Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: There are no reports on the long-term follow-up of patients with swine-origin influenza A virus infection that progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome. METHODS: Four patients were prospectively followed up with pulmonary function tests and high-resolution computed tomography for six months after admission to an intensive care unit. RESULTS: Pulmonary function test results assessed two months after admission to the intensive care unit showed reduced forced vital capacity in all patients and low diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide in two patients. At six months, pulmonary function test results were available for three patients. Two patients continued to have a restrictive pattern, and none of the patients presented with abnormal diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide. All of them had a diffuse ground-glass pattern on high-resolution computed tomography that improved after six months. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the marked severity of lung disease at admission, patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by swine-origin influenza A virus infection presented a late but substantial recovery over six months of follow-up.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a correlation between halitosis and mouth breathing in children. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-five children between 3 and 14 years of age were divided into two groups (nasal and mouth breathing) for the assessment of halitosis. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the degree of halitosis in each group. The chi-square test was used for comparison between groups, with a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: There was a significantly greater number of boys with the mouth-breathing pattern than girls. A total of 23.6% of the participants had no mouth odor, 12.7% had mild odor, 12.7% had moderate odor and 50.9% had strong odor. There was a statistically significant association between halitosis and mouth breathing. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of halitosis was high among the children evaluated, and there was a statistically significant association between halitosis and mouth breathing.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: The aims of the Online Latin American Survey of Anaphylaxis (OLASA) were to identify the main clinical manifestations, triggers, and treatments of severe allergic reactions in patients who were seen by allergists from July 2008 to June 2010 in 15 Latin American countries and Portugal (n =634). RESULTS: Of all patients, 68.5% were older than 18 years, 41.6% were male, and 65.4% experienced the allergic reaction at home. The etiologic agent was identified in 87.4% of cases and predominantly consisted of drugs (31.2%), foods (23.3%), and insect stings (14.9%). The main symptom categories observed during the acute episodes were cutaneous (94.0%) and respiratory (79.0%). The majority of patients (71.6%) were treated initially by a physician (office/emergency room) within the first hour after the reaction occurred (60.2%), and 43.5% recovered in the first hour after treatment. Most patients were treated in an emergency setting, but only 37.3% received parenteral epinephrine alone or associated with other medication. However, 80.5% and 70.2% were treated with corticosteroids or antihistamines (alone or in association), respectively. A total of 12.9% of the patients underwent reanimation maneuvers, and 15.2% were hospitalized. Only 5.8% of the patients returned to the emergency room after discharge, with 21.7% returning in the first 6 hours after initial treatment. CONCLUSION: The main clinical manifestations of severe allergic reactions were cutaneous. The etiologic agents that were identified as causing these acute episodes differed according to age group. Following in order: drugs (31.2%), foods (23.3% and insect stings (14.9%) in adults with foods predominance in children. Treatment provided for acute anaphylactic reactions was not appropriate. It is necessary to improve educational programs in order to enhance the knowledge on this potentially fatal emergency.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to simultaneously monitoring cytomegalovirus and human herpesvirus 6 active infections using nested-polymerase chain reaction and, together with clinical findings, follow the clinical status of patients undergoing liver transplant. INTRODUCTION: The human β-herpesviruses, including cytomegalovirus and human herpesvirus 6, are ubiquitous among human populations. Active infections of human herpesvirus 6 and cytomegalovirus are common after liver transplantation, possibly induced and facilitated by allograft rejection and immunosuppressive therapy. Both viruses affect the success of the transplant procedure. METHODS: Thirty patients submitted to liver transplant at the Liver Transplant Unit, at the Gastro Center, State University of Campinas, SP, Brazil, were studied prospectively from six months to one year, nested-polymerase chain reaction for cytomegalovirus and human herpesvirus 6 DNA detections. Two or more consecutive positive nested-polymerase chain reaction were considered indicative of active