Resumo em Inglês:Abstract There is no human activity that is risk free, including those most trivial and essential for survival, such as eating. Various factors impact the risk perception of a population, such as whether the risk is voluntary, known, brings some benefits or whether the information about the risk is provided by sources seen as trusted. Furthermore, regional and cultural aspects, gender and age can also have an impact on risk perception, and the level of scientific knowledge of the individual about the risks has in many cases little impact on the risk perception. In most countries, the perception of consumers to certain risks present in food, including genetically modified organisms (GMO), pesticides and food additives is high, probably due to the lack of confidence on the industry and governmental authorities that are responsible to control the risks. Food that are considered more natural, such as organic food and “GMO free”, are normally perceived as less risky/more healthy. Knowing the perception of the population regarding the risks present in food is essential to design clear and transparent risk communication strategies, which should consider, in addition to scientific information, the subjective aspects that affects the risk perception.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study optimized using a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method for extracting volatile aroma compounds, terpenoids in particular, from Litsea mollis Hemsl. immature fruit (LMIF). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to separate and identify volatile terpenoids in LMIF. The types of SPME fiber coating, salt addition, and desorption time were optimized by single factor-experiments to determine the range of extraction temperature. Built on insights from the single factor-experiments, the response surface methodology was further used to optimize the extraction temperature, extraction time, and equilibrium time of HS-SPME. The results showed that the optimal HS-SPME conditions for extracting volatile terpenoids from LMIF were: 50/30 μm of DVB/CAR/PDMS SPME fiber, 2.0 g of added sodium chloride, desorption at a temperature of 250 °C for 3 min, extraction and equilibrium temperature of 46 °C, extraction time of 36 min, and equilibrium time of 20 min. Under the above conditions, the predicted value of extraction was 66.92, while the experimental value was 65.78. The prediction value matched well with the experimental value with good repeatability. The designed model was proven to be valid, which can be applied for future extraction of aroma compounds from IMIF.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional, sensorial and microbiological characteristics of pizzas with the inclusion of dehydrated mix of salmon and tilapia in the dough. Tilapia and salmon carcasses were cooked, pressed, ground, dehydrated and crushed, and a mixture of salmon (20%) and tilapia (80%) was made. This mix was included in the pizza dough at different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) and afterwards the toppings were added.In the dough composition, protein, ash and phosphorus levels rose linearly, while lipids, carbohydrates and caloric value of the dough samples decreased linearly as the mix levels increased. In pizzas, the moisture, lipids and carbohydrates contents were not different. Protein and ash contents presented a linear behavior. The inclusion of the mix was effective in reducing the saturated fatty acids and raising the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. There was no difference between the pizzas for the sensorial attributes analysed. Therefore, the inclusion of up to 20% of dehydrated mix of tilapia and salmon added protein, minerals, and polyunsaturated fatty acids and maintained the acceptance of the pizza dough samples, which makes possible the preparation of a food product with health claims and good sensorial quality.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract In the studied commercial pea protein isolate (PPI) some physicochemical modifications are induced in the protein structure during its processing. That fact would result into a reduction of proteins techno-functional properties. It has been evidenced by Differential Scanning Calorimetry the protein denaturation what gives as a result poor gelling ability. Microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) was added at different concentrations to improve the gelation process at two different settings/thermal treatments to make suitable texture PPI gels as a base for various meat and/or seafood analogues. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that MTGase activity was focused on the polymerization of vicilins and legumins resulting in the promotion of new intermolecular protein complexes (increase in β-sheet aggregates). Rheological data showed that at 23% PPI with 5 and 7 U/g protein of MTGase the gel strength increased in terms of breaking force and complex modulus. It also improved the conformational stability and flexibility of their gel networks. The results suggest that appropriate gels with 23% PPI could be obtained adding 5 U/g MTGase able to be used as meat and/or seafood analogues.