Evaluation of antioxidant activities, total phenolic content (TPC), and total catechin content (TCC) of 10 sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) cultivar peels grown in Thailand

Benya MANOCHAI Pajaree INGKASUPART Sang Hyun LEE Jeong Hwa HONG About the authors

Abstract

Antioxidant activities, total phenolic content (TPC), and total catechin content were analyzed in the ethanol extracts of 10 sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) cultivar peels grown in Thailand. Antioxidant activity assays carried out in the this study were the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity, and oxygen radical absorbance activity (ORAC). ‘Nhur Thong’, ‘Nung Keaw’, and ‘Fai Keaw’ showed high percentage fruit peel (over 38.0%). ‘Nhur Thong’, ‘Nung Keaw’, and ‘Fai Keaw’ ethanol extracts possessed high antioxidant capacities in the majority of methods used, and thus could be potential candidate of natural antioxidants. ‘Fai Keaw’ showed the best activity in the ABTS (1.57 mmol of trolox/g dry sample), FRAP (0.43 mmol of trolox/g dry sample), and ORAC assays (2.84 mmol of trolox/g dry sample), as well as the highest content of TPC (140.4 mg) per gram dry sugar apple peel among the 10 cultivars. TPC showed a positive correlation compared with all antioxidant activity assays. In conclusion, ‘Fai Keaw’ could be utilized as an excellent phenolic compound source for functional food products.

Keywords
Annona peel; total catechin content; total phenol content; antioxidant activities

1 Introduction

Because of their potential benefit on the human health, fruits have become increasingly important in human nutrition. The nutritional value and health related characteristics of fruits depend on the concentration of nutrients and phytochemicals as well as on the daily intake and bioavailability ( Feliciano et al., 2010 Feliciano, R. P., Antunes, C., Ramos, A., Serra, A. T., Figueira, M. E., Duarte, C. M. M., Carvalho, A., & Bronze, M. R. (2010). Characterization of traditional and exotic apple varieties from Portugal. Part 1 – nutritional, phytochemical and sensory evaluation. Journal of Functional Foods, 2(1), 35-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2009.12.004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2009.12...
; Albuquerque et al., 2016 Albuquerque, T. G., Santos, F., Sanches-Silva, A., Oliveira, M. B., Bento, A. C., & Costa, H. S. (2016). Nutritional and phytochemical composition of Annona cherimola Mill. fruits and by-products: potential health benefits. Food Chemistry, 193, 187-195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.06.044. PMid:26433307.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.20...
). Fruit waste comprises much of the municipal wastes because urban people consumes fruit in large quantity and food industry discards inedible parts of fruit. As a result, great quantities of fruit residues (principally peels and seeds) are generated in large cities and have become a severe environmental issue ( Deng et al., 2015 Deng, G. F., Xu, D. F., Li, S., & Li, H. B. (2015). Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of natural antioxidants from sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) peel using response surface methodology. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) , 20(11), 20448-20459. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules201119708. PMid:26593890.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules2011...
). Thus the effective use of the phytochemicals in fruit residues has been proposed to solve this environmental problem; in addition, this approach could add high value to the fruit residue. Recently, many reports revealed that the contents of natural antioxidants were very high in the peel and seeds of some fruits ( Ajila et al., 2007 Ajila, C., Naidu, K., Bhat, S., & Rao, U. (2007). Bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential of mango peel extract. Food Chemistry, 105(3), 982-988. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.04.052.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.20...
; Okonogi et al., 2007 Okonogi, A., Duangrat, C., Anuchpreeda, S., Tachakittirungrod, S., & Chowwana-poonpohn, S. (2007). Comparison of antioxidant capacities and cytotoxicities of certain fruit peels. Food Chemistry, 10(3), 839-846. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.09.034.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.20...
; Vieira et al., 2009 Vieira, F. G., Borges, G. S., Copetti, C., Gonzaga, L. V., Nunes, E. C., & Fett, R. (2009). Activity and contents of polyphenolic antioxidants in the whole fruit, flesh and peel of three apple cultivars. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion, 59(1), 101-106. PMid:19480352. ; Deng et al., 2012 Deng, G. F., Shen, C., Xu, X. R., Kuang, R. D., Guo, Y. J., Zeng, L. S., Gao, L. L., Lin, X., Xie, J. F., Xia, E. Q., Li, S., Wu, S., Chen, F., Ling, W. H., & Li, H. B. (2012). Potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 13(7), 8308-8323. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms13078308. PMid:22942704.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms13078308 ...
). Tfherefore, it would be beneficial if fruit residues could be utilized to recover natural antioxidants, especially phenolic compounds, thus making them able to be fully exploited in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries ( Makris et al., 2007 Makris, D. P., Boskou, G., & Andrikopoulos, N. K. (2007). Recovery of antioxidant phenolics from white vinification solid by-products employing water/ethanol mixtures. Bioresource Technology, 98(15), 2963-2967. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2006.10.003. PMid:17110101.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.20...
; Deng et al., 2015 Deng, G. F., Xu, D. F., Li, S., & Li, H. B. (2015). Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of natural antioxidants from sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) peel using response surface methodology. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) , 20(11), 20448-20459. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules201119708. PMid:26593890.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules2011...
).

The sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) is a plant belonging to the family Annonaceae. It is well known for its edible tropical fruit and is mostly distributed in America and Asia ( Kumar et al., 2012 Kumar, R., Roopan, S. M., Prabhakarn, A., Khanna, V. G., & Chakroborty, S. (2012). Agricultural waste Annona squamosa peel extract: Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. Spectrochimica Acta. Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy , 90, 173-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2012.01.029. PMid:22336049.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2012.01...
). The white flesh of Annona fruit can be utilized for preparing juices, ice cream, soft drink, and so on ( Lima et al., 2010 Lima, L. A. R. S., Pimenta, L. P. S., & Boaventura, M. A. D. (2010). Acetogenins from Annona cornifolia and their antioxidant capacity. Food Chemistry , 122(4), 1129-1138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.03.100.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.20...
). In Thailand, A. squamosa is cultivated in all areas, especially in the northeast part, as a sweet fruit. Many researchers have found that this plant has various beneficial medicinal properties such as antioxidant activities in fruit pulp ( Jagtap & Bapat, 2012 Jagtap, U. B., & Bapat, V. A. (2012). Antioxidant activities of various solvent extracts of custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) fruit pulp. Nutrafoods , 11(4), 137-144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13749-012-0053-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13749-012-00...
); antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory activities in leaves ( Sousa et al., 2010 Sousa, O. V., Vieira, G. D.-V., Pinho, J. J. R. G., Yamamoto, C. H., & Alves, M. S. (2010). Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of Annona muricata L. Leaves in animal models. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 11(5), 2067-2078. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms11052067. PMid:20559502.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms11052067 ...
); and anti-tumor and anti-headlice activities in seeds ( Yi et al., 2014 Yi, J. M., Park, J. S., Lee, J., Hong, J. T., Bang, O. S., & Kim, N. S. (2014). Anti-angiogenic potential of an ethanol extract of Annona atemoya seeds in vitro and in vivo. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 14(1), 353-363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-14-353. PMid:25249371.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-14-...
). Local Thai Annona has been developed by hybridizing with a non-local cultivar to improve production yield. ‘Petch Pakchong’ is one of the hybrid cultivars that are promoted to Thai farmers because of its outstanding characteristics in terms of high production fruit yield and low tendency to rot after harvesting ( Chinnasri & Chinnasri, 2014 Chinnasri, B., & Chinnasri, O. (2014). Roles of Kasetsart University in Promoting Agricultural Education for Sustainable Development. Journal of Developments in Sustainable Agriculture, 9(1), 19-28. ). Concentrations of bioactive compounds vary considerably depending on the type of plant and cultivar; in addition, several factors affect the concentration of bioactive compounds such as genetic factors, maturity stage, environmental and cultural practices, and post-harvest conditions ( Odriozola-Serrano et al., 2008 Odriozola-Serrano, I., Soliva-Fortuny, R., & Martín-Belloso, O. (2008). Effect of minimal processing on bioactive compounds and color attributes of fresh-cut tomatoes. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, 41(2), 217-226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2007.03.002.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2007.03...
; Albuquerque et al., 2016 Albuquerque, T. G., Santos, F., Sanches-Silva, A., Oliveira, M. B., Bento, A. C., & Costa, H. S. (2016). Nutritional and phytochemical composition of Annona cherimola Mill. fruits and by-products: potential health benefits. Food Chemistry, 193, 187-195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.06.044. PMid:26433307.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.20...
). The potential of sugar apple peel was reported to be used as a natural antioxidants because of its high phenolic content and antioxidant capacities ( Deng et al., 2012 Deng, G. F., Shen, C., Xu, X. R., Kuang, R. D., Guo, Y. J., Zeng, L. S., Gao, L. L., Lin, X., Xie, J. F., Xia, E. Q., Li, S., Wu, S., Chen, F., Ling, W. H., & Li, H. B. (2012). Potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 13(7), 8308-8323. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms13078308. PMid:22942704.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms13078308 ...
; Kumar et al., 2012 Kumar, R., Roopan, S. M., Prabhakarn, A., Khanna, V. G., & Chakroborty, S. (2012). Agricultural waste Annona squamosa peel extract: Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. Spectrochimica Acta. Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy , 90, 173-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2012.01.029. PMid:22336049.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2012.01...
). Antioxidant capacity reported related with total phenolic content, which is expressed as mg of gallic acid/g sample. Mariod et al. (2012) Mariod, A. A., Abdelwahab, S. I., Elkheir, S., Ahmed, Y. M., Fauzi, P. N., & Chuen, C. S. (2012). Antioxidant activity of different parts from Annona squamosa, and Catunaregam nilotica methanolic extract. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria, 11(3), 249-258. PMid:22744945. reported that catechin and gallic acid were the main phenolic compounds in the sugar apple peel. However, in case of sugar apple cultivars grown in Thailand, only few information about the relation between antioxidant and major active compounds has been reported. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the antioxidant properties in various sugar apple peels from 10 different cultivars grown in Thailand, including ‘Fai Keaw’, ‘Fai Krung’, ‘Nhung Keaw’, ‘Nung Krung’, ‘Nung Thong’, ‘Pakchong KU-1’, ‘Pakchong KU-2’, ‘Petch Pakchong’, ‘Nhur Thong’, and ‘African Pride’. In addition, this research can be utilized as a reference for Thai farmers to provide an alternative purpose for planting sugar apples as a functional food source.