infection. RESULTS: Active infection by cytomegalovirus was detected in 13/30 (43.3%) patients, median time to first cytomegalovirus detection was 29 days after transplantation (range: 0-99 days). Active infection by human herpesvirus 6 was detected in 12/30 (40%) patients, median time to first human herpesvirus 6 detection was 23.5 days after transplantation (range: 0-273 days). The time-related appearance of each virus was not statistically different (p = 0.49). Rejection of the transplanted liver was observed in 16.7% (5/30) of the patients. The present analysis showed that human herpesvirus 6 and/or cytomegalovirus active infections were frequent in liver transplant recipients at our center. CONCLUSIONS: Few patients remain free of betaherpesviruses after liver transplantation. Most patients presenting active infection with more than one virus were infected sequentially and not concurrently. Nested-polymerase chain reaction can be considered of limited value for clinically monitoring cytomegalovirus and human herpesvirus 6.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To study tremor in patients with X-linked recessive spinobulbar muscular atrophy or Kennedy's disease. METHODS: Ten patients (from 7 families) with a genetic diagnosis of Kennedy's disease were screened for the presence of tremor using a standardized clinical protocol and followed up at a neurology outpatient clinic. All index patients were genotyped and showed an expanded allele in the androgen receptor gene. RESULTS: Mean patient age was 37.6 years and mean number of CAG repeats 47 (44-53). Tremor was present in 8 (80%) patients and was predominantly postural hand tremor. Alcohol responsiveness was detected in 7 (88%) patients with tremor, who all responded well to treatment with a β-blocker (propranolol). CONCLUSION: Tremor is a common feature in patients with Kennedy's disease and has characteristics similar to those of essential tremor.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS; OMIM 194050) is caused by a hemizygous contiguous gene microdeletion at 7q11.23. Supravalvular aortic stenosis, mental retardation, overfriendliness, and ocular and renal abnormalities comprise typical symptoms in WBS. Although fluorescence in situ hybridization is widely used for diagnostic confirmation, microsatellite DNA markers are considered highly informative and easily manageable. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to test the microsatellite markers for the diagnosis of Williams-Beuren syndrome, to determine the size and parental origin of microdeletion, compare the clinical characteristics between patients with different sizes of the deletion and parental origin. METHODS: We studied 97 patients with clinical diagnosis of Williams-Beuren syndrome using five microsatellite markers: D7S1870, D7S489, D7S613, D7S2476 and D7S489_A. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Using five markers together, the result was informative in all patients. The most informative marker was D7S1870 (78.4%), followed by D7S613 (75.3%), D7S489 (70.1%) and D7S2476 (62.9%). The microdeletion was present in 84 (86.6%) patients and absent in 13 (13.4%) patients. Maternal deletions were found in 52.4% of patients and paternal deletions in 47.6% of patients. The observed size of deletions was 1.55 Mb in 76/ 84 patients (90.5%) and 1.84 Mb in 8/84 patients (9.5%). SVAS as well as ocular and urinary abnormalities were more frequent in the patients with a deletion. There were no clinical differences in relation to either the size or parental origin of the deletion. CONCLUSION: Using these five selected microsatellite markers was informative in all patients, thus can be considered an alternative method for molecular diagnosis in Williams-Beuren syndrome.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To analyze glucose transporter 1 expression patterns in malignant tumors of various cell types and evaluate their diagnostic value by immunohistochemistry. INTRODUCTION: Glucose is the major source of energy for cells, and glucose transporter 1 is the most common glucose transporter in humans. Glucose transporter 1 is aberrantly expressed in several tumor types. Studies have implicated glucose transporter 1 expression as a prognostic and diagnostic marker in tumors, primarily in conjunction with positron emission tomography scan data. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for glucose transporter 1 was performed in tissue microarray slides, comprising 1955 samples of malignant neoplasm from different cell types. RESULTS: Sarcomas, lymphomas, melanomas and hepatoblastomas did not express glucose transporter 1. Fortyseven per cent of prostate adenocarcinomas were positive, as were 29% of thyroid, 10% of gastric and 5% of breast adenocarcinomas. Thirty-six per cent of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck were positive, as were 42% of uterine cervix squamous cell carcinomas. Glioblastomas and retinoblastomas showed membranous glucose transporter 1 staining in 18.6% and 9.4% of all cases, respectively. Squamous cell carcinomas displayed membranous expression, whereas adenocarcinomas showed cytoplasmic glucose transporter 1 expression. CONCLUSION: Glucose transporter 1 showed variable expression in various tumor types. Its absence in sarcomas, melanomas, hepatoblastomas and lymphomas suggests that other glucose transporters mediate the glycolytic pathway in these tumors. The data suggest that glucose transporter 1 is a valuable immunohistochemical marker that can be used to identify patients for evaluation by positron emission tomography scan. The function of cytoplasmic glucose transporter 1 in adenocarcinomas must be further examined.