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Fruit coproducts fruit, made of peels, seeds and pulp, discarded during the industrial processing, contain lots of health beneficial compounds, however, high moisture content limits its use. Drying is a low cost and great potential alternative for using. This study aimed to evaluate the phenolic compounds content, in vitro antioxidant capacity and total carotenoid, anthocyanins and vitamin C contents of pineapple (Ananas comosus), banana (Musa sp.), lychee (Litchi chinensis) and papaya (Carica papaya) peels, fresh and oven dried at 55 °C. Phenolic compounds, total carotenoids, anthocyanins, vitamin C contents and the antioxidant capacity of flours, were also significantly higher, indicating that the drying process promoted the concentration of these components, and constitute an excellent alternative to use these coproducts as a source of nutrients.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study aimed to investigate if the inclusion of different spices in bovine burger affects bacterial growth, lipid oxidation and sensorial characteristics of the products. Four hamburger formulations were prepared: control (without additives), saffron (1%), ginger (1%) and urucum (1%). The products were analyzed for total bacterial count (TBC) on days 0, 7 and 15 (storage at 4 °C) and 0, 15 and 60 (storage at -30 °C) and, for rancidity, on days 0, 30 and 60 (storage at -30 °C). The acceptance of the sensory attributes and the purchase intent were evaluated using hedonic scales. All burgers formulated with spices and kept at 4 °C had lower TBC than the control formulation, whereas for those stored at -30 °C, the same occurred only with the ginger-made ones. Lower lipid oxidation was found for the formulations containing the spices. Control and ginger formulations led the acceptance of the tasters for the attributes appearance and color, besides that, aroused greater interest in the purchase intention trial. It was concluded that the addition of spices reduced TBC and delayed the lipid oxidation of hamburgers, and that the products elaborated with ginger had the highest sensory acceptance and purchase intention indexes.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The proteins recovered by ultrafiltration (UF) represent a co-product of fish industrialization and can be used as a protein ingredient in the fortification of food formulations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of surimi fishburger elaborated with the proteins recovered by UF from the wastewater generated in the production of surimi. The water generated in the washing operations of trims of farmed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were filtered in a 30 kDa polyethersulfone membrane. The recovered proteins were dehydrated in spray dryer and added at 5 and 10% into fishburgers made with tilapia surimi. The fishburgers were evaluated for proximal composition, cooking yield, sensory parameters and acceptability. The incorporation of proteins into the fishburgers improved the sensory aspects of the final product and provided greater acceptability while maintaining the same manufacturing yield. The addition of 10% of the recovered proteins increased the nutritional value of surimi fishburgers.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Pectin is a very important ingredient in food processing. The present study was designed to find out the changes taken place in pectin content during development and ripening phases of banana fruit. The expression of gene (pectin esterase) was also observed during development and ripening. Five exotic cultivars namely William, Brazilian, G-Naine, Basrai and Pisang were selected for this study. Sampling were carried out after every 2 weeks during development and there was 6 sampling stages (from emergence to harvesting stage). After harvesting the fruit of all cultivars were subjected to natural ripening in the lab and sampling during ripening were carried out according to the colour changes in the fruit skin. 5 ripening stages were studied. Hence total number of 11 stages were studied during development and ripening. The sequence of pectin esterase were obtained from NCBI, primers were designed and procured. RNA was extracted from each cultivar and expression analysis of pectin esterase was carried out. It was found that the expression of gene is variable during the development and the ripening stages in each cultivar. Similarly, the pectin content were also significantly variable during development and ripening of fruit. The variation was also found among the cultivars. It was concluded that unripe banana have more pectin content then ripe banana and the pectin content of the fruit is associated with expression of the gene.