2 Materials and methods

2.1 Chemicals

Pure standards of catechin (C), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin (EC), caffeine, and gallic acid (GA) were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO). Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, sodium carbonate, 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS•+) working solution, 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (trolox), 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and fluorescein, 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride were also purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO). All other chemicals and solvents used were of analytical regent grade.

2.2 Plant materials

Sugar apple fruits of different cultivars including ‘Fai Keaw’, ‘Fai Krung’, ‘Nhung Keaw’, ‘Nung Krung’, ‘Nung Thong’, ‘Pakchong KU-1’, ‘Pakchong KU-2’, ‘Petch Pakchong’, ‘Nhur Thong’, and ‘African Pride’ were collected from Pakchong Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand. The plants were grown in soil from Pakchong (i.e., red color and high iron content). A completely randomized experimental design was applied to the ten cultivars with three replicates. Ripened A. squamosa were collected randomly at 100-120 days of age from Annona plants that were 5 years old. Annona fruits were washed thoroughly with water. Fruit peel, edible parts, and seeds were separated and measured. Fresh peels were then freeze-dried (FDU-1200, Eyela, Japan) for two days, powdered, and stored in plastic bags in desiccators until further analysis.

2.3 Determination of proximate composition

Proximate composition of sugar apple peels was determined using the AOAC methods ( Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 2002 Association of Official Analytical Chemists – AOAC. (2002). Official methods of analysis (17th ed.). Arlington: AOAC. ). Moisture content was analyzed based on weight loss after hot air drying at 105 °C until constant weight, and total ash content was assessed from the weight of the sample after incineration in a muffle furnace at 550 °C. Crude protein content was measured by a micro-Kjeldahl method using 6.25 as the conversion factor. Crude lipids were analyzed by the solvent extraction for 6 h with petroleum ether.

