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Factors associated with loss to follow-up and death in cases of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) treated at a reference center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Abstract:

Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) poses a serious threat to tuberculosis (TB) control in Brazil and worldwide. The current study investigated factors associated with loss to follow-up and death in the course of treatment for DR-TB in a tertiary reference center in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This was a retrospective cohort study of cases reported to the Information System on Special Treatments for Tuberculosis (SITETB) from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013. A total of 257 patients were reported to the SITETB and initiated treatment for DR-TB. Of this total, 139 (54.1%) achieved treatment success as the outcome, 54 (21%) were lost to follow-up, and 21 (8.2%) died. Following a multiple multinomial logistic regression analysis, the age bracket older than 50 years was the only protective factor against loss to follow-up, whereas less than eight years of schooling and reentry after loss to follow-up were considered risk factors. Reentry after loss to follow-up, relapse, and treatment failure appeared as risk factors. Our data reinforce the concept that loss to follow-up in drug-resistant tuberculosis is a serious public health problem, and that adequate follow-up of treatment is necessary in patients with this history and low schooling. A social support network for patients is also indispensable for avoiding unfavorable outcomes.

Keywords:
Tuberculosis; Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis; Patient Dropouts

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