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Knowledge and attitudes of schoolchildren about the prevention of accidents

Abstract

Accidents are frequent in childhood because of the lower risk perception and greater vulnerability to disasters. This study aimed to analyze the knowledge and attitudes of schoolchildren concerning the prevention of accidents and associated factors. This is a cross-sectional and quantitative study conducted in November and December/2017 in Simão Dias, Sergipe, Brazil. Ninety-seven schoolchildren aged between 7 and 9 years of age from a sample calculation were evaluated through interviews with representative images. The results showed that little more than half of the children consider the use of personal protective equipment as a way of preventing injuries in case of accidents (58.8%; n=57), and is infrequent among those with low education level (PR: 0.66; 95%CI: 0.16- 0.99). The knowledge or use of this equipment was 60.8% (n=59) for safety belt, 54.6% (n=53) for helmet, 47.4% (n=46) for knee pad and 40.2% (n=39) for elbow support. Regarding attitudes, 20.6% (n=20) answered that there is no problem putting their (unwashed) hand on the wound and 12.4% (n=12) crossing the street accompanied without an adult. It was concluded that the knowledge and attitudes of schoolchildren concerning the prevention of accidents are misguided.

Key words
Child; Accident Prevention; Protective Equipment

Resumo

Os acidentes são frequentes na infância em razão da menor percepção de risco e maior vulnerabilidade à desastres. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os conhecimentos e as atitudes de crianças escolares em relação à prevenção de acidentes e os fatores associados. Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo e transversal realizado entre novembro e dezembro de 2017 em Simão Dias, Sergipe, Brasil. A partir de cálculo amostral, foram avaliadas por meio de entrevista com uso de imagens ilustrativas 97 crianças escolares de sete a nove anos. Os resultados mostraram que pouco mais da metade das crianças entrevistadas consideram o uso de equipamentos de proteção individual uma forma de prevenir lesões em casos de acidentes (58,8%; n=57), sendo menos frequente entre as que possuíam menor escolaridade (RP: 0,66; IC95%: 0,16-0,99). O conhecimento e/ou uso desses equipamentos foi de 60,8% (n=59) para cinto de segurança, 54,6% (n=53) para capacete, 47,4% (n=46) para joelheira e 40,2% (n=39) para cotoveleira. Em relação às atitudes, 20,6% (n=20) responderam que não há problemas em colocar a mão (sem lavar) sobre o machucado e 12,4% (n=12) em atravessar a rua sem a companhia de um adulto. Concluiu-se que as crianças escolares avaliadas possuem conhecimentos e atitudes equivocadas sobre prevenção de acidentes.

Palavras-chave
Criança; Prevenção de Acidentes; Equipamentos de Proteção

Introduction

Accidents are preventable and unintentional events that may cause physical or emotional damage. They may occur at the domestic or social level and are responsible for high morbimortality worldwide11 Malta DC, Mascarenhas MDM, Silva MMA, Carvalho MGO, Barufaldi LA, Avanci JQ, Bernal RTI. The occurrence of external causes in childhood in emergency care: epidemiological aspects, Brazil, 2014. Cien Saude Colet 2016; 21(12):3729-3744.,22 World Health Organization (WHO). World report on child injury prevention. Geneva: WHO; 2008.. It is estimated that 10 million children are injured yearly as a result of accidents33 Acar E, Dursun OB, Esin IS, Ogüthü H, Ozcan H, Muthu M. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children. Is there a correlation with parenting style and parental attention deficit and hyperactivity symptoms. Medicine 2015; 94:1378.. In Brazil, accidents have also reached considerable proportions, especially in childhood, becoming a severe public health problem44 Filócomo FRF, Harada MJCS, Mantovani R, Ohara CVS. Perfil dos acidentes na infância e adolescência atendidos em um hospital público. Acta Paul Enferm 2017; 30(3):287-294.,55 Gomes LMX, Rocha RM, Barbosa TLA, Silva CSO. Descrição dos acidentes domésticos ocorridos na infância. O Mundo da Saúde 2013; 37:394-400.. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (Unicef), around 830,000 child victims of accidents die every year around the world66 Peden M, Oyegbite K, Ozanne-Smith J, Hyder A A, Branche C, Rahman AKM F, Bartolomeos FRK. World report on child injury prevention. Genebra: WHO; 2008..