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: Personality traits have been associated with primary depression. However, it is not known whether this association takes place in the case of depression comorbid with fibromyalgia. OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the association between a current major depressive episode and temperament traits (e.g., harm avoidance). METHOD: A sample of 69 adult female patients with fibromyalgia was assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview severity of depressive symptomatology with the Beck Depression Inventory, and anxiety symptomatology with the IDATE-state and pain intensity with a visual analog scale. RESULTS: A current major depressive episode was diagnosed in 28 (40.5%) of the patients. They presented higher levels of harm avoidance and lower levels of cooperativeness and self-directedness compared with non-depressed patients, which is consistent with the Temperament and Character Inventory profile of subjects with primary depression. However, in contrast to previous results in primary depression, no association between a major depressive episode and self-transcendence was found. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight specific features of depression in fibromyalgia subjects and may prove important for enhancing the diagnosis and prognosis of depression in fibromyalgia patients.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: The Shwachman-Kulczycki score was the first scoring system used in cystic fibrosis to assess disease severity. Despite its subjectivity, it is still widely used. OBJECTIVE: To study correlations among forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), chest radiography, chest computed tomography, 6-minute walk test, and Shwachman-Kulczycki score in patients with cystic fibrosis and to test whether the Shwachman-Kulczycki score is still useful in monitoring the severity of the disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective study was performed to analyze the correlations (Spearman). Patients with clinically stable cystic fibrosis, aged 3-21 years, were included. RESULTS: 43 patients, 19F/24M, mean age 10.5 + 4.7 years, with a median Shwachman-Kulczycki score of 70 were studied. The median Brasfield and Bhalla scores were 17 and 10, respectively. The mean Z score for the 6-minute walk test was -1.1 + 1.106 and the mean FEV1 was 59 + 26 (as percentage of predicted values). The following significant correlations versus the Shwachman-Kulczycki score were found: FEV1 (r = 0.76), 6-minute walk test (r = 0.71), chest radiography (r = 0.71) and chest computed tomography (r = -0.78). When patients were divided according to FEV1, a statistically significantly correlation with the Shwachman-Kulczycki score was found only in patients with FEV1 <70% (r = 0.67). CONCLUSIONS: The Shwachman-Kulczycki score remains an useful tool for monitoring the severity of cystic fibrosis, adequately reflecting the functional impairment and chest radiography and tomography changes, especially in patients with greater impairment of lung function. When assessing patients with mild lung disease its limitations should be considered and its usefulness in such patients should be evaluated in larger populations.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: In Brazil, despite the recommendations of the Brazilian Society of Hemodynamics and Interventional Cardiology, the National Health System has not yet approved the use of drug-eluting stents. In percutaneous coronary interventions performed in the public and part of the private health care system, bare metal stents are used as the only option. Therefore, new information on bare metal stents is of great importance. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the influence of the alloy and the profile of coronary stents on late loss and restenosis rates 6 months after implantation in patients with multivessel coronary disease. METHODS: Single center, randomized and prospective study comparison of cobalt-chromium versus stainless steel stent implantation in 187 patients with multivessel coronary disease. At least one cobalt-chromium and one stainless steel stent were implanted per patient. RESULTS: Mean age of patients was 59.5 + 10.1 years with a prevalence of males (66.3%) and patients with acute coronary syndrome (56%). Baseline clinical characteristics were similar with hypertension in 146 (78%), dyslipidemia in 85 (45.5%) and diabetes in 68 (36.4%). Two hundred and twenty-nine cobalt-chromium and 284 stainless steel stents were implanted. Angiographic variables showed no statistically significant difference. Angiographic follow-up to 6 months after implantation showed similar late loss and restenosis rates. CONCLUSION: The use of two different alloys, stainless steel and cobalt-chrome stents, in the same patient and in the same vessel produced similar 6-month restenosis and late loss rates.
