The article aimed to analyze the purposes for the education of the infantile body that permeated the implantation of the discipline Gymnastics in the primary public education of Mato Grosso in the First Republic. Initially, it analyzed the hygienist influence in the organization of the space and the time of the school groups for the formation of healthy children. Next, it tried to understand how the discipline Gymnastics was idealized and implemented in the school routine. To accomplish the research, documentary sources located in the Public Archive of the state of Mato Grosso were used.
Physical education; Gymnastics; History of childhood; School groups; History of education