The Ministry of Health considers that the period of admission of the child to school is marked by remarkable advances in the construction of autonomous behavior, and that this increased independence may favor greater exposure to risks. It also emphasizes that, although the idea that accidents are mere fatalities is widespread, most would not occur if people were able to avoid them through safe and protective behaviors and habits that prevent the occurrence of illness or death caused by accidents77 Brasil. Ministério da Saúde (MS). Caderno do gestor do PSE. Brasília: MS; 2015..

It is known that the more immature the child is, the lower its perception of risk and the higher its vulnerability to accidents and disasters55 Gomes LMX, Rocha RM, Barbosa TLA, Silva CSO. Descrição dos acidentes domésticos ocorridos na infância. O Mundo da Saúde 2013; 37:394-400.. This vulnerability varies with the level of coordination of the nervous system, motor skills, sense of risk perception and protection given to the child by the mother and other relatives88 Brasil. Ministério da Integração Nacional. Redução das vulnerabilidades aos desastres e acidentes na infância. Secretaria Nacional de Defesa Civil. Brasília: Ministério da Integração Nacional; 2002.. A survey conducted in Rio de Janeiro (BR), with people over 22 years of age identified a significant lack of knowledge about prevention of domestic accidents involving children99 Miranda IFA, Soares R, Torre K, Costa A, Fonseca T, Fernandes MG. Conhecimento dos responsáveis sobre a prevenção de acidentes domésticos envolvendo crianças. Rev Pediatr SOPERJ 2015; 15:6-12.. This is worrying if we consider that an Italian study evidenced that 86% of patients hospitalized for burns were up to 9 years of age1010 Cedri S, Briguglio E, Cedri C, Masellis A, Crença A, Pitidis A. Development of an effective communication strategy for the prevention of burns in children: the prius project. Annals Burns Fire Disasters 2015; 28(2):88-93. and that Brazil recorded an increase of 37% in hospitalizations due to burns and 19% due to traffic accidents involving persons up to 14 years of age1111 Brasil. Criança segura safe kids. 15 anos da criança no Brasil - Análise de indicadores de mortes e internações por acidentes na infância e adolescência desde 2001, Edição Vanessa Machado. 2016. Disponível em: s://criancasegura.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/livreto-15-anos-v2D-2016-08-29-simples.pdf
s://criancasegura.org.br/wp-content/uplo...
between 2008 and 2015.

In 2013, the absolute number of deaths due to external causes among Brazilian children aged 0-9 years was 3,745, ranking third in the classification of child deaths11 Malta DC, Mascarenhas MDM, Silva MMA, Carvalho MGO, Barufaldi LA, Avanci JQ, Bernal RTI. The occurrence of external causes in childhood in emergency care: epidemiological aspects, Brazil, 2014. Cien Saude Colet 2016; 21(12):3729-3744.. External causes include unforeseen events (traffic, falls, drownings, among others) and intentional events (assault and self-harm)1212 Lima LLN, Neves Junior R. Brigada Estudantil de Prevenção de Acidentes e Primeiros Socorros em Palmas (TO). Rev Bras Educ Méd 2016; 40(2):310-313.. Also, a recent study in São Paulo identified that 2,636 cases of traffic accidents involving children and adolescents were reported during 2016, of which 1,579 were vehicle occupants (59.9%) and 990 pedestrians (37.6%)1313 Rodrigues C, Rizzo T, Merici G, Ribas M, Górios C. Perfil epidemiológico dos acidentes de trânsito entre crianças e adolescentes. Arqu Catarinenses Med 2017; 46:91-102.. This reinforces society’s need and duty to ensure that these population groups have a protective environment with adequate physical, mental and social development11 Malta DC, Mascarenhas MDM, Silva MMA, Carvalho MGO, Barufaldi LA, Avanci JQ, Bernal RTI. The occurrence of external causes in childhood in emergency care: epidemiological aspects, Brazil, 2014. Cien Saude Colet 2016; 21(12):3729-3744..