2.4 Extraction of Annona peel

Freeze-dried sugar apple peels from ten cultivars were extracted with 95% ethanol by continuous shaking at 120 rpm and 25 °C for 24 h followed by the filtration through a 0.45 µm membrane, and the resultant filtrate was stored at 4 °C in a refrigerator until further analysis.

2.5 Determination of total phenolic content (TPC)

The TPC in the sugar apple peel extracts (SAPE) was quantified using Folin-Ciocalteu method (by Al-Duais et al., 2009 Al-Duais, M., Müller, L., Böhm, V., & Jetschke, G. (2009). Antioxidant capacity and total phenolics of Cyphostemma digitatum before and after processing: use of different assays. European Food Research and Technology, 228(5), 813-821. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-008-0994-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-008-09...
; Ingkasupart et al., 2015 Ingkasupart, P., Manochai, B., Song, W. T., & Hong, J. H. (2015). Antioxidant activities and lutein content of 11 marigold cultivars (Tagetes spp.) grown in Thailand. Food Science and Technology (Campinas), 35(2), 380-385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-457X.6663.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-457X.666...
). Twenty- microliter aliquots of SAPE were mixed with 100-μL Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The mixture was incubated for 2 min, followed by the addition of 75 μL of 75 g/L NaCO 3 solution and incubated in the dark at 25 °C for 2 h. The reaction mixture was measured by absorbance at 760 nm. The TPC was expressed as mg of GA/g dry Annona peel.

2.6 Analysis of catechins and caffeine

SAPE were analyzed for catechins and caffeine based on the method of Khokhar et al. (1997) Khokhar, S., Venema, D., Hollman, P. C. H., Dekker, M., & Jongen, W. A. (1997). RP-HPLC method for the determination of tea catechins. Cancer Letters, 114(1-2), 171-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3835(97)04653-3. PMid:9103282.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3835(97...
and Hollman et al. (1999) Hollman, P. C. H., Venema, D. P., Khokhar, S., & Arts, I. C. W. (1999). Determination of tea catechins by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. Methods in Enzymology, 299, 202-206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(99)99021-3.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(99...
. Briefly, the mobile phases for HPLC separation were 5% acetonitrile (eluent A) and 25% acetonitrile (eluent B) in phosphate buffer (0.025 M, pH 2.4). The gradient employed was as follows: 0-5 min, 15% B; 5-20 min, linear gradient 15-80% B; 20-23 min, 80% B; and 23-25 min, 15% B. Injection volume and flow rate were 10 μL and 1 mL/min, respectively. Stock solutions were prepared using pure standards of C, EC, ECG, EGCG, EGC, and caffeine; 1 mg of each standard was dissolved in 1.0 mL of methanol containing citric acid (80 mg/100 mL). External standards were freshly prepared at the range of 10-100 mg/L for each series of analyses. Detection wavelength was 278 nm. The area and retention times of the analytic peaks were compared with those of respective standards.

2.7 Analysis of gallic acid (GA)

SAPE were analyzed for GA based on previously published methods, using an Agilent 1100 Series HPLC (Agilent Technologies, USA) and a Gemini C18 reversed-phase column (250 × 4.6 mm; Phenomenex Sciences Instrument Co., Ltd., USA). The temperature of the column oven was set at 40 °C. Gradient elution was employed with a mobile phase consisting of methanol (solution A) and 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 2.5 (solution B) as follows: 70% B, 0-30 min. The flow rate was 1 mL/min (20-μL injection volume) and UV-diode array detection occurred at 280 nm. Spectra were recorded from 200 to 400 nm. External standards of GA (Sigma-Aldrich; 50-200 μg/mL) were freshly prepared for analysis. The area and retention times of the analytic peaks were compared with those of respective standards. GA content was expressed in mg of GA/g dry sample.

