repair. The eligibility criteria were undergoing elective unilateral inguinal hernia repair surgery, having an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I, II, or III, and not suffering from any chronic pain condition. Group S patients received spinal anesthetics and no additional analgesic treatments. Group T patients received TAPB, and Group Q patients received QLB as analgesic technique in addition to spinal anesthetics. Results The pain scores at 6 hours (VAS 6) and 24 hours (VAS 24) were significantly different between groups (p < 0.01). Additionally, the sensory and motor block levels were significantly different between groups (p < 0.05). Multiple comparison tests showed that patients in Group Q had significantly higher sensory and motor block levels (p < 0.01 compared with Group S; p < 0.05 compared with Group T). Opioid consumption was significantly different between Groups Q and S (p < 0.01) after surgery. Conclusions Our findings show that both blocks are similarly effective for the management of postoperative pain compared to spinal anesthesia alone for inguinal hernia repair. We found that QLB resulted in a significant cranial spread compared to TAPB. Opioid consumption in QLB was significantly lower than that in controls but similar to that in TAPB.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background and objectives Data on urine output have not been routinely presented to define cardiac surgery-related acute kidney injury (AKI). We evaluated the incidence of AKI after cardiac surgery based on the AKIN and KDIGO criteria (considering serum creatinine concentration and urine output in the first 72 hours postoperatively) and compared the performance of the 2 criteria for AKI staging. Methods This was a prospective cohort study of adult patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), valve replacement, or CABG + valve replacement between October 2017 and April 2018 at a single institution. Patients were excluded if baseline creatinine concentration (measured within 7 days before surgery) was ≥ 2.5 mg.dL-1. Patients were evaluated for the development of AKI based on changes in urine output and serum creatinine concentration, measured daily from postoperative day 1 to 7, according to the AKIN and KDIGO criteria, which were then compared. Results A total of 198 patients were included. AKI occurred in 83.8% by AKIN and in 82.8% by KDIGO, when using both urine output and serum creatinine concentration as defining criteria. Using serum creatinine concentration alone, the incidence of AKI fell to 27.3% by AKIN and to 24.7% by KDIGO. A kappa coefficient of 0.98 was obtained between the AKIN and KDIGO criteria. Conclusions Almost perfect agreement was found between AKIN and KDIGO. AKI may be underdiagnosed after cardiac surgery if serum creatinine concentration is used as the only defining criterion. Our findings underscore the fundamental importance of using the urine output criterion in the assessment of patients at risk for AKI.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Inhaled anesthetics are used worldwide for anesthesia maintenance both in human and veterinary operating rooms. High concentrations of waste anesthetic gases can lead to health risks for the professionals exposed. Considering that anesthetic pollution in a veterinary surgical center in developing countries is unknown, this study aimed, for the first time, to measure the residual concentration of isoflurane in the air of operating rooms for small animals in a Brazilian university hospital. Method Residual isoflurane concentrations were measured by an infrared analyzer at the following sites: corner opposite to anesthesia machine; breathing zones of the surgeon, anesthesiologist, and patient (animal); and in front of the anesthesia machine at three time points, that is, 5, 30 and 120 minutes after anesthesia induction. Results Mean residual isoflurane concentrations gradually increased in the corner opposite to anesthesia machine and in the breathing zones of the surgeon and the anesthesiologist (p < 0.05). There was an increase at 30 minutes and 120 minutes when compared to the initial time points in the animal's breathing zone, and in the front of the anesthesia machine (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference at measurement sites regardless of the moment of assessment. Conclusion This study reported high residual isoflurane concentrations in veterinary operating rooms without an exhaust system, which exceeds the limit recommended by an international agency. Based on our findings, there is urgent need to implement exhaust systems to reduce anesthetic pollution and decrease occupational exposure.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background and objectives Laryngeal mask airways are increasingly used as supraglottic devices during general anesthesia. Ultrasonography can provide a dynamic image simultaneous to placing the supraglottic airway device. In the current study, the incidence of suboptimal laryngeal mask airway position and replacement in children was evaluated using simultaneous ultrasonographic imaging. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted on 82 patients aged 3–15 years with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I or II. Patients under general anesthesia and with airway provided by a laryngeal mask airway were included. The position of the laryngeal mask airway was evaluated by ultrasonography on two planes. According to our scoring system, Grade I and Grade II were determined to indicate acceptable placement, while Grade III was determined to indicate unacceptable placement. Suboptimal laryngeal mask airway placement rates and the requirement of replacement were determined. Laryngeal mask airway placement optimized by ultrasonography was evaluated with both leak tests and a fiberoptic laryngoscope. Results The average age of the patients was 6.27 ± 4.66 years. After evaluation with ultrasonography, 65 (79.3%) of the laryngeal mask airways were found to be optimally positioned, while the position of 13 (15.9%) had to be corrected, and 4 (4.9%) had to be replaced. There was a moderate positive correlation between the ultrasonographic evaluation and leak test evaluation (p < 0.001; r = 0.628). Relocation of the laryngeal mask airway was determined to be an independent risk factor affecting the development of complications (OR = 2.961; p = 0.046; 95% Cl 2.850–30.745). Conclusion The use of ultrasonography to verify and relocate laryngeal mask airway placement is noninvasive and effective.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Asymptomatic patients with moderate functional capacity do not require Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) workup in the preoperative period of non-cardiac surgeries, especially when scheduled for minor and intermediate-risk surgeries. The workup is inappropriate because it promotes over diagnosing and pointless treatments. Moreover, those patients usually undergo cardiology assessment, in addition to pre-anesthetic evaluation. Objective Investigate the role of cardiology consultation as mediator in inappropriate assessment of CAD for preoperative of non-cardiac surgeries. Method Retrospective study performed in a private anesthesia service using medical charts of asymptomatic patients with a history of controlled systemic disease and moderate functional capacity, submitted to pre-anesthetic consultation for minor and intermediate risk surgeries. Cardiology consultations were identified by the presence of a consultation report by a cardiologist. CAD workup was defined as undergoing cardiac stress tests. Results We included 390 medical charts of patients with mean age of 48.6 ± 15.4 years, 67% women and 69% intermediate risk surgeries. CAD workup was infrequent and performed in 3.9% of patients. Besides, pre-anesthetic evaluation, 93 (24%) patients had a cardiology consultation. Among those patients, 15.1% were submitted to CAD workup, compared to 0.34% of patients without cardiology assessment (p < 0.001; RR = 4.4; 95% CI: 3.5–5.6). Conclusions Inappropriate testing for CAD investigation is infrequent for asymptomatic individuals submitted to minor and intermediate risk surgeries. However, cardiology consultation increases substantially the likelihood of a patient undergoing CAD workup, suggesting that, unlike the anesthesiologist, the cardiologist is a major mediator of this kind of management.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) are among the cytokines released secondary to the surgical stress response. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP) block on postoperative pain and its immunomodulatory activity through proinflammatory cytokines. Methods TAP (study group; n = 40) or p-TAP (placebo group; n = 40). Patients in the TAP group underwent an Ultrasound (US) guided unilateral TAP block using 20-cc 0.5% bupivacaine solution. Patients in the p-TAP group underwent a sham block using 20-cc isotonic solution. The TNF-α and IL-1β levels were measured three times at preoperative hour-0 and postoperative hours 4 and 24. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores were recorded at 0-hours, 30-minutes, 4-hours, and 24-hours. Analgesic use within the first 24-hours following surgery was monitored. Results The postoperative VAS score was decreased in the TAP group at all time points (0, 4, and 24 hours), and the differences between groups were statistically significant (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). In the TAP group, the TNF-α and IL-1β levels at 4 and 24 hours post operation were significantly lower than the preoperative levels (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion The TAP block for pre-emptive analgesia enabled effective hemodynamic control during the intraoperative period, provided effective pain control in the postoperative period, and decreased inflammation and surgical stress due to the decreased levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in the first postoperative 24 hours, indicating immunomodulatory effect.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objectives To report a case series of Intraoperative Blood Salvage (IOS) in surgeries during the treatment for Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE) with controlled dislocation of the hip, identifying its efficacy, complications, and the profile of patients with SCFE. Methods Descriptive study reporting a case series, comprising patients seen between January 2016 and March 2018, diagnosed with SCFE, and treated with controlled surgical dislocation of the hip using IOS. Results Sample comprised of 15 patients, with a mean age of 13.1 years. The most affected side was the left with 8 cases. None of the patients required allogeneic blood in the postoperative period. Mean pre- and postoperative hemoglobin were 13.2 and 11.2 g.dL-1, respectively, and mean hemoglobin difference was 1.8 g.dL-1. Mean pre- and postoperative hematocrit were 39.13% and 33.20%, respectively, and mean hematocrit difference was 5.52%. No intraoperative complications were observed. One patient presented vomiting and another one, wound infection in the postoperative period. Conclusion IOS was an alternative blood salvage approach and prevented allogeneic blood transfusion, enabling reduction of potential complications.