The role of the family or those responsible for ensuring a safe domestic environment is also mentioned. Simple measures such as removing/hampering access to sharp objects and cleaning materials are sufficient to reduce the risk of accidents in this age group99 Miranda IFA, Soares R, Torre K, Costa A, Fonseca T, Fernandes MG. Conhecimento dos responsáveis sobre a prevenção de acidentes domésticos envolvendo crianças. Rev Pediatr SOPERJ 2015; 15:6-12.. Some factors such as high net, presence of stairs or steps without handrails, and exits and passages with the presence of toys, furniture, boxes or other obstructive items are associated with falls in children under five years of age1414 Brito MA, Melo AMN, Veras IC, Oliveira CMS, Bezerra MAR, Rocha SS. Fatores de risco no ambiente doméstico para quedas em crianças menores de cinco anos. Rev Gaúcha Enferm 2017; 38:1-9..

It is believed that school is the ideal space to approach the prevention of accidents and first aid as early as in childhood1515 Grupo Gestor de Benefícios Sociais (GGBS). Elaboração de uma cartilha de Primeiros Socorros como instrumento do processo ensino-aprendizagem para crianças. Campinas: GGBS da Universidade Estadual de Campinas UNICAMP; 2015.. A national study showed that educational activities are sufficient to increase knowledge about risks to children’s accidents and preventive measures by children and their relatives/guardians1616 Nascimento EN, Gimeniz-Paschoal SR, Sebastião LT, Ferreira NP. Ações intersetoriais de prevenção de acidentes na educação infantil: opiniões do professor e conhecimentos dos alunos. J Human Growth Development 2013; 23:99-106.. Accident prevention measures must take place before the onset of any tasks and be maintained until their completion. First aid, in turn, is a supporting conduct in situations of suffering or risk of death and can be performed by lay or health professionals1717 Singletary EM, Charlton NP, Epstein JL, Ferguson JD, Jensen JL, MacPherson AI. American Heart Association and American Red Cross Guidelines Update for First Aid. Circulation 2015; 18:574-589..

In cases of accidents at school, with the least knowledge about first aid, it is necessary to assist the children involved1818 Cambion FF, Fernandes LM. Primeiros socorros para o ambiente escolar. Cambion FF, Fernandes LM, organizadoras. Porto Alegre: Evangraf; 2016.. Therefore, it is essential to perform educational activities on this theme in different social segments and age groups, adapting only the language to the reality of the listeners1919 Costa CWA, Moura DL, Costa FLO, Melo RS, Moreira SR. Unidade didática de ensino dos primeiros socorros para escolares: efeitos do aprendizado. Pensar Prática 2015; 18(2):338-349..

In this perspective, this study can contribute to the formulation of specific strategies with a theoretical-practical approach to accident prevention and first aid for children in the school environment. Therefore, it aimed to analyze the knowledge and attitudes of schoolchildren concerning the prevention of accidents and associated factors.

Methods

This is a quantitative and cross-sectional study with descriptive and analytical approaches carried out in November and December 2017 in the municipality of Simão Dias, Sergipe, Brazil. Ninety-seven children aged 7 to 9 years of age proportionally distributed among three public elementary schools were evaluated through an interview using representative images.

The population eligible for this study consisted of 120 children based on the information provided by the management of the institutions. Then, the sample was calculated through the Barbetta formula2020 Barbetta PA. Estatística aplicada às ciências sociais. 7ª ed. Santa Catarina: UFSC; 2011., considering a 95% confidence level and a sample error of 5%. There was also a safety margin to cater for possible losses or withdrawals of 5% in the calculated number, which resulted in 97 children interviewed.

Schoolchildren were previously selected by simple random sampling from a daily presence list, and all those aged 7-9 years of age who were enrolled and attending classes were considered eligible. Then, at least one of the legal guardians for each selected child was summoned to attend the respective educational institution and, thus, could voluntarily sign the Informed Consent Form for the release of the child and start of the interview. Students with cognitive problems that could interfere in the comprehension of the questions of this study were excluded from the simple random selection.