2.8 Assays for the estimation of antioxidant activity

ABTS radical cation scavenging activity assay

The ABTS assay was carried out according to the method of Sharma et al. (2008) Sharma, U. K., Sharma, K., Sharma, N., Sharma, A., Singh, H. P., & Sinha, A. K. (2008). Microwave-assisted efficient extraction of different parts of Hippophae rhamnoides for the comparative evaluation of antioxidant activity and quantification of its phenolic constituents by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(2), 374-379. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf072510j. PMid:18163559.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf072510j ...
, with slight modifications. An ABTS•+ stock solution was diluted with ethanol for working solution until the absorbance reached 0.70 ± 0.02 at 734 nm. Mixture of 20-μL SAPE and 200-μL ABTS•+ working solution was incubated at 25 °C in darkness for 4 min and the absorbance was taken. The SAPE activity was expressed as mmol of trolox/g dry sugar apple peel.

Ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay

The FRAP assay was carried out based on the methods of Benzie & Strain (1996) Benzie, I. F. F., & Strain, J. J. (1996). The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: The FRAP assay. Analytical Biochemistry , 239(1), 70-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/abio.1996.0292. PMid:8660627.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/abio.1996.029...
and Al-Duais et al. (2009) Al-Duais, M., Müller, L., Böhm, V., & Jetschke, G. (2009). Antioxidant capacity and total phenolics of Cyphostemma digitatum before and after processing: use of different assays. European Food Research and Technology, 228(5), 813-821. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-008-0994-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-008-09...
. Twenty-microliter aliquots of SAPE were mixed with 200 μL of FRAP working reagent. The FRAP working reagent was prepared as follows: 300 mM acetate buffer (pH 3.6), 20 mM FeCl 3.6H2O, and 10 mM 2,4,6-Tris (2-pyridyl)-S-triazina in 40 mM HCL were mixed at the ratio of 10:1:1. After incubating the mixture at 25 °C in darkness for 8 min, the absorbance was read at 593 nm. The values were expressed as mmol of trolox/g dry sugar apple peel.

DPPH radical scavenging activity assay

The diluted SAPE of 22 μL was mixed with 200 μL of 150 μM 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in 95% ethanol followed by the 30 min incubation in the dark at 25 °C and the absorbance was measured at 517 nm ( Fukumoto & Mazza, 2000 Fukumoto, L. R., & Mazza, G. (2000). Assessing antioxidant and prooxidant activities of phenolic compounds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48, 3597-3604. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf000220w. ). The percentage scavenging activity of the DPPH radicals was calculated according the following formula: [(Abs blank – Abs sample)/Abs blank] × 100, at SAPE concentration of 20 mg/mL.

Oxygen radical absorbance activity (ORAC) assay

Twenty-microliter aliquots of SAPE and 120 μL of fluorescein (70 nM final concentration) were mixed and pre-incubated for 15 min at 37 °C in a Synergy HT Multi-Detection microplate reader (BioTek, Winooski, VT, USA). The reaction was initiated as soon as 60 μL 2,2′-Azobis (2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (12 mM final concentration) was added For 120 min period the fluorescence values were taken every minute using 485 nm excitation and 528 nm emission filters. The activity of the SAPE was expressed as mmol of trolox/g dry sugar apple peel ( Dávalos et al., 2005 Dávalos, A., Bartolomé, B., & Gómez-Cordovés, C. (2005). Antioxidant properties of commercial grape juices and vinegars. Food Chemistry , 93(2), 325-330. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.09.030.
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). The net area under the sample curve was calculated by subtracting the area under the blank curve.

2.9 Statistical analysis

All the assays were carried out in triplicate and mean values reported. Using the SPSS program (version 13; IBM, Armonk, NY, USA), analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s multiple range test differences between the samples.

3 Results and discussion

3.1 Percent composition of peel, pulp, and seed in sugar apple fruit

The percent compositions of sugar apple fruit peel, pulp, and seed are shown in Table 1 . The sugar apple cultivar was divided into four groups based on Thai cultivation (local Thai, Vietnamese, hybrid, and Australian cultivars). The sugar apple cultivars in different groups showed different ratios of fruit peel, pulp, and seed. Nhur Thong, Nung Keaw, and Fai Keaw showed high % fruit peel (>38.0%), whereas Nung Thong showed the lowest % fruit peel (27.0%). Similar to these results, Fai Keaw, Nung Keaw, and Nhur Thong showed relatively high values in antioxidant activities ( Table 1 ). Petch Pakchong showed the highest % pulp (65.9%), which is the reason why this is a commercial cultivar, whereas Fai Krung, Fai Krung, and Nung Keaw showed relatively low % pulp (<57.0%). Nung Keaw displayed the highest % seed (10.2%), while the lowest % seed was found in the African Pride cultivar (2.9%). Petch Pakchong, Nhur Thong, and Pakchong KU1 displayed low % seed (4.1 to 4.5%).