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The “dulce de leche”, a viscous milk candy spread, is one of the most produced Brazilian dairy products. However, it is still mostly made from cow’s milk and the sheep’s milk rarely used in its production. This study aimed to obtain and physicochemically characterize the whole milks and the “dulce de leche” (DL) made from cow’s (CM) and sheep’s milk (SM), and CM:SM mixing rations of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100. Milk’s physicochemical analyzes were pH, titratable acidity, density, moisture, total solids, proteins, lactose, fats, and ash. DL physicochemical analyzes were the same of the milk plus yield, color, and texture profile analysis. From inclusion of sheep’s milk, the DL presented higher values of total solids, ashes and protein, with lipids increased only from the proportion 50:50. Lactose decreased at the proportion 0:100, however, was similar to the 25:75 proportion. The moisture decreased as the inclusion of sheep’s milk on the product. Regarding color, the difference from the standard sample was verified with the inclusion of higher proportions of sheep milk. The combination of sheep’s milk and cow’s milk is a technically viable alternative, as it considerably increases the nutritional value and yield of the product.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Biodegradable and antimicrobial films via combing ε-polylysine (ε-PL) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is a promising material for food packaging. We prepared the ε-PL/ PVA films with the ε-PL content of 0%, 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% (wt., relative to PVA) by casting method and their physical and chemical properties were characterized. SEM indicated the surface of ε-PL/PVA films was smooth with well compatibility between ε-PL and PVA at the ε-PL addition content of 1%. The tensile strength and barrier properties for water vapor and oxygen of the ε-PL/PVA films initially elevated and then decreased when ε-PL content exceeded 1%. The ε-PL doped endows antibacterial activity of PVA and the antibacterial property of ε-PL/PVA films was increasing with increase of ε-PL content. Compared with the control, the ε-PL/PVA packaging films could inhibit effectively the pericarp browning and pulp breakdown for longan, consequently the rate of commercially acceptable fruit packaged by ε-PL/PVA films was improved dramatically. However, the effect of ε-PL/PVA on weight loss rate for longan was worse than the control.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study investigated the aromatic and phenolic compositions of two different Muscat of Bornova wines from two distinct terroirs (İzmir and Manisa) and compared them to basic terroir properties over the course of two consecutive years. The 53 volatile and 14 phenolic compounds found, were identified and quantified by GC-MS-FID and HPLC-DAD with MS, respectively. The Menderes terroir has higher amounts of terpene and C6 compounds which are varietal aroma compounds. The total phenolic content in the Menderes terroir is higher than in the Kemaliye terroir. Trans-caftaric acid was the most abundant phenolic compound According to the statistical results, most of the compounds were affected by both vintage and terroir; however, the effect of vintage seems to be more significant.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the impact on digestibility and physical properties of enteral formulas by the addition of variable ingredients. Eight formulas were designed by a simplex-centroid evaluating different concentrations of inulin, medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) and whey protein isolate (WPI). Overall, the eight formulas developed presented mean values of 17.3% of protein, 62.3% of carbohydrates, 11.5% of lipids, a caloric value of 420 kcal/100 g, thus obtaining nutritionally adequate formulas. The emulsion stability of the suspended formulas was affected by all ingredients and the interactions between MCT – inulin, and MCT – WPI were effective in improving this parameter. Besides that, the use of inulin mostly affected the protein digestibility, according to the degree of hydrolysis and the peptide profile. The desirability function (d-value = 0.769) proposed a formulation containing 0.70% of inulin, 1.56% of MCT, and 1.73% of WPI. This proposed solution may improve enteral formulas because this has optimal emulsion stability and protein digestibility, which are essential characteristics for a product to be used by patients under special clinical conditions.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Agaricus bisporus was washed with 1 g/L sodium chlorite (NaClO2) (SC) solution for 30, 60 and 120 s, packed with a non-perforated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film and stored at 4 °C for 12 days. Washing the mushrooms with the SC solution and packaging with the PVC film slowed down the change in colour and firmness of the mushrooms, but treating the mushrooms with the SC solution longer than 60 s adversely affected the mushroom texture. After 12 days of storage, the weight loss of the mushrooms packed with the PVC film was less than 10% compared to the control. Headspace O2 concentration decreased while CO2 concentration increased throughout 12 days of storage and reached about 15% and 4%, respectively. Pseudomonas spp. counts for unwashed and unpacked mushrooms reached 10.30 log10 CFU/g after 12 days of storage while the mushrooms washed with the SC solution and packaged with the PVC film had Pseudomonas spp. counts as low as 6.62 log10 CFU/g. Treating the mushrooms with the SC solution for 60 s and packaging with the PVC film were found to be the most appropriate treatment to minimize the change on the postharvest quality of white button mushroom.