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction and objective Opioids have usually been used as intraoperative analgesic components, regardless of the many adverse effects they are associated with, such as nausea, vomiting, respiratory depression, and hyperalgesia. Several approaches have been investigated to reduce doses used, and magnesium sulfate has been shown to be a valuable analgesic adjunct. The main objective of the present trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of magnesium sulfate as the chief intraoperative analgesic, and the secondary objectives were to assess propofol consumption, postoperative analgesia, and intraoperative hemodynamic stability. Methods In this prospective, double-blind trial, 50 patients scheduled to undergo post-bariatric abdominoplasty under general intravenous anesthesia were divided into two groups, to receive remifentanil or magnesium sulfate as intraoperative analgesic. Fentanyl 1 µg kg-1 was the rescue analgesic. Results Among the patients in the group receiving Magnesium Sulfate (MSG), 64% did not need supplemental analgesia and none of the patients in the Remifentanil Group (RG) required fentanyl. MSG patients showed propofol consumption 36.6% higher (guided by the Bispectral Index – BIS). MSG patients consumed significantly less ephedrine (mean ± SD) than RG patients, respectively 1.52 ± 4.38 mg and 10 ± 10.39 mg, p < 0.001. Mean values of blood concentrations of magnesium were comparable to values previously described in the literature. Conclusion Magnesium sulfate is a safe and effective option for intraoperative analgesia, when avoiding or decreasing opioid use is required.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background and objectives The aim of our study was to assess systemic and cerebral hemodynamic changes as well as cerebral CO2-reactivity during propofol anesthesia. Methods 27 patients undergoing general anesthesia were enrolled. Anesthesia was maintained using the Target-Controlled Infusion (TCI) method according to the Schnider model, effect site propofol concentration of 4 µg.mL-1. Ventilatory settings (respiratory rate and tidal volume) were adjusted to reach and maintain 40, 35, and 30 mmHg EtCO2 for 5 minutes, respectively. At the end of each period, transcranial Doppler and hemodynamic parameters using applanation tonometry were recorded. Results Systemic mean arterial pressure significantly decreased during anesthetic induction and remained unchanged during the entire study period. Central aortic and peripherial pulse pressure did not change significantly during anesthetic induction and maintenance, whereas augmentation index as marker of arterial stiffness significantly decreased during the anesthetic induction and remained stable at the time points when target CO2 levels were reached. Both cerebral autoregulation and cerebral CO2-reactivity was maintained during propofol anesthesia. Conclusions Propofol at clinically administered doses using the Total Intravenous Anesthesia (TIVA/TCI) technique decreases systemic blood pressure, but does not affect static cerebral autoregulation, flow-metabolism coupling and cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity. According to our measurements, propofol may exert its systemic hemodynamic effect through venodilation. Trial registration The study was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT02203097, registration date: July 29, 2014.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background and objectives With the intensive study of lung protective ventilation strategies, people begin to advocate the individualized application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). This study investigated the optimal PEEP in patients during one-lung ventilation (OLV) and its effects on pulmonary mechanics and oxygenation. Methods Fifty-eight patients who underwent elective thoracoscopic lobectomy were randomly divided into two groups. Both groups received an alveolar recruitment maneuver (ARM) after OLV. Patients in Group A received optimal PEEP followed by PEEP decremental titration, while Group B received standard 5 cmH2O PEEP until the end of OLV. Relevant indexes of respiratory mechanics, pulmonary oxygenation and hemodynamics were recorded after entering the operating room (T0), 10 minutes after intubation (T1), pre-ARM (T2), 20 minutes after the application of optimal PEEP (T3), at the end of OLV (T4) and at the end of surgery (T5). Postoperative outcomes were also assessed. Results The optimal PEEP obtained in Group A was 8.8 ± 2.4 cmH2O, which positively correlated with BMI and forced vital capacity (FVC). Group A had a higher CPAT than Group B at T3, T4, T5 (p < 0.05) and a smaller ΔP than Group B at T3, T4 (p < 0.01). At T4, PaO2 was significantly higher in Group A (p < 0.01). At T3, stroke volume variation was higher in Group A (p < 0.01). Postoperative outcomes did not differ between the two groups. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the individualized PEEP can increase lung compliance, reduce driving pressure, and improve pulmonary oxygenation in patients undergoing thoracoscopic lobectomy, with little effect on hemodynamics.