Table 1
Percent composition of peel, pulp and seed in Annona fruit.

3.2 Proximate composition of freeze-dried peel in sugar apple fruits

The proximate composition of freeze-dried peel in sugar apple fruits is shown in Table 2 . The % moisture content ranged from 6.7 to 9.0%. Fai Keaw, Fai Krung, Nung Krung, Petch Pakchong, and African Pride cultivars showed high moisture content (> 8.0%), whereas Nung Thong cultivar had low moisture content (6.7%). For crude protein, African Pride showed the highest % crude protein (8.1%) and Pakchong KU1 had the lowest % crude protein (3.5%) among all the cultivars. The % crude fat ranged between 0.5 and 3.2%, with Nung Krung having the highest crude fat content. In contrast, Fai Krung had the lowest crude fat content. The carbohydrate contents varied between 76.1 and 85.3%. Fai Krung, Nung Keaw, and Pakchong KU1 displayed the highest % carbohydrate, whereas Pakchong KU2, Petch Pakchong, and African Pride had the lowest. Consistent with the total carbohydrate results, Pakchong KU2 (5.6%), Petch Pakchong (4.9%), and African Pride (5.2%) had high total ash contents, while Fai Krung, Nung Keaw, and Nung Krung showed low total ash contents (under 3.0%).

Table 2
Proximate composition of freeze-dried peel in 10 cultivar Annona fruits (%, w/w).

3.3 TPC, TCC, and gallic acid (GA) content in sugar apple peel extracts (SAPE)

The content of total phenolics, total catechin, and GA in SAPE are presented in Table 3 . TPC ranged from 33.8 to 140.4 mg GA/g, TCC ranged from 678 to 1805 µg TCC/g, and GAC ranged from 210 to 1,480 µg GA/g. The highest TPC and TCC values were found in Fai Keaw and Nung Keaw cultivars. Nhur Thong also had a high TCC value. Similar tendency between TPC and TCC was found. Petch Pakchong showed the lowest TPC.

Table 3
Total phenolic, catechin and gallic acid content of 10 Annona cultivars peel using different assay.

Total phenol content of SAPE was higher than other fruit extracts reported in the literature such as A. crassiflora peel ( Roesler et al., 2007 Roesler, R., Catharino, R. R., Malta, L. G., Eberlin, M. N., & Pastore, G. (2007). Antioxidant activity of Annona crassiflora: Characterization of major components by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Food Chemistry, 104(3), 1048-1054. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.01.017.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.20...
). Specifically, catechin was reported to be the highest compound among phenolics in the sugar apple pericarp ( Wu & Tsay, 1998 Wu, M. C., & Tsay, L. M. (1998). Activity of softening enzymes during storage of sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) at different temperatures. Nihon Shokuhin Hozo Kagakkaishi, 24(5), 319-323. http://dx.doi.org/10.5891/jafps.24.319.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5891/jafps.24.319 ...
).

GA from SAPE was separated by reverse-phase HPLC. The elution time of GA was 4 min, with a total run time of 30 min. GA ranged from 210 to 1,980 µg of GA/g dry sample ( Table 2 ). Nhur Thong showed the highest content of GA. Fai Krung and Petch Pakchong showed the lowest content of GA. Even though the Fai Keaw cultivar showed the highest TPC, the contribution of GAC was only 0.28% of total phenolics, as compared to that in Nhur Thong (2.14%). This indicates that the total phenolics of Annona peel may be composed of many different compounds.