Abstract in English:AIM: To compare the dimensions of quality of life in the stages of chronic kidney disease and the influence of sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory data. INTRODUCTION: The information available on the quality of life of patients on conservative treatment and the relationship between the quality of life and glomerular filtration rate is limited. METHODS: 155 patients in stages 1-5 of chronic kidney disease and 36 in hemodialysis were studied. Quality of life was rated by the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Item (SF-36) and functional status by the Karnofsky Performance Scale. Clinical, laboratory and sociodemographic variables were investigated. RESULTS: Quality of life decreased in all stages of kidney disease. A reduction in physical functioning, physical role functioning and in the physical component summary was observed progressively in the different stages of kidney disease. Individuals with higher educational level who were professionally active displayed higher physical component summary values, whereas men and those with a higher income presented better mental component summary values. Older patients performed worse on the physical component summary and better on the mental component summary. Hemoglobin levels correlated with higher physical component summary values and the Karnofsky scale. Three or more comorbidities had an impact on the physical dimension. CONCLUSION: Quality of life is decreased in renal patients in the early stages of disease. No association was detected between the stages of the disease and the quality of life. It was possible to establish sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory risk factors for a worse quality of life in this population.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To describe nutritional status, body composition and lipid profile in children and adolescents receiving protease inhibitors. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients, 23 treated with protease inhibitors (group 1) and 36 not using protease inhibitors (group 2). Their dietary intake, anthropometry, bioimpedance analysis and lipid profile variables were measured. RESULTS: There was no difference in nutritional status or body composition between groups at the beginning of the study. After 6 months of follow-up, there was an increase in weight and height in both groups, as well as in waist circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness. In group 2, body mass index and triceps skinfold thickness adequacy were significantly higher after 6 months of follow-up. The groups had similar energy and macronutrient intake at any time point. After 6 months, group 1 had a higher cholesterol intake and group 2 had a higher fiber intake. Triglyceride serum levels were significantly different between the groups, with higher values in G1, at any time point [G1: 153 mg/dl (30-344); 138 (58-378) versus G2: 76 mg/dl (29-378); 76 (29-378)]. After 6 months of follow-up, G1 had higher LDL-cholesterol than G2 [104 mg/dl (40-142) versus 82 (42-145)]. CONCLUSION: The use of protease inhibitors, per se, does not seem to significantly interfere with anthropometric measures, body composition and food intake of HIV-infected children and adolescents. However, this antiretroviral therapy was associated with a significant increase in triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol in our subjects.
Abstract in English:AIM: This prospective randomized clinical study was conducted to compare radioguided occult lesion localization (ROLL) with wire-guided localization to evaluate optimum localization techniques for non-palpable breast lesions. METHODS: A total of 108 patients who were undergoing an excisional biopsy for non-palpable breast lesions requiring pathologic diagnosis were randomly assigned to the ROLL group (n = 56) and wire-guided localization group (n = 52). In the study, patients' characteristics, radiological abnormalities, radiological technique of localization, localization time, operation time, weight of the excised specimen, clearance margins, pathological diagnosis and perioperative complications were assessed. RESULTS: There were no differences between the two groups in terms of age, radiological abnormalities and localization technique (p = non-significant for all). ROLL techniques resulted in 100% retrieval of the lesions; for the wire-guided localization technique, 98%. Both localization time and operation time were significantly reduced with the ROLL technique (p = significant for all). The weight of the specimen was significantly lower in the ROLL group than in the wire-guided localization group (p = significant). The overall complication rate and pathological diagnosis were similar for both groups (p = non-significant for all). Clear margins were achieved in 91% of ROLL patients and in 53% of wire-guided localization patients, and the difference was significant. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicated that the ROLL technique is as effective as wire-guided localization for the excision of non-palpable breast lesions. In addition, ROLL improved the outcomes by reducing localization and operation time, preventing healthy tissue excision and achieving clearer margins.