Face-to-face interviews were carried out using representative images among children accompanied by their parents to collect data. The questionnaire consisted of sociodemographic and other questions related to risk behavior for accidents inside and outside the home environment and first aid. All questions were clear and objective and language appropriate to the age group. The images were used for a better understanding of the questions; they were illustrations about the correct way to cross the street, prevention of injuries when riding a bicycle, performing ironing activities, preparing food, handling hot pots, knife and stove, besides the means of protection during car, motorcycle or bicycle travel.

The following variables were used in the analysis of the individual factors associated with students’ knowledge about accident prevention and first aid: gender (female vs. male), age (7 years vs. 8 or 9 years) and school series (1st or 2nd grade vs. 3rd or 4th grade) versus understanding the importance of the use of protective equipment in the prevention of accidents and correct action in case of burns.

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 20.0 was used for statistical analysis. Univariate and bivariate techniques were applied to obtain the distribution of absolute and relative frequencies. Associations were investigated using the Chi-square test between qualitative/categorical variables. The prevalence ratio (PR) was estimated as a measurement of association and its respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A 5% significance level was adopted for all cases.

This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Sergipe. All care was taken to ensure the privacy and confidentiality of information, as recommended by Resolution No. 196/1996 of the National Health Council on human research. The legal guardians for the children signed the informed consent form with an assurance of refusal at any time, without the suffering any harm by the institutions.

Results

The mean age of the students was 7.9 years (SD=0.8), with 7 being the minimum and 9 the maximum (41.2%, n=40: 7 years; 30.9%, n=30: 8 years; 27.9%, n=27: 9 years). There was almost equal distribution between genders, with females corresponding to 49.5% (n=48) and males 50.5% (n=49). Regarding the series in which the child was enrolled, 27.8% (n=27) were first-graders, 38.1% (n=37) second-graders, 25.8% (n=25) third-grades, and 8.2% (n=8) fourth-graders. Most lived in urban areas (92.8%, n=90) and did not know the schooling level of their father (82.5%, n=80) and mother (72.2%, n=70). When asked if parents worked outside the home, 82.5% (n=80) of the children responded positively to the father figure and 42.3% (n=41) to the mother figure.

Just over half of the respondents believed that the use of personal protective equipment could prevent injuries in the event of accidents (58.8%; n=57) and the knowledge or use of this equipment was 54.6% (n=53) for the helmet, 47.4% (n=46) knee pad, 40.2% (n=39) elbow support, and 22.7% (n=22) for mouth guard. The use of seat belts when traveling by car or bus was mentioned by 60.8% (n=59) of the sample (Table 1).

Table 1
Descriptive results of children's responses to risk behaviors for accidents outside the home and first aid (n=97). Simão Dias, Sergipe, Brazil, 2017.

Most schoolchildren answered that the appropriate way to cross the street would be accompanied by an adult in the crosswalk (87.6%, n=85). However, it is worth noting that 7.2% (n=7) said they would be accompanied by friends of the same age and 5.2% (n=5) alone (Table 1).

Also, in the case of superficial skin injuries, 44.3% (n=43) reported that they said to their parents that they must go to the hospital/doctor and 44.3% (n=43) washed the injured site with water and soap. Thus, attention is drawn to the fact that 11.4% (n=11) prefer to conceal the injury and say nothing to their parents. It was also verified that 20.6% (n=20) of the sample placed their (unwashed) hand on the wound site soon after any accident (Table 1).

Similarly, concerning risk behaviors for in-house accidents, 17.5% (n=17) of the children considered that there were no problems if they wanted to use the “iron” and were unsure about the risk of skin burns with its use. Also, 25.8% (n=25) of schoolchildren think that they can cook/prepare food in the kitchen with or without the help of an adult (Table 2).

Table 2
Descriptive results of the children's responses on risk behaviors for accidents in the home and first aid (n=97). Simão Dias, Sergipe, Brazil, 2017.