3.4 Catechins and caffeine content in sugar apple peel extracts (SAPE)

Caffeine and five catechins (EGC, C, EC, EGCG, and ECG) from SAPE was separated by gradient reverse-phase HPLC according to the method of Khokhar et al. (1997) Khokhar, S., Venema, D., Hollman, P. C. H., Dekker, M., & Jongen, W. A. (1997). RP-HPLC method for the determination of tea catechins. Cancer Letters, 114(1-2), 171-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3835(97)04653-3. PMid:9103282.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3835(97...
.

The results showed that the amount of catechin in SAPE varied between 193.1 and 490.9 µg/g ( Table 4 ). Nung Keaw contained the highest catechin amounts and African Pride the lowest; all showed an overall similar trend among individual catechins (EGC > EC > ECG > EGCG), with the exception of Fai Krung and Nung Krung. Previously study

Table 4
Catechin and caffeine contents of 10 Annona cultivars peel.

3.5 Antioxidant activities of sugar apple peel extracts (SAPE)

Antioxidant activity of the electron transfer reaction mode

The ABTS and DPPH assays are based on the reduction of ABTS+• and DPPH radicals by the antioxidants present in the plant extracts tested, respectively ( Dudonné et al., 2009 Dudonné, S., Vitrac, X., Coutiére, P., Woillez, M., & Mérillon, J. M. (2009). Comparative study of antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of 30 plant extracts of industrial interest using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, SOD and ORAC assays. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57(5), 1768-1774. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf803011r. PMid:19199445.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf803011r ...
), whereas, the FRAP assay is based on the reduction of ferric tripyridyltriazine (Fe(III)-TPTZ) to a ferrous complex, which is blue in color ( Benzie & Strain, 1996 Benzie, I. F. F., & Strain, J. J. (1996). The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: The FRAP assay. Analytical Biochemistry , 239(1), 70-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/abio.1996.0292. PMid:8660627.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/abio.1996.029...
).

The ABTS, FRAP, and DPPH assay results of SAPE from 10 cultivars are shown in Table 5 . In the case of ABTS, the antioxidant activity ranged between 0.45 and 1.57 mmol of trolox/g dry sugar apple peel. Among all the cultivars tested, Fai Keaw showed the highest ABTS value, followed by Nung Keaw and Nhur Thong cultivars, whereas the antioxidant activities for Petch Pakchong were the lowest. The FRAP values varied between 0.11 and 0.43 mmol of trolox/g dry sugar apple peel. Fai Keaw displayed the highest FRAP value of 0.43 mmol of trolox/g dry sugar apple peel. The lowest FRAP value was from the Petch Pakchong cultivar. For the DPPH assay, free radical scavenging activity was expressed as EC50 (mg/mL), and ranged between 0.42 and 3.06. Fai Keaw and Nung Keaw showed the highest % inhibition values, followed by Nung Thong and Nhur Thong cultivars. In contrast, the Petch Pakchong cultivar showed the lowest EC50 value at 3.06.

Table 5
Antioxidant activity values of 10 Annona cultivars peel using different assay.