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To explore the characteristics of seasonal distribution of active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the influences of meteorological factors including temperature and humidity on active systemic lupus erythematosus. METHODS: The characteristics of seasonal distribution of active SLE and its correlation with meteorological factors were retrospectively analyzed in 640 patients living in the city of Zhanjiang, China and had active SLE between January 1997 and December 2006. RESULTS: In winter, when there are weaker ultraviolet (UV) rays, the ratio of patients with active SLE to total inpatients was 3.89 %o, which is significantly higher than in other seasons with stronger UV rays, including 2.17 %o in spring, 1.87 0 in summer and 2.12 0 in autumn. The number of patients with active SLE had significant negative correlation with mean temperature and was not significantly related to mean humidity. CONCLUSION: Active SLE has the characteristics of seasonal distribution and is associated with temperature. The mechanism remains to be further studied.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To set out a severity classification for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) based on the interaction of pulmonary function parameters with high resolution computed tomography (CT) findings. INTRODUCTION: Despite the contribution of functional and radiological methods in the study of IPF, there are few classification proposals for the disease based on these examinations. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out, in which 41 non-smoking patients with IPF were evaluated. The following high resolution CT findings were quantified using a semi-quantitative scoring system: reticular abnormality, honeycombing and ground-glass opacity. The functional variables were measured by spirometry, forced oscillation technique, helium dilution method, as well as the single-breath method of diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide. With the interaction between functional indexes and high resolution CT scores through fuzzy logic, a classification for IPF has been built. RESULTS: Out of 41 patients studied, 26 were male and 15 female, with a mean age of 70.8 years. Volume measurements were the variables which showed the best interaction with the disease extension on high resolution CT, while the forced vital capacity showed the lowest estimative errors in comparison to total lung capacity. A classification for IPF was suggested based on the 95% confidence interval of the forced vital capacity %: mild group (>92.7); moderately mild (76.9-92.6); moderate (64.3-76.8%); moderately severe (47.1-64.2); severe (24.3-47.0); and very severe (<24.3). CONCLUSION: Through fuzzy logic, an IPF classification was built based on forced vital capacity measurement with a simple practical application.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to characterize the neuroinfection profile in a tertiary neurological ward. INTRODUCTION: Neuroinfection is a worldwide concern and bacterial meningitis, tetanus and cerebral malaria have been reported as the commonest causes in developing countries. METHODS: From 1999 to 2007, all patients admitted to the Neurology Ward of Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University School of Medicine because of neuroinfection had their medical records reviewed. Age, gender, immunological status, neurological syndrome at presentation, infectious agent and clinical outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Three hundred and seventy four cases of neuroinfectious diseases accounted for 4.2% of ward admissions and the identification of infectious agent was successful in 81% of cases. Mean age was 40.5 + 13.4 years, 63.8% were male, 19.7% were immunocompromised patients and meningoencephalitis was the most common clinical presentation despite infectious agent. Viruses and bacteria were equally responsible for 29.4% of neuroinfectious diseases; parasitic, fungal and prion infections accounted for 28%, 9.6% and 3.5% respectively. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Treponema pallidum, Taenia solium, Schistosoma mansoni, Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum were the more common infectious pathogens in the patients. Infection mortality rate was 14.2%, of which 62.3% occurred in immunocompetent patients. CONCLUSION: Our institution appeared to share some results with developed and developing countries. Comparison with literature may be considered as quality control to health assistance.