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Thirty-two yeast strains were identified by means of molecular methods isolated from traditional Turkish cheeses (Tulum, Kashkaval, Mihalic, Orgu, White, Sepet, and Goat). Debaryomyces hansenii and Torulaspora delbrueckii were found as predominant species in cheese samples. Other species which were identified were Kluyveromyces lactis, Candida parapsilosis, Clavispora lusitaniae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, K. marxianus, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Meyerozyma guilliermondii (formerly Pichia guilliermondii), C. zeylanoides and Candida albicans. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and D. hansenii strains, from Kashkaval cheese, showed antilisterial activity, whereas only one K. lactis strain from Orgu cheese exhibited proteolytic activity.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The physicochemical analyses and quantification of lactic acid bacteria of cheeses made from autochthonous lactic cultures were evaluated during ripening. There was a decrease in water activity, pH and moisture, and an increase in acidity, total solids, proteolysis, lipids, fat in dry matter and ash. The major fatty acids identified were palmitic, oleic, stearic and myristic acid. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus presented a higher count at the beginning of ripening. The color, cohesiveness, springiness and chewiness parameters were affected by the chemical properties, which was not observed for hardness and shear force.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Tahini is a common food product in the Mediterranean area that is used as a main ingredient in variety of ready-to-eat foods. The objective of the current study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of thyme oil (TO) or cinnamon oil (CO) on E. coli O157:H7 viability in tahini and diluted tahini at different storage temperatures. Addition of 2.0% CO to tahini reduced E. coli O157:H7 numbers by 1.38, 1.79 or 2.20 log10 CFU/mL at 10, 25 or 37 °C, respectively, by 28d. In diluted tahini at 10 °C, no viable cells of E. coli O157:H7 by 21d were detected when 1.0% CO was used. However, at 25 and 37 °C, no viable cells were detected by 14d when CO was added at 0.5% level. Addition of 2.0% TO to tahini, resulted in 1.82, 2.01 or 1.65 log10 CFU/mL reduction in E. coli O 157:H7 numbers was noted at 37, 25 or 10 °C, respectively, by 28d. In diluted tahini, TO at 0.5% or 1.0% induced complete reduction in the viability of E. coli O157:H7 by 28d storage at 37 or 25 °C. At 10 °C, a 3.02 log10 CFU/mL reduction was observed by 28d compared to the initial inoculation level in samples treated with 2.0% TO.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The objective of this work was to perform the ethanolic pretreatment of stevia leaves from the plant Stevia UEM-13 line and to characterize its physical-chemical properties aiming its use as a sweetener in the development of a diet cereal bar. The same formulation of the cereal bar with stevia leaves without pretreatment was elaborated for comparative purposes. The following ingredients were used in the preparation of the produtc: fine oat flakes, no sugar granola, cranberry, dehydrated apricots, water, gum acacia and stevia leaf pretreated (F1) and without treatment (F2). According to the results, the diet cereal bars presented significant amounts of crude fiber, protein and antioxidant activity. The product was microbiologically safe for human consumption, reporting lower microbiological valuesthan those foreseen by official regulation. The overall sensory evaluation indicates that the two formulations did not present statistically significant differences regarding the analyzed attributes, being the averages between “liked very much” and “moderately liked”. However, considering the group of cereal bars consumers, the formulation sweetened with pretreated leafs (F1) was found more than twice the acceptance regarding to the formulation sweetened with the leaf in natura (F2). These results demonstrate a viable option of a diet food product naturally sweetened.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the proximate composition and sensory scores of the salted pearl mullet (Chalcalburnus tarichi Pallas, 1811) produced using different methods. It was determined that the OS11 group had the highest amounts of dry matter and protein (82.77 ± 0.52% and 44.52 ± 0.28%) (p < 0.05). The OS11 group had the highest value of energy (404.59 ± 1.33 kcal/100g) (p < 0.05). The highest taste score (6.88 ± 0.83) and the highest overall acceptance score (7.25 ± 0.73) in raw samples were obtained by the NS31 group and the NS32 group (p < 0.05), respectively. It was observed that the salted pearl mullet (C. tarichi Pallas, 1811) produced by using different methods had a high nutritional value. While the samples produced in the previous season (last year) were liked less according to the results of the raw sensory analysis, the samples of the new season, except for the samples produced by using dry salting method in bottom perforated plastic can be liked less according to the result of the cooked sensory analysis.