This study aimed to investigate the extraction and characterization of protein concentrates from pig by-products (heart, liver and kidneys) using the pH-shifting technique. From the solubility profiles (pH 2 to 12), the protein extraction was performed at alkaline pH (10.0 to 11.5), obtaining two fractions: soluble (SC) and insoluble (IC). Higher protein content (71 to 77%) and extractability (214 to 459 mg/g) were observed in heart and liver concentrates; whereas, for water holding capacity (WHC) the highest values (4.20 to 4.54 g water/g protein) were for the heart (SC) and kidney (SC and IC) concentrates. All concentrates had high emulsion stability and higher WHC than commercial protein extenders (whey and soybean). The concentrates obtained from the soluble fraction were redder (higher a* values and lower h values) and darker (lower L* values) than insoluble fraction, especially heart and liver concentrates. Use of concentrates in sausage production slightly altered the color chroma (C*) of samples. It was concluded that the pig by-products protein concentrates had great potential of use as extenders in sausage production.
heart; kidney; liver; protein extensor; pH-shifting