The analysis of the interference of the characteristics of the students in consideration of the importance of the use of protective equipment to prevent accidents showed that this thought was infrequent among those with less schooling (PR: 0.66; 95%CI: 0.16-0.99) (p<0.05). Also, although with no statistical evidence of association, the descriptive results also showed that this knowledge was higher among the older children at the time of the research (Table 3).

Table 3
Associations between the profile of schoolchildren and knowledge about prevention of accidents using protective equipment (n=97). Simão Dias, Sergipe, Brazil, 2017.

Concerning the analysis of the interference of the students’ characteristics in the correct procedure in cases of burns, it was pointed out that no statistically significant association was found between gender, age or grade of children with this attitude (p>0.05) (Table 4).

Table 4
Associations between the characteristics of schoolchildren and right action in case of burns (n=97). Simão Dias, Sergipe, Brazil, 2017.

Discussion

Knowledge and misconceptions regarding the prevention of accidents and first aid among school children interviewed were evidenced. It is known that this public is vulnerable to accidents regardless of its social conditions. However, factors such as low maternal schooling, poor housing, large family composition and single and young mothers increase the risk of accidents this age group2121 Rede Nacional Primeira Infância. Plano nacional da primeira infância - projeto observatório nacional da primeira infância. Mapeamento da ação finalística evitando acidentes na primeira infância [Internet]. 2014 [acessado 2019 Mar 13]. Disponível em: ://primeirainfancia.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/RELATORIO-DE-MAPEAMENTO-EVITANDO-ACIDENTES-versao-4-solteiras.pdf
://primeirainfancia.org.br/wp-content/up...
.

National researchers also argue that the presence and involvement of parents, constant vigilance for physical and emotional protection, stimulating developmental experiences, and nurturing networks for home childcare are all elements that facilitate the promotion of child safety. On the other hand, the inhibiting elements of this promotion are the poor perception of the characteristics of the child’s development and of the singularities of the child and the overprotection and difficulties to establish limits by parents or responsible2222 Mello DF, Henrique NCP, Pancieri L, Veríssimo MLOR, Tonete VLP, Malone M. A segurança da criança na perspectiva das necessidades essenciais. Rev Latino-Am Enferm 2014; 22:604-610..

In this study, most did not know the parents’ level of schooling, and when asked if they worked outside the home, 82.5% answered positively regarding the father figure and 42.3% with the mother figure. A national study showed that unemployed mothers pass on more behaviors to prevent domestic and leisure accidents in their children when compared to mothers who must go to work2323 Ramos TMCF. Prevenção de acidentes domésticos na criança: comportamento parental. [dissertação]. Viseu: Escola Superior de Saúde de Viseu; 2017..

The children’s responses to risk behaviors for accidents showed the need for a more exceptional approach to this issue since only a little more than half of the participants believed that the use of protective equipment could prevent injuries in accidents. A study indicates that the non-use of this equipment can cause more severe injuries in situations of fall or collision2424 Jorges MHPM, Martins CBG. A criança, o adolescente e o trânsito: algumas reflexões importantes. Rev Assoc Med Bras 2013; 59(3):199-208..

Regarding the use of seat belts, most respondents answered that they use this equipment. A Brazilian study has shown that two children who are victims of collision with vehicles die each day2525 Criança Segura Brasil. Guia de criança segura no carro. São Paulo: Associação Brasileira de Produtos Infantis; 2013.. Article 1 of Resolution No. 277 establishes that the transport of children under the age of 10 should be in the back seat2626 Brasil. Conselho Nacional de Trânsito. Resolução nº 277, de 28 de maio de 2008. Dispõe sobre o transporte de menores de 10 anos e a utilização do dispositivo de retenção para o transporte de crianças em veículos. Código de Trânsito Brasileiro; 2008.. The use of a safety belt starts at 7 years of age; however, the spread of its use in the back seat is usually lower than expected2424 Jorges MHPM, Martins CBG. A criança, o adolescente e o trânsito: algumas reflexões importantes. Rev Assoc Med Bras 2013; 59(3):199-208..