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare rearfoot alignment and medial longitudinal arch index during static postures in runners, with and without symptoms and histories of plantar fasciitis (PF). INTRODUCTION: PF is the third most common injury in runners but, so far, its etiology remains unclear. In the literature, rearfoot misalignment and conformations of the longitudinal plantar arch have been described as risk factors for the development of PF. However, in most of the investigated literature, the results are still controversial, mainly regarding athletic individuals and the effects of pain associated with these injuries. METHODS: Forty-five runners with plantar fasciitis (30 symptomatic and 15 with previous histories of injuries) and 60 controls were evaluated. Pain was assessed by a visual analogue scale. The assessment of rearfoot alignment and the calculations of the arch index were performed by digital photographic images. RESULTS: There were observed similarities between the three groups regarding the misalignments of the rearfoot valgus. The medial longitudinal arches were more elevated in the group with symptoms and histories of PF, compared to the control runners. CONCLUSIONS: Runners with symptoms or histories of PF did not differ in rearfoot valgus misalignments, but showed increases in the longitudinal plantar arch during bipedal static stance, regardless of the presence of pain symptoms.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: Issues related to body image and a permanent stoma after abdominoperineal resection may decrease quality of life in rectal cancer patients. However, specific problems associated with a low anastomosis may similarly affect quality of life for patients undergoing low anterior resection. The aim of this study was to compare quality of life of low rectal cancer patients after undergoing abdominoperineal resection versus low anterior resection. METHODS: Demographics, tumor and treatment characteristics, and prospectively collected preoperative quality-of-life data for patients undergoing low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection for low rectal cancer between 1995 and 2009 were compared. Quality of life collected at specific time intervals was compared for the two groups, adjusting for age, body mass index, use of chemoradiation, and 30 days postoperative complications. The short-form-36 questionnaire was used to determine quality of life. RESULTS: The query returned 153 patients (abdominoperineal resection = 68, low anterior resection = 85) with a median follow-up of 24 (3-64) mo. The after abdominoperineal resection group had a higher mean age (63 + 12 vs. 54 + 12, p < 0.001) and more American Society of Anesthesiologists classification 3/4 patients (65 percent vs. 43 percent, p = 0.03) than low anterior resection. Other demographics, tumor stage, use of chemoradiation, overall postoperative complication rates, and quality-of-life follow-up time were not statistically different in both groups. Patients undergoing abdominoperineal resection had a lower baseline short-form-36 mental component score than those undergoing low anterior resection. However, 6 mo after surgery this difference was no longer statistically significant and essentially disappeared at 36 mo after surgery. CONCLUSION: Patients undergoing abdominoperineal resection for low rectal cancer have a similar long-term quality of life as those undergoing low anterior resection. These findings can help clinicians to better counsel patients with low rectal cancer who are being considered for abdominoperineal resection.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: PXR polymorphisms have been implicated in modulating CYP3A4 and PXR expression, potentially accounting for interindividual differences in drug metabolism. The prevalence of PXR polymorphisms varies among ethnic groups and data on the allelic distribution in the highly mixed Brazilian population is lacking. The aim of this study was to analyze genetic variations in the PXR gene in Brazilians and to compare the results to other ethnic groups. METHODS: DNA samples from 117 healthy Brazilians underwent PCR amplification and sequencing. RESULTS: Eleven polymorphisms were identified, 3 of which are highly associated with differences in CYP3A4 expression. We also identified 1 new synonymous variant in 1.3% of the alleles. Among the functional polymorphisms, -25913 C>T and -6994T>C occurred at a higher frequency comparedtothe Africanalleles (p < 0.05) but at a lower frequency compared to Caucasian alleles. The 8055 C>T allele was found at a similar frequency to those described in Caucasians and Africans (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: We observed that functional variants of the PXR were frequent in our sample of the Brazilian population. Our results suggest that PXR gene variants may be of interest in pharmacogenetic studies involving Brazilians.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: The role of structural brain changes and their correlations with neuropsychiatric symptoms and disability in Alzheimer's disease are still poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To establish whether structural changes in grey matter volume in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease are associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms and disability METHODS: Nineteen Alzheimer's disease patients (9 females; total mean age =75.2 y old +4.7; total mean education level =8.5 y +4.9) underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination and voxel-based morphometry analysis. T1-weighted images were spatially normalized and segmented. Grey matter images were smoothed and analyzed using a multiple regression design. The results were corrected for multiple comparisons. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory was used to evaluate the neuropsychiatric symptoms, and the Functional Activities Questionnaire and Disability Assessment for Dementia were used for functional evaluation RESULTS: A significant negative correlation was found between the bilateral middle frontal gyri, left inferior temporal gyrus, right orbitofrontal gyrus, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores. A negative correlation was found between bilateral middle temporal gyri, left hippocampus, bilateral fusiform gyri, and the Functional Activities Questionnaire. There was a positive correlation between the right amygdala, bilateral fusiform gyri, right anterior insula, left inferior and middle temporal gyri, right superior temporal gyrus, and Disability Assessment for Dementia scores CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the neuropsychiatric symptoms observed in Alzheimer's disease patients could be mainly due to frontal structural abnormalities, whereas disability could be associated with reductions in temporal structures.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of urban, traffic-related, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on mice lung tumorigenesis under controlled exposure conditions. METHODS: Four groups of female Swiss mice were treated with intraperitonial injections of urethane and saline solution. Urethane was used to start the carcinogenesis process. The animals were housed in two chambers receiving filtered and polluted air. In the polluted air chamber, pollutant levels were low. After two months of exposure, the animals were euthanized and lung tumoral nodules were counted. RESULTS: Saline-treated animals showed no nodules. Urethane-treated animals showed 2.0+2.0 and 4.0+3.0 nodules respectively, in the filtered and non-filtered chambers (p = 0.02), thus showing experimental evidence of increased carcinogenic-induced lung cancer with increasing PM2.5 exposure. CONCLUSION: Our data support the concept that low levels of PM2.5 may increase the risk of developing lung tumors.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of low dose methotrexate alone or in combination with glucocorticoid treatment on titanium implant osseointegration. METHODS: Groups of 6-8 adult New Zealand White rabbits were treated for 18 weeks with saline (control), methotrexate, glucocorticoid, or methotrexate plus glucocorticoid. The animals received a titanium implant in the tibia at week 6. Lumbar spine and tibia bone mineral densities were analyzed before and after treatment. Histomorphometric analysis of bone cortical thickness, total bone area around the implant, and % of bone to implant contact was performed. RESULTS: After 18 weeks, the change in the bone mineral density in the lumbar spines and tibias in the methotrexate group was comparable to the control group (0.035 vs. 0.055 g/cm² and 0.021 vs. 0.041 g/cm², respectively). In contrast, both the glucocorticoid group and glucocorticoid plus methotrexate group had significant reductions at both sites. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia in the control and methotrexate groups revealed no significant changes in cortical thickness (133 vs. 126 μm), total bone area around the implant (33 vs. 30%), or bone to implant contact (40 vs. 38%). In contrast, glucocorticoid group had significant reductions compared to controls in tibia cortical thickness (99 vs. 133 μm), total bone area around the implant (24 vs. 33%), and bone to implant contact (27 vs. 40%). Similar reductions were observed in the glucocorticoid plus methotrexate group. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that low dose methotrexate treatment does not affect titanium implant osseointegration, suggesting that this therapy is safe for surgical procedures requiring a titanium implant.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the involvement of peripheral nitric oxide (NO) in vagotomy-induced pulmonary edema by verifying whether the nitric oxide synthases (NOS), constitutive (cNOS) and inducible (iNOS), participate in this mechanism. INTRODUCTION: It has been proposed that vagotomy induces neurogenic pulmonary edema or intensifies the edema of other etiologies. METHODS: Control and vagotomized rats were pretreated with 0.3 mg/kg, 3.0 mg/kg or 39.0 mg/kg of L-NAME, or with 5.0 mg/kg, 10.0 mg/kg or 20.0 mg/kg of aminoguanidine. All animals were observed for 120 minutes. After the animals' death, the trachea was catheterized in order to observe tracheal fluid and to classify the severity of pulmonary edema. The lungs were removed and weighed to evaluate pulmonary weight gain and edema index. RESULTS: Vagotomy promoted pulmonary edema as edema was significantly higher than in the control. This effect was modified by treatment with L-NAME. The highest dose, 39.0 mg/kg, reduced the edema and prolonged the survival of the animals, while at the lowest dose, 0.3 mg/kg, the edema and reduced survival rates were maintained. Aminoguanidine, regardless of the dose inhibited the development of the edema. Its effect was similar to that observed when the highest dose of L-NAME was administered. It may be that the non-selective blockade of cNOS by the highest dose of L-NAME also inhibited the iNOS pathway. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that iNOS could be directly involved in pulmonary edema induced by vagotomy and cNOS appears to participate as a protector mechanism.