The past decade has shown a significant rise in the prevalence of infective syphilis in the developed world, and striking increases in its frequency have occurred in Eastern Europe, particularly the UK, and in the US. Although oral manifestations of syphilis are most likely to be observed during secondary disease, all stages of the disease can give rise to oral lesions. Significant oral lesions such as gumma-associated bony destruction and a possible predisposition to oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with tertiary disease. Since the prevalence of infective syphilis in heterosexuals has been increasing, there has now been a gradual rise in the number of children born with congenital syphilis. Consequently, the congenital disease gives rise to dental anomalies as well as bone, skin, and neurological anomalies of the face. The aim of this report is to review syphilis-related oral lesions, as well as to summarize the relations between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis.
Syphilis; Congenital Syphilis; HIV; Communicable diseases