Almost all schoolchildren responded correctly that the right way to cross the street would be accompanied by an adult in the crosswalk. However, worth highlighting are those who said they did so with their friends of the same age and alone. In this context, we stress that, when crossing the public highway, one must do so only in the proper crosswalk, obeying the signaling, and in the absence of such crosswalk, cross it perpendicularly to the sidewalks. Also, before crossing, one should still stay away from the curb, stand in a visible place, watch out for stalled cars or other objects that may be blocking sight, look both ways and make eye contact with the driver, to make sure one is being seen2727 Nance ML, Hawkins LA, Branas CC, Vivarelli-O'Neill C, Winston FK. Optimal driving conditions are the most common injury conditions for child pedestrians. Ped Emerg Care 2004; 20:569-573.

28 Tabibi Z, Pfeffer K. Choosing a safe place to cross the road: the relationship between attention and identification of safe and dangerous road-crossing sites. Child Care Health Dev 2003; 29:237-244.
-2929 Waksman RD, Pirito RMBK. O pediatra e a segurança no trânsito. J Pediatr (Rio J) 2005; 81(5 Supl.):s181-s188..

As for the first aid-related attitudes, in case of superficial skin injuries, it is noteworthy that some children prefer to hide the injury and say nothing to the parents, and others to place the (unwashed) hand on the wound site soon after the accident. It is essential to guide the child not to omit to the adults the occurrence of superficial skin injuries, avoiding possible complications due to inappropriate behavior such as placing the dirty hand on the wound site - an essential route for transferring disease-causing microorganisms3030 Oliveira NS, Gonçalves TB. Avaliação microbiológica das mãos de manipuladores de alimentos em creches da cidade de Juazeiro do Norte, CE. Rev Interfaces Saúde Humanas Tecnologia 2014; 2(7):1-7..

It is worth highlighting that, in the home environment, some children answered that there are no problems if they want to use the “iron” and were unsure about the risk of skin burns following its use. Also, others have stated that they can cook/prepare food in the kitchen with or without the help of an adult. A national study showed that, in agreement with these findings, most burns occur in the domestic environment, especially in the kitchen3131 Costa GOP, Silva JA, Santos AG. Perfil clínico e epidemiológico das queimaduras: evidências para o cuidado de enfermagem. Cien Saúde 2015; 8(3):146-155..

The understanding of the importance of the use of protective equipment for accident prevention was infrequent among those who had less schooling at the time of the research. Thus, guidance should be provided to children about the importance of the appropriate use of protective equipment for injury prevention. Authors also point out the need to sensitize parents and educators of the children so that, along with guidance, they may also present the necessary equipment for their protection3232 Dias J, Costa S, Martins S. Prevenção de acidentes em idade pediátrica: o que sabem os pais e o que fazem os médicos. Acta Pediatr Port 2013; 44:277-282..

Authors argue that the intersectoral perspective in the school environment to approach first aid/prevention of accidents should awaken in health professionals and training institutions the need to implement measures of permanent education for teachers, aiming at the theoretical basis, preventive measures and proper conducts3333 Galindo Neto NM, Carvalho GCN, Castro RCMB, Caetano JÁ, Santos ECB, Silva TM, Vasconcelos EMR. Vivências de professores acerca dos primeiros socorros na escola. Rev Bras Enferm 2018; 71(Supl. 4):1678-1684.. It is understood that these partnerships with those who experience the problem are essential for the formulation of strategies more appropriate to the reality of the target audience. This also facilitates the socialization of these educational and public policy projects in communities and households, in order to shed light on the severity of domestic or traffic accidents in the several age groups.

This study evidenced the need for a more exceptional approach to these themes in the child population, since poor knowledge and attitudes regarding the prevention of accidents and first aid were found among children of the three public elementary schools where the study was carried out.

The children’s limited knowledge about basic traffic rules, the importance of the use of protective equipment, the possible risks of accidents in the home and the minimum recommended behavior in cases of burns and other injuries were noted.

Therefore, we stress that schools can play a crucial role in this regard, including health professionals for collaboration in the sharing of this information with the students. We also suggest the introduction of this educational practice through playful activities so that the target audience can construct such knowledge in a more participative and productive way.