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the creation of corneal flaps at different thicknesses on the biomechanical properties of swine corneas. METHOD: Twelve swine eyes were obtained to form two groups: 100 μm flap thickness and 300 μm flap thickness. Each eye was submitted to the following examinations: raster topography to investigate corneal curvature alterations, ocular response analyzer to investigate corneal hysteresis change, optical coherence tomography to measure central corneal and flap thickness and sonic wave propagation velocity as a measure of stiffness, before and immediately after flap creation. After flap amputation, surface wave velocity measurements were repeated. RESULTS: Measured flap thicknesses were statistically different for thin and thick flap groups, with an average of 108.5 + 6.9 and 307.8 + 11.5 μm respectively. Hysteresis and corneal resistance factor did not change significantly after flap creation in the thin flap group. With thicker flaps, both parameters decreased significantly from 8.0 +1.0 to 5.1 +1.5 mmHg and from 8.2 + 1.6 to 4.1 +2.5 mmHg respectively. Simulated keratometry values increased in the thick flap group (from 39.5 + 1 D to 45.9+1.2 D) after flap creation but not in the thin flap group (from 40.6 + 0.6 D to 41.4+ 1.0 D). Regarding surface wave velocity analysis, the surgical procedures induced statistically lower results in some positions. CONCLUSION: In the experimental conditions established by this model, thicker flaps presented a greater biomechanical impact on the cornea.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: Honey is a common household product with many medicinal uses described in traditional medicine. Only recently has its antioxidant properties and preventive effects against disease been highlighted. Chrysin is a natural flavone commonly found in honey that has been shown to be an antioxidant agent. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of honey and chrysin on cultured human prostate cancer cells. METHODS: Cells were cultured in RPMI medium and treated with different concentrations of honey and chrysin for three consecutive days. Cell viability was quantitated by the 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The percentage of apoptotic cells was determined by flow cytometry using Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate. RESULTS: The MTT assay revealed that both compounds had an antiproliferative effect on PC-3 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 values for honey and chrysin against PC-3 cells were 2.5% and 24.5% after 48 h and 1.8% and 8.5% after 72 h, respectively. Chrysin induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells, as determined by flow cytometry. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that honey has anti-proliferative effects on prostate cancer cells and the effects are mainly due to chrysin. Therefore, chrysin may be a potential compound for both cancer prevention and treatment. Further in vivo investigation is needed to support the use of chrysin in cancer therapy.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the separate and combined effects of tobacco and biomass smoke exposure on pulmonary histopathology in rats. INTRODUCTION: In addition to smoking, indoor pollution in developing countries contributes to the development of respiratory diseases. METHODS: Twenty-eight adult rats were divided into four groups as follows: control group (Group I, no exposure to tobacco or biomass smoke), exposed to tobacco smoke (Group II), exposed to biomass smoke (Group III), and combined exposure to tobacco and biomass smoke (Group IV). After six months the rats in all four groups were sacrificed. Lung tissue samples were examined under light microscopy. The severity of pathological changes was scored. RESULTS: Group II differed from Group I in all histopathological alterations except intraparenchymal vascular thrombosis. There was no statistically significant difference in histopathological changes between the subjects exposed exclusively to tobacco smoke (Group II) and those with combined exposure to tobacco and biomass smoke (Group IV). The histopathological changes observed in Group IV were found to be more severe than those in subjects exposed exclusively to biomass smoke (Group III). DISCUSSION: Chronic exposure to tobacco and biomass smoke caused an increase in severity and types of lung injury. CONCLUSION: Exposure to cigarette smoke caused serious damage to the respiratory system, particularly with concomitant exposure to biomass smoke.
Abstract in English:Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of an acoustic external stimulus. It affects 10-17% of the world's population and it a complex symptom with multiple causes, which is influenced by pathways other than the auditory one. Recently, it has been observed that tinnitus may be provoked or modulated by stimulation arising from the somatosensorial system, as well as from the somatomotor and visual-motor systems. This specific subgroup -somatosensory tinnitus - is present in 65% of cases, even though it tends to be underdiagnosed. As a consequence, it is necessary to establish evaluation protocols and specific treatments focusing on both the auditory pathway and the musculoskeletal system.