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study was designed to investigate changes in quality characteristics during long-term storage of five commercial grape vinegars (V1~V5). To determine long-term quality characteristics of vinegars, proximate (soluble solid, pH, total acidity, color, and antioxidant activity) and sensory descriptive analysis, were performed. Initial soluble solids were high in V4 and V5 (contained higher liquid fructose or grape concentrate), but after 12 mo of storage, soluble solids decreased significantly in V4 and V5 (non-sterile products). Initial total acidity was close to the amount of additional juice, while V4 and V5 had increased total acidity after 12-mo storage. Browning was dominant in V4 and V5 regardless of storage periods. Initial DPPH radical scavenging activity was high for all samples, while it tended to decrease after 6-mo storage. In sensory descriptive analysis, browning and turbidity was markedly elevated during 12-mo storage in general. Aromatic factors were significantly attenuated in all test samples during storage. Interestingly, V4 and V5 were considered as having lower sourness and bitterness since sweetness was stronger in these than in other samples due to the addition of liquid fructose. The results suggest that for optimal quality, commercial grape vinegars are best consumed within 6 mo of storage after opening.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Wheat and rice constitute important cereal crops and any contamination may pose potential adverse impacts on human health. The study was conducted to determine eight trace metals, i.e. cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel(Ni), manganese (Mn), in wheat, rice and soil samples collected from different cities of Punjab. Results showed general trend of trace element accumulation in samples as Cd >Cu>Zn>Co>Mn. All wheat and nine rice samples exceeded permissible limit of Cd. Copper in eight wheat and rice samples and Zn levels in three wheat and one rice samples were in excess. While only one soil sample of Multan exceeded the WHO 2007 and EU 200 0 maximum allowable limit for Cu. Manganese and Co concentration were within allowable limit, while Ni, Cr and Pb were not detected in any sample. Health Risk Index was higher than 1 for Cu, Cd, Co and Mn thereby showing potential health risks to consumers.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Pineapple is an aromatic tropical fruit and has attractive sweet odor. The aroma of pineapple is very popular and pineapple flavor has good prospects for application. Usually, flavor recipes are trade secrets. This paper deals with how to construct a pineapple flavor recipe and how to imitate a pineapple flavor with natural and synthetic aroma ingredients. By smelling and tasting pineapple fruit, the notes of pineapple flavor was identified as fruity note, winy note, vanilla-like note, vegetative note, beany note, sweet note and acidic note. In the light of the notes of pineapple flavor, the corresponding aromatic natural and synthetic ingredients having the same notes were choose to construct a pineapple flavor recipe. On the basis of the olfactory discrimination, the pineapple recipe was modified and adjusted for several times, and finally a desired pineapple flavor recipe was obtained. The blended flavor based on the recipe was harmonious and had typical natural odor characteristics of pineapple fruit.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Willing to increase the shelf life of the food matrix, studies regarding new preservations methods are developed to preserve fish deterioration. The application of natural additives as preservatives is increasingly common, with a current emphasis on the growing use of protein hydrolysates, in substitution to artificial ones. These compounds have been the subject of recent studies, focusing on determining their functional properties and the best form of applying peptide chains. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of the protein hydrolysate obtained by the enzymatic hydrolysis of commercial fish gelatin added to rainbow trout fillets (Oncorhynchus mykiss) packed under vacuum and maintained under refrigeration. The fillets were distributed into three sample groups (controls and hydrolysate addition at 1:10 and 1:1 ratios). Microbiological and physico-chemical assessments were carried out. The results were compared and correlations observed regarding fish preservation assessments. A relationship between pH, redox potential and N-TVB was verified when compared to microbial development, especially with regard to psychrotrophic aerobic heterotrophic bacteria count. It was concluded that the application of protein hydrolysate as an additive is promising and can be effective in the control of food quality and maintenance of freshness for a longer period.