Antioxidant activities determined by fluorescent probe and superoxide radicals

Some samples consist of various antioxidant compounds, which display complex reaction kinetics. In this case ORAC assay is found to be particularly useful ( Karadag et al., 2009 Karadag, A., Ozcelik, B., & Saner, S. (2009). Review of methods to determine antioxidant capacities. Food Analytical Methods, 2(1), 41-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12161-008-9067-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12161-008-90...
). The results of the ORAC assays conducted on SAPE are listed in Table 5 . The antioxidant activities of the ORAC ranged between 1.83 and 2.84 mmol of trolox/g dry sugar apple peel. Fai Keaw and Nung Keaw showed the highest ORAC values, followed by Nung Krung, Pakchong KU2, and Nhur Thong cultivars. In this assay, the Petch Pakchong cultivar showed the lowest antioxidant potential. SAPE from Fai Keaw and Nung Keaw cultivars showed considerably high antioxidant activities in terms of ABTS, FRAP, DPPH, and ORAC values. Several species of Annona exhibited excellent antioxidant activity, such as pulp, seeds, and peel of A. crassiflora ( Roesler et al., 2006 Roesler, R., Malta, L. G., Carrasco, L. C., & Pastore, G. (2006). Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of the Brazilian cerrado fruit Annona crassiflora (Araticum). Journal of Food Science, 71(2), 102-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2006.tb08882.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2...
, 2007 Roesler, R., Catharino, R. R., Malta, L. G., Eberlin, M. N., & Pastore, G. (2007). Antioxidant activity of Annona crassiflora: Characterization of major components by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Food Chemistry, 104(3), 1048-1054. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.01.017.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.20...
), leaves of A. dioica ( Formagio et al., 2013 Formagio, A. S. N., Kassuya, C. A. L., Formagio, F. No., Volobuff, C. R. F., Iriguchi, E. K. K., Vieira, M. C., & Foglio, M. A. (2013). The flavonoid content and antiproliferative, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of Annona dioica St. Hill. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 13(1), 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-13-14. PMid:23311341.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-13-...
), and leaves, bark, roots, and seedcake of A. squamosa ( Baskar et al., 2007 Baskar, R., Rajeswari, V., & Kumar, T. S. (2007). In vitro antioxidant studies in leaves of Annona species. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 45(5), 480-485. PMid:17569293. ; Mariod et al., 2012 Mariod, A. A., Abdelwahab, S. I., Elkheir, S., Ahmed, Y. M., Fauzi, P. N., & Chuen, C. S. (2012). Antioxidant activity of different parts from Annona squamosa, and Catunaregam nilotica methanolic extract. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria, 11(3), 249-258. PMid:22744945. ).

3.6 Correlation between assays

The relationships between antioxidant assays, TPC, TCC, C, EGC, caffeine, EC, EGCG, ECG, and GAC ( Table 6 ) were analyzed. Our study showed high correlation of TPC, TCC, and EGC with all antioxidant assays compared to C, caffeine, EC, EGCG, ECG, and GAC.

Table 6
Linear correlation coefficients (r) between antioxidant assays, total phenolic content (TPC), total catechin content (TCC), catechin (C), epigallocatechin (EGC), caffeine, epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG), and gallic acid (GA) contents of 10 sugar apple cultivars, obtained by Pearson’s analysis.

In terms of correlation of EGCG, ECG, and GAC to antioxidant activity values, two different results were observed. In the case of ABTS, ABTS, FRAP, and DPPH assays, relatively high the correlation coefficient was observed. The hydrogen atom transfer assay (ORAC) showed a significantly higher correlation coefficient value than those shown by the electron transfer group ( Ingkasupart et al., 2015 Ingkasupart, P., Manochai, B., Song, W. T., & Hong, J. H. (2015). Antioxidant activities and lutein content of 11 marigold cultivars (Tagetes spp.) grown in Thailand. Food Science and Technology (Campinas), 35(2), 380-385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-457X.6663.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-457X.666...
). This result coincides with the observations of two previous studies. Leopoldini et al. (2004) Leopoldini, M., Marino, T., Russo, N., & Toscano, M. (2004). Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds: H-Atom versus electron transfer mechanism. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 108(22), 4916-4922. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp037247d.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp037247d ...
evaluated the mechanism of the hydrogen atom and electron transfer in phenolic compounds. In the transfer of hydrogen atoms, GA was reported to be one of the most active systems. Rice-Evans et al. (1996) Rice-Evans, C. A., Miller, N. J., & Paganga, G. (1996). Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radical Biology & Medicine , 20(7), 933-956. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0891-5849(95)02227-9. PMid:8743980.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0891-5849(95)...
further supported it by showing the effect of the chemical structure of flavonoids and phenolic acids on antioxidant activity.

4 Conclusions

The present study further supports the view that various SAPE are promising sources of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant properties and TPC differed significantly among the 10 SAPE. Among these SAPE, Fai Keaw and Nung Keaw peel extracts showed very strong antioxidant activities and high TPC. TPC was found to be highly significantly correlated with antioxidant activities, which indicated that phenolic compounds were the major contributor to the antioxidant activities of these SAPEs.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Inje University, Korea (20160159).

  • Practical Application: Thailand sugar apple cultivar showed high antioxidant activity in 10 cultivars tested.

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    26 Apr 2018
  • Date of issue
    Dec 2018

History

  • Received
    04 July 2017
  • Accepted
    18 Feb 2018
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