Abstract in English:Abstract The anesthesia method to be administered during emergency surgical procedures for COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) pneumonia patients carries great importance for both patient and surgical team. Regional blocks are generally used to ensure postoperative analgesia after abdominal surgery with general anesthesia. In this case, involving a patient receiving anticoagulant treatment due to COVID-19 pneumonia with planned emergency operation, the aim was to present the anesthesia management with rectus sheath and transversus abdominis plane block combination for the ileostomy operation. Due to the administered blocks, the patient was not given general anesthesia. Hence, transmission was reduced by minimizing aerosol formation in terms of protecting health personnel and worsening of the patient’s pneumonia was prevented. The case is discussed in terms of regional anesthesia techniques offering a good alternative in appropriate cases for both employee and patient safety in the present day, when the whole world is affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Abstract in English:Abstract A primigravida at 32 weeks of gestation presented to us with eclampsia and Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) along with SARS COVID-19 pneumonia. Immediate termination of pregnancy was done under general anesthesia and patient was electively ventilated in view of increased oxygen requirements. Further therapy using magnesium sulphate, antihypertensives, steroids, and convalescent plasma was carried out. The condition of the patient steadily improved leading to her extubation on the 4th postoperative day and subsequent discharge on the 8th day of admission.
Abstract in English:Abstract Supraglottic airway devices (SAD) have got popularity in the anesthetic practice owing to easy insertion, rapid airway access and lower incidence of complications. Igel® is a second generation SAD with a non‐inflatable cuff and gastric drainage channel. Despite ease of insertion, there are still cases of failure of Igel® insertion to secure airway. We are hereby presenting a case of unanticipated difficulty in Igel® insertion in a 35-years-old female due to a hypopharyngeal growth. This article aims to send a reminder that despite anticipated easy airway, definitive plan for securing airway should always be ready.
Abstract in English:Abstract We report the case of a 62-year-old female who suffered from a persistent postoperative paralytic ileus following an urgent open cholecystectomy. On the fifth postoperative day we performed a bilateral Quadratus Lumborum Block (QLB) type 1 which resulted in a progressive resolution of the condition. This case report highlights that QLB is not only limited to somatic pain control, but it can also be used to alleviate visceral pain, namely in the context of paralytic ileus management in the postoperative period.
Abstract in English:Abstract Phenylketonuria is a rare disorder that increases the levels of phenylalanine in the blood. As there are scant articles about anesthesia management in phenylketonuria patients, this encouraged us to report a short-time anesthesia management of a child with phenylketonuria for bone fracture. The anesthesia was induced with intravenous ketamine and midazolam. During procedure, he received 100% oxygen via a face mask throughout spontaneous breathing. The operation was uneventful, and he was completely awakened in the recovery room. This report emphasizes that in some situations, the combination of midazolam with ketamine could be used safely for short time anesthesia in phenylketonuria patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract Gitelman syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disease that affects the thiazidesensitive sodium-chloride cotransport channels and the magnesium channels in the distal convoluted tubule, leading to hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. There is no cure for this condition and supportive treatment relies on ionic supplementation and symptom management. Literature regarding the anesthetic approach is scarce. This case report presents the anesthetic management of a child with Gitelman syndrome and its difficult electrolyte optimization.