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Corn (Zea mays) is the most consumed cereal in México, so it is necessary to know the nutritional and anatomical quality of the grains, which have been the main conservation and consumption criteria of the prehispanic peoples. This practice has allowed to preserve varieties of Creole corn, however, due to the lack of knowledge of these characteristics the cultivation of these maize has been reduced, presenting a high risk of disappearing. The objective was to determine the physical, nutritive and functional quality of four varieties of creole corn: Purple-Olotillo, Dos-Puntas, Toro and Olotillo. Toro presented the highest values of width and thickness (10.79 and 7.71 mm). The Toro showed better values of Endosperm and Pericarp (84.25% and 4.01%), Dos-Puntas and Olotillo showed higher values of Germ (10.75%) and Pericarp (6.2%), respectively. The Toro had a higher content of Carbohydrates and Proteins (74.47 and 10.61%). In WSI, the best value was obtained by Dos-Puntas (11.91%) and WAI the Olotillo (245.56 g H2O/g sample). It is concluded that the Toro has better nutritional content and larger and weight grains, while the Olotillo presented the highest values of WAI, it can confer better technological properties for food processing.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract In this study, antioxidant peptides were prepared from hairtail surimi by hydrolysis. Response surface methodology coupled with a Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize hydrolysis conditions. The optimum conditions were determined as: 12.1 h incubation time, 44.74 °C incubation temperature and enzyme concentration 1858.85 U/g. The amino acid compositions analysis showed most abundant amino acid in hairtail surimi antioxidant peptides (HAP) was Glutamic acid followed by Aspartic acid and Lysine. In addition, the fraction of HAP with a molecular weight less than 3 kDa showed the strongest antioxidant activity among the 4 fractions obtained by ultrafiltration. Furthermore, HAP showed good stability in mild acidic, alkaline, or salt solutions, in in vitro digestive juice, and upon heating. In conclusion, hairtail surimi might be a good source to produce antioxidant peptides, which can be used as a natural antioxidant in food industry.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This research studies the application of ultrasound (US) on sarcoplasmic proteins from giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) mantle and its effect on its functional properties. US was applied during 30, 60 and 90 s. A decrease was observed in the emulsifying activity index (EAI), an increase in the emulsifying stability index (ESI), an increase in the foaming capacity (FC) and a decrease in the foaming stability (FS). In addition, the application of US increased the surface hydrophobicity (So) and decreased the viscosity with the increase in temperature. Functional properties of sarcoplasmic giant squid mantle proteins increase with the application of ultrasound.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Acrocomia aculeata, known as macauba, is extensively distributed in the Southeast and Midwest of Brazil. Macauba fruit is used as food; however, its therapeutic properties are still poorly understood. The goal of the study was to investigate the chemical composition of macauba pulp oil (MPO) and anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and antioxidant properties of MPO. The anti-inflammatory and antimutagenic properties were evaluated in Swiss mice treated with MPO per gavage or incorporated in the diet for 10 days. The serum of mice was subjected to lipid peroxidation evaluation and the in vitro MPO antioxidant activity was assessed. The organoleptic profile of MPO showed it was suitable for consumption and this composition showed unsaturated fatty acids with oleic acid the most abundant. The MPO presented anti-inflammatory properties, inducing a decrease in the migration of neutrophil and mononucleate cells to the peritoneal cavity of mice; it also inhibited the formation of micronuclei in mice. Furthermore, MPO presented antioxidant activity and high carotenoid content. Our data support the hypothesis that MPO has anti-inflammatory and antimutagenic properties, and these effects can correlate with fatty acid profile and antioxidant compounds. There is great potential for the application of MPO for nutritional purposes.