Referências

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    Malta DC, Mascarenhas MDM, Silva MMA, Carvalho MGO, Barufaldi LA, Avanci JQ, Bernal RTI. The occurrence of external causes in childhood in emergency care: epidemiological aspects, Brazil, 2014. Cien Saude Colet 2016; 21(12):3729-3744.
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    World Health Organization (WHO). World report on child injury prevention Geneva: WHO; 2008.
  • 3
    Acar E, Dursun OB, Esin IS, Ogüthü H, Ozcan H, Muthu M. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children. Is there a correlation with parenting style and parental attention deficit and hyperactivity symptoms. Medicine 2015; 94:1378.
  • 4
    Filócomo FRF, Harada MJCS, Mantovani R, Ohara CVS. Perfil dos acidentes na infância e adolescência atendidos em um hospital público. Acta Paul Enferm 2017; 30(3):287-294.
  • 5
    Gomes LMX, Rocha RM, Barbosa TLA, Silva CSO. Descrição dos acidentes domésticos ocorridos na infância. O Mundo da Saúde 2013; 37:394-400.
  • 6
    Peden M, Oyegbite K, Ozanne-Smith J, Hyder A A, Branche C, Rahman AKM F, Bartolomeos FRK. World report on child injury prevention Genebra: WHO; 2008.
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    Brasil. Ministério da Saúde (MS). Caderno do gestor do PSE Brasília: MS; 2015.
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    Miranda IFA, Soares R, Torre K, Costa A, Fonseca T, Fernandes MG. Conhecimento dos responsáveis sobre a prevenção de acidentes domésticos envolvendo crianças. Rev Pediatr SOPERJ 2015; 15:6-12.
  • 10
    Cedri S, Briguglio E, Cedri C, Masellis A, Crença A, Pitidis A. Development of an effective communication strategy for the prevention of burns in children: the prius project. Annals Burns Fire Disasters 2015; 28(2):88-93.
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    » https://criancasegura.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/livreto-15-anos-v2D-2016-08-29-simples.pdf
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    Lima LLN, Neves Junior R. Brigada Estudantil de Prevenção de Acidentes e Primeiros Socorros em Palmas (TO). Rev Bras Educ Méd 2016; 40(2):310-313.
  • 13
    Rodrigues C, Rizzo T, Merici G, Ribas M, Górios C. Perfil epidemiológico dos acidentes de trânsito entre crianças e adolescentes. Arqu Catarinenses Med 2017; 46:91-102.
  • 14
    Brito MA, Melo AMN, Veras IC, Oliveira CMS, Bezerra MAR, Rocha SS. Fatores de risco no ambiente doméstico para quedas em crianças menores de cinco anos. Rev Gaúcha Enferm 2017; 38:1-9.
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    Grupo Gestor de Benefícios Sociais (GGBS). Elaboração de uma cartilha de Primeiros Socorros como instrumento do processo ensino-aprendizagem para crianças Campinas: GGBS da Universidade Estadual de Campinas UNICAMP; 2015.
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    Nascimento EN, Gimeniz-Paschoal SR, Sebastião LT, Ferreira NP. Ações intersetoriais de prevenção de acidentes na educação infantil: opiniões do professor e conhecimentos dos alunos. J Human Growth Development 2013; 23:99-106.
  • 17
    Singletary EM, Charlton NP, Epstein JL, Ferguson JD, Jensen JL, MacPherson AI. American Heart Association and American Red Cross Guidelines Update for First Aid. Circulation 2015; 18:574-589.
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    Cambion FF, Fernandes LM. Primeiros socorros para o ambiente escolar Cambion FF, Fernandes LM, organizadoras. Porto Alegre: Evangraf; 2016.
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    Costa CWA, Moura DL, Costa FLO, Melo RS, Moreira SR. Unidade didática de ensino dos primeiros socorros para escolares: efeitos do aprendizado. Pensar Prática 2015; 18(2):338-349.
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Edited by

Chief editors Romeu Gomes, Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    15 Mar 2021
  • Date of issue
    Mar 2021

History

  • Received
    22 July 2018
  • Accepted
    08 May 2019
  • Published
    10 May 2019
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