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Okra (AbelmoschusesculentusL.Moench) is widely planted in subtropical and tropical areas, with good palatability and a variety of biological activities. However, the hypoglycemic activity of okra aqueous extract and its mechanism were still unclear. In this paper, the hypoglycemic effect of okra aqueous extract on type 1 diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ) was investigated. The growth indicators, blood physiological and biochemical indicators (such as blood glucose, glucose tolerance, serum lipids, insulin, pyruvate kinase activity), histopathology of liver and pancreas were determined. Comparing with streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats group, the aqueous extract of okra treatment group exhibited decreasing blood glucose level (10.11%), glucose tolerance (12.00%), total triglyceride (41.59%), atherosclerosis index (49.20%), urine sugar (91.91%) and increasing insulin secretion (17.44%) and pyruvate kinase activity (57.41%). Okra aqueous extract significantly ameliorated STZ-induced steatosis of hepatocytes and islet cells. But, the feed intake, water intake, urine volume, and body weight of okra aqueous extract treated groups were not significantly different with those in normal rats groups or diabetic rats group, respectively. Therefore, the aqueous extract of okra was responsible for promoting insulin secretion, increasing pyruvate kinase activity and reducing blood glucose and lipid level.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Milk is a food widely consumed by the population, so it is important that it has adequate hygienic conditions and is free of chemical contaminants from various sources. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of avermectin residues in milk produced in the state of Pernambuco. The collections were performed in the dry and rainy season, being collected 60 and 48 samples, respectively, which were analyzed in the National Agricultural Laboratory of Rio Grande do Sul by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. In the dry period, 46.7% (28/60) of samples with avermectin residues above the Limit of Detection (LD), 1.7% (01/60) with levels above the Quantifiable Limit (QL) and 51.6% (31/60) did not detect any residues. In the rainy season, 6.25% (03/48) presented residues above LD and in 93.75% (45/48) of samples there was no detection of residues. No samples were detected with amounts of avermectins above the Maximum Residue Limit in this study. The milk evaluated did not expose high risks to the health of the population, due to the low level of residues present. However, veterinary drug residue monitoring data are essential for assessing human exposure to these compounds.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract A new juice market, consisting of mixtures of fruits, is expanding in the beverage segment, in order to increase even more the nutritional and sensory characteristics. In addition, in the preparation of juices, the option exists to replace water with coconut water. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize mixed juices based on coconut water and berries (strawberry, blackberry, and red raspberry), through the mixture design, desirability function, and response surface methodology. Mixed juices were evaluated by rheological, physical, physicochemical, sensory, and nutritional characteristics. The treatments produced with strawberry (50% or 100%) were preferred among the tasters, and the juices elaborated using blackberry contributed to higher viscosity, antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, and total anthocyanins. According to optimization, the mixed juices should contain 50-60% strawberry, 40% blackberry, and 0-10% raspberry. Thus, the mixed juices produced from these fruits have better characteristics than the juice of only one fruit type.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract In this study the effect of packing on freezing time, effective heat transfer coefficient and global thermal resistance were evaluated during the freezing of fruit juice model solution in an air blast freezer. Two configurations were arranged with 40 buckets and 15 kg of solution in each, totaling 600 kg. Thermocouples were installed to monitor the temperature profiles within the solution and at the packaging and cooling air surface. The temperature data were used to calculate the effective heat transfer coefficients and the resistances throughout the freezing process. The use of metal buckets represented reductions of up to 19.60% in the freezing times. Also, the temperature curve plateau, characterizing solidification (phase change period), was reduced. The main result of this paper was the possibility of calculating the effective heat transfer coefficients and global thermal resistances during the complete process of freezing. These properties assumed different values, not having a constant distribution throughout the freezing process.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The impact of herbal salt as a natural antioxidant on the lipids of roasted Dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758), as well as in the sensory characteristics of this food was evaluated after using refined or herbal salts, by analyzing the differences in its fatty acid contents, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), product acceptability and consumption intent. Centesimal composition, total phenols and characterization of phenolic compounds were also determined. The cooking caused a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the protein, lipid, ash, whose percentages were higher in fish salt roasted with herbs, compared to fish roasted with refined salt, except for ash. Rutin phenolic compound presented higher concentrations in fish treated with the three herbs. After cooking, the total monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids of herbal salt-roasted Dolphinfish increased by 128% and 109% compared to refined salt-roasted. TBARS values for salt-roasted gold were 558% higher than in natura and for herbal salt-roasted gold they corresponded to 174%. These results show that the phenolic compounds detected in herbs exerted an antioxidant effect on the preservation of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish roasted with herbal salt. Sensory analysis resulted in good acceptability and purchase intent for herbal salt-roasted Dolphinfish.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Objective of this study was to investigate the changes of oxidative stress parameters in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells exposed to xanthene food dyes (erythrosine and phloxine), commonly-used azo dyes in the food industry. For this purpose, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activity measurements of CHO cells treated with erythrosin (50 µM) and phloxine (40 µM) were compared with the control group. There was no significant difference between MDA levels in CHO cells exposed to both dyes and control group (p > 0.05), however GSH levels significantly decreased with dye addition (p ≤ 0.05). An increase in GPx activity of the CHO cells exposed to phloxin was observed (p ≤ 0.05). However, there was no change in GPX activity of erythrosin-exposed CHO cells (p > 0.05). In terms of CAT activity, difference between the dye-added cells and the control group was not observed. Consequently, decrease in level of GSH, which one of major antioxidant components in the cell, suggests that erythrosine and phloxine can have a toxic effect.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the quality and mineral contents of Moringa oleifera root-based tomato sauce. Results showed that roots of M. oleifera are highly enriched with essential nutrients including minerals, such as iron, sodium, magnesium, calcium, potassium and zinc and vitamins specifically vitamin C. Thus, it is useful as a nutritional supplement to enhance the nutritional status of the people and communities especially the susceptible groups including children and women. The tomato sauce supplemented with moringa roots is an effective remedy of malnutrition. TSS, pH, % acidity, Vitamin C were showed highly significant differences among all the treatments and the effect of days on TSS and Vitamin C were also showed highly significant (p<0.05) differences while pH and % acidity showed significant effects and the interactive effect of treatments and days were found highly significant on Vitamin C while TSS, pH and % acidity all were found non-significant. T4 (tomato sauce supplemented with 35 g) showed improved or comparable sensory properties to those of control and mineral profile also showed increasing tendency with corresponding rise in moringa root juice.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Bioprospecting of microorganisms with the potential of exploiting agro-industrial wastes is an active field of biotechnological research. In this study, we aimed to isolate a microorganism adapted to the dairy matrix with specific characteristics to produce lactic acid from dairy industry wastes, such as whey. Whey was collected from the agricultural region of Antioquia, Colombia, and samples were cultured on Man–Rogosa–Sharpe modified medium using lactose as a source of carbon. The most promising strain isolated was characterised, and its adaptation to whey was determined. A gram-positive Lactobacillus was isolated and named as G1. This strain grows in deproteinised whey with low protein requirements, has a homofermentative metabolism and exhibits high tolerance to low pH (≤5.0). The G1 strain is a promising bacterium for use in lactic acid production from whey, which is an underutilised by-product of the dairy industry.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutrients and antioxidant compounds of three mixtures based on leaves of Portulaca oleracea L. (P), Amaranthus hybridus L. (A) and Chenopodium berlandieri L. (C). A mixtures design was made of which 10 combinations were obtained and three of the best mixtures were selected to analysis: OP1 (P+C), OP2 (P+A) and OP3 (C+A). A macronutrient, micronutrient analysis and a HPLC profile of phenolic compounds and amino acids were performed; in addition, in vitro antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. Results showed that OP1 has a greater content of phenolic compounds, as evidenced by increases in antioxidant activity. Proximal chemical analysis showed that OP3 has a higher protein content and dietary fiber. The main phenolic compound present was phloridzin in OP1 and OP3; on the other hand, the amino acids lysine and glutamic acid were present at high concentrations in the three mixtures. These results showed that the OP1 mixture has the best antioxidant and nutritional properties; therefore, it has the potential to be included as an ingredient in food systems